44 articles on Sunday, November 17

arXiv:1911.06326v1 [pdf, other]
AGN feedback in a galaxy merger: Multi-phase, galaxy-scale outflows including a fast molecular gas blob ~6 kpc away from IRAS F08572+3915
Comments: 17 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication in A&A

To understand the role that AGN feedback plays in galaxy evolution we need in-depth studies of the multi-phase structure and energetics of galaxy-wide outflows. In this work we present new, deep ($\sim$50 hr) NOEMA CO(1-0) line observations of the molecular gas in the powerful outflow driven by the AGN in the ultra-luminous infrared galaxy IRAS F08572+3915. We spatially resolve the outflow, finding that its most likely configuration is a wide-angle bicone aligned with the kinematic major axis of the rotation disk. The molecular gas in the wind reaches velocities up to approximately $\pm$1200 km s$^{-1}$ and transports nearly 20% of the molecular gas mass in the system. We detect a second outflow component located $\sim$6 kpc north-west from the galaxy moving away at $\sim$900 km s$^{-1}$, which could be the result of a previous episode of AGN activity. The total mass and energetics of the outflow, which includes contributions from the ionized, neutral, warm and cold molecular gas phases is strongly dominated by the cold molecular gas. In fact, the molecular mass outflow rate is higher than the star formation rate, even if we only consider the gas in the outflow that is fast enough to escape the galaxy, which accounts for about $\sim$40% of the total mass of the outflow. This results in an outflow depletion time for the molecular gas in the central $\sim$1.5 kpc region of only $\sim3$ Myr, a factor of $\sim2$ shorter than the depletion time by star formation activity.

arXiv:1911.06328v1 [pdf, other]
Sound-Wave Instabilities in Dilute Plasmas with Cosmic Rays: Implications for Cosmic-Ray Confinement and the Perseus X-ray Ripples
Comments: Submitted to MNRAS; 14 Pages, 7 Figures

Weakly collisional, magnetised plasmas characterised by anisotropic viscosity and conduction are ubiquitous in galaxies, halos and the intracluster medium (ICM). Cosmic rays (CRs) play an important role in these environments as well, by providing additional pressure and heating to the thermal plasma. We carry out a linear stability analysis of weakly collisional plasmas with cosmic rays using Braginskii MHD for the thermal gas. We assume that the CRs stream at the Alfv\'en speed, which in a weakly collisional plasma depends on the pressure anisotropy ($\Delta p$) of the thermal plasma. We find that this $\Delta p$-dependence introduces a phase shift between the CR-pressure and gas-density fluctuations. This drives a fast-growing acoustic instability: CRs offset the damping of acoustic waves by anisotropic viscosity and give rise to wave growth when the ratio of CR pressure to gas pressure is $\gtrsim \alpha \beta^{-1/2}$, where $\beta$ is the ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure, and $\alpha$, typically $\lesssim 1$, depends on other dimensionless parameters. In high-$\beta$ environments like the ICM, this condition is satisfied for small CR pressures. We speculate that the instability studied here may contribute to the scattering of high-energy CRs and to the excitation of sound waves in galaxy-halo, group and cluster plasmas, including the long-wavelength X-ray fluctuations in \textit{Chandra} observations of the Perseus cluster. It may also be important in the vicinity of shocks in dilute plasmas (e.g., cluster virial shocks or galactic wind termination shocks), where the CR pressure is locally enhanced.

arXiv:1911.06329v1 [pdf, other]
Direct Detection of Black Hole-Driven Turbulence in the Centers of Galaxy Clusters
Comments: 10 pages, 5 figures. Submitted to ApJL

Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are thought to provide energy that prevents catastrophic cooling in the centers of massive galaxies and galaxy clusters. However, it remains unclear how this "feedback" process operates. We use high-resolution optical data to study the kinematics of multi-phase filamentary structures by measuring the velocity structure function (VSF) of the filaments over a wide range of scales in the centers of three nearby galaxy clusters: Perseus, Abell 2597 and Virgo. We find that the motions of the filaments are turbulent in all three clusters studied. There is a clear correlation between features of the VSFs and the sizes of bubbles inflated by SMBH driven jets. Our study demonstrates that SMBHs are the main driver of turbulent gas motions in the centers of galaxy clusters and suggests that this turbulence is an important channel for coupling feedback to the environment. Our measured amplitude of turbulence is in good agreement with Hitomi Doppler line broadening measurement and X-ray surface brightness fluctuation analysis, suggesting that the motion of the cold filaments is well-coupled to that of the hot gas. The smallest scales we probe are comparable to the mean free path in the intracluster medium (ICM). Our direct detection of turbulence on these scales provides the clearest evidence to date that isotropic viscosity is suppressed in the weakly-collisional, magnetized intracluster plasma.

arXiv:1911.06330v1 [pdf, other]
Photometric properties of reionization-epoch galaxies in the Simba simulations
Comments: 13 pages, submitted to MNRAS, comments welcome

We study the photometric properties and sizes of the reionization-epoch galaxies in high-resolution Simba cosmological hydrodynamical simulations with box sizes of $[25,50]\ h^{-1}$Mpc. Assuming various attenuation laws, we compute photometry by extincting each star particle's spectrum using the line-of-sight gas metal column density. The predicted ultraviolet luminosity function (UVLF) generally agrees with observations at $z=6$, owing to a partial cancellation between the high metallicities of the simulated galaxies and lower dust-to-metal ratios. The simulated $z=8$ UVLF is low compared to observations, likely owing to excessive dust extinction. Simba predicts UV continuum slopes ($\beta$) in agreement with the $z=6$ observations, with the best agreement obtained using a Calzetti extinction law. Interestingly, the gas-phase mass-metallicity relation in Simba is higher at $z\sim 6$ than at $z\sim 2$, suggesting that rapid early enrichment (and dust growth) is necessary to match the observed $\beta$. We find that $\beta$ is much more sensitive to the dust extinction law than the UVLF. By generating mock James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) images and analysing in a manner similar to observations, we show that Simba's galaxy size-luminosity relation well reproduces the current $z=6$ Hubble observations. Unlike observations at lower redshifts, Simba predicts similar rest-UV and rest-optical sizes of $z=6$ galaxies, owing to weak age gradients and dust extinction in star-forming regions counteract each other to weaken the color gradients within galaxies. These predictions will be testable with JWST.

arXiv:1911.06332v1 [pdf, other]
Physical constraints from near-infrared fast photometry of the black-hole transient GX 339-4
Comments: Accepted for publication in ApJ Letter. 9 pages, 3 figures

We present results from the first multi-epoch X-ray/IR fast-photometry campaign on the black-hole transient GX 339--4, during its 2015 outburst decay. We studied the evolution of the power spectral densities finding strong differences between the two bands. The X-ray power spectral density follows standard patterns of evolution, plausibly reflecting changes in the accretion flow. The IR power spectral density instead evolves very slowly, with a high-frequency break consistent with remaining constant at $0.63 \pm 0.03$ Hz throughout the campaign. We discuss this result in the context of the currently available models for the IR emission in black-hole transients. While all models will need to be tested quantitatively against this unexpected constraint, we show that an IR emitting relativistic jet which filters out the short-timescales fluctuations injected from the accretion inflow appears as the most plausible scenario.

arXiv:1911.06333v1 [pdf, other]
The shape of relaxed galaxy clusters and the public release of a HST shape measurement code, pyRRG
Comments: No comment found

We study the shape of eight dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters observed with the Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Using strong and weak gravitational lensing, the shape of the Brightest Cluster Galaxy and the X-ray isophote we study the ellipticity of the cluster halo at four different radii. We find that the proxies probing the inner regions of the cluster are strongly coupled with the BCG shape correlated with both the shape predicted by strong gravitational lensing and the X-ray isophote. Conversely we find no such correlation between the shape as predicted by the weak lensing and the other three probes suggesting any coupling between the inner and outer regions is weak. We also present in this paper the public release of the HST weak lensing shape measurement code pyRRG, directly available from PyPi (https://pypi.org/project/pyRRG/). This python3.7 code, based on Rhodes et al. (2000) adopts an automated star-galaxy classifier based on a Random Forest and outputs scientifically useful products such as weak lensing catalogues suitable for the mass mapping algorithm Lenstool.

arXiv:1911.06337v1 [pdf, other]
Stellar population astrophysics (SPA) with the TNG. Revisiting the metallicity of Praesepe (M44)
Comments: 13 pages, 5 figures. Accepted for publication in A&A

Open clusters exquisitely track the Galactic disc chemical properties and its time evolution: a substantial number of studies and large spectroscopic surveys focus [mostly] on the chemical content of relatively old clusters (age $\gtrsim$ 1 Gyr). Interestingly, the less-studied young counterpart populating the solar surrounding has been found to be solar (at most), with a notable, surprising lack of young metal-rich objects. While there is wide consensus about the moderately above-solar composition of the Hyades cluster, the metallicity of Praesepe is still controversial. Recent studies suggest these two clusters share identical chemical composition and age, but this conclusion is disputed. With the aim of re-assessing the metallicity of Praesepe, and its difference (if any) with the Hyades cluster, we present in this paper a spectroscopic investigation of 10 solar type dwarf members. We exploited $GIARPS$ at the TNG to acquire high-resolution, high-quality optical and NIR spectra and derived stellar parameters, metallicity ([Fe/H]), light, $\alpha$ and iron-peak elements, by using a strictly differential (line-by-line) approach. We also analysed in the very same way the solar spectrum and the Hyades solar analogue HD 28099. Our findings suggest that Praesepe is more metal-rich than the Hyades, at the level of $\Delta$[Fe/H]=+0.05$\pm$0.01 dex, with a mean value of [Fe/H]=+0.21$\pm0.01$ dex. All the other elements scale with iron, as expected. This result seems to reject the hypothesis of a common origin for these two open clusters. Most important, Presepe is currently the most metal-rich, young open cluster living in the solar neighbourhood.

arXiv:1911.06338v1 [pdf, other]
Subaru FOCAS IFU observations of two z=0.12 strong-lensing elliptical galaxies from SDSS MaNGA
Comments: Submitted to MNRAS Letters 30th October 2019; no referee engaged after two weeks

We present new observations of two z=0.12 strong-lensing elliptical galaxies, originally discovered from the SDSS-IV MaNGA survey, using the new FOCAS IFU spectrograph on the Subaru Telescope. For J1436+4943, our observations confirm the identification of this system as a multiple-image lens, in a cusp configuration, with Einstein radius $\theta_{Ein}$=2.0 arcsec. For J1701+3722, the improved data confirm earlier hints of a complex source plane, with different configurations evident in different emission lines. The new observations reveal a previously unseen inner counter-image to the [OIII] arc found from MaNGA, leading to a smaller revised Einstein radius of $\theta_{Ein}$=1.6 arcsec. The inferred projected masses within the Einstein apertures (3.7-4.7kpc) are consistent with being dominated by stars with an initial mass function (IMF) similar to that of the Milky Way, and a dark matter contribution of ~35 per cent as supported from cosmological simulations. These results are consistent with 'pure lensing' analyses of lower-redshift lenses, but contrast with claims for heavier IMFs from combined lensing-and-dynamical studies of more distant early-type galaxies.

arXiv:1911.06340v1 [pdf, other]
Measuring and modeling the rate of separator reconnection between an emerging and existing active region
Comments: Accepted for publication to ApJ

Magnetic reconnection occurs when new flux emerges into the corona and becomes incorporated into the existing coronal field. A new active region (AR) emerging in the vicinity of an existing AR provides a convenient laboratory in which reconnection of this kind can be quantified. We use high time-cadence 171 $\AA$ data from SDO/AIA focused on new/old active region pair 11147/11149, to quantify reconnection. We identify new loops as brightenings within a strip of pixels between the regions. This strategy is premised on the assumption that the energy brightening a loop originates in magnetic reconnection. We catalog 301 loops observed in the 48-hour time period beginning with the emergence of AR 11149. The rate at which these loops appear between the two ARs is used to calculate the reconnection rate between them. We then fit these loops with magnetic field, solving for each loop's field strength, geometry, and twist (via its proxy, coronal $\alpha$). We find the rate of newly-brightened flux overestimates the flux which could be undergoing reconnection. This excess can be explained by our finding that the interconnecting region is not at its lowest energy (constant-$\alpha$) state; the extrapolations exhibit loop-to-loop variation in $\alpha$. This flux overestimate may result from the slow emergence of AR 11149, allowing time for Taylor relaxation internal to the domain of the reconnected flux to bring the $\alpha$ distribution towards a single value which provides another mechanism for brightening loops after they are first created.

arXiv:1911.06341v1 [pdf, other]
Deep Learning in Wide-field Surveys: Fast Analysis of Strong Lenses in Ground-based Cosmic Experiments
Comments: No comment found

Searches and analyses of strong gravitational lenses are challenging due to the rarity and image complexity of these astronomical objects. Next-generation surveys (both ground- and space-based) will provide more opportunities to derive science from these objects, but only if they can be analyzed on realistic time-scales. Currently, these analyses are expensive. In this work, we present a regression analysis with uncertainty estimates using deep learning models to measure four parameters of strong gravitational lenses in simulated Dark Energy Survey data. Using only $gri$-band images, we predict Einstein Radius, lens velocity dispersion, lens redshift to within $10-15\%$ of truth values and source redshift to $30\%$ of truth values, along with predictive uncertainties. This work helps to take a step along the path of faster analyses of strong lenses with deep learning frameworks.

arXiv:1911.06343v1 [pdf, other]
Rotation rate of the solar core as a key constraint to magnetic angular momentum transport in stellar interiors
Comments: 5 pages, 3 figures, published in A&A

Context: The internal rotation of the Sun constitutes a fundamental constraint when modelling angular momentum transport in stellar interiors. In addition to the more external regions of the solar radiative zone probed by pressure modes, measurements of rotational splittings of gravity modes would offer an invaluable constraint on the rotation of the solar core. Aims: We study the constraints that a measurement of the core rotation rate of the Sun could bring on magnetic angular momentum transport in stellar radiative zones. Results: We first show that models computed with angular momentum transport by magnetic instabilities and a recent prescription for the braking of the stellar surface by magnetized winds can reproduce the observations of surface velocities of stars in open clusters. These solar models predict both a flat rotation profile in the external part of the solar radiative zone probed by pressure modes and an increase in the rotation rate in the solar core, where the stabilizing effect of chemical gradients plays a key role. A rapid rotation of the core of the Sun, as suggested by reported detections of gravity modes, is thus found to be compatible with angular momentum transport by magnetic instabilities. Moreover, we show that the efficiency of magnetic angular momentum transport in regions of strong chemical gradients can be calibrated by the solar core rotation rate independently from the unknown rotational history of the Sun. In particular, we find that a recent revised prescription for the transport of angular momentum by the Tayler instability can be easily distinguished from the original Tayler-Spruit dynamo, with a faster rotating solar core supporting the original prescription.

arXiv:1911.06362v1 [pdf, other]
Marked correlation functions in perturbation theory
Comments: 36 pages, 12 figures

We develop perturbation theory approaches to model the marked correlation function constructed to up-weight low density regions of the Universe, which might help distinguish modified gravity models from the standard cosmology model based on general relativity. Working within Convolution Lagrangian Perturbation Theory, we obtain that weighted correlation functions are expressible as double convolution integrals that we approximate using a combination of Eulerian and Lagrangian schemes. We find that different approaches agree within 1$\%$ on quasi non-linear scales. Compared with {\it N}-body simulations, the perturbation theory is found to provide accurate predictions for the marked correlation function of dark matter fields, dark matter halos as well as Halo Occupation Distribution galaxies down to $30$ Mpc/h. These analytic approaches help to understand the degeneracy between the mark and the galaxy bias and find a way to maximize the differences among various cosmological models.

arXiv:1911.06378v1 [pdf, other]
Information Theoretic Bounds on Cosmic String Detection in CMB Maps with Noise
Comments: 7 pages, 1 figure, 1 table

We use a convolutional neural network (CNN) to study cosmic string detection in cosmic microwave background (CMB) flat sky maps with Nambu-Goto strings. On noiseless maps we can measure string tensions down to order $10^{-9}$, however when noise is included we are unable to measure string tensions below $10^{-7}$. Motivated by this impasse, we derive an information theoretic bound on the detection of the cosmic string tension $G\mu$ from CMB maps. In particular we bound the information entropy of the posterior distribution of $G\mu$ in terms of the resolution, noise level and total survey area of the CMB map. We evaluate these bounds for the ACT, SPT-3G, the Simons Observatory, and CMB-S4 experiments. These bounds cannot be saturated by any method.

arXiv:1911.06404v1 [pdf, other]
Why is the LSST Science Platform built on Kubernetes?
Comments: 10 pages, submitted to proceedings of ADASS XXIX, Groningen, The Netherlands, to be published in ASP Conf. Series

LSST has chosen Kubernetes as the platform for deploying and operating the LSST Science Platform. We first present the background reasoning behind this decision, including both instrument-agnostic as well as LSST-specific requirements. We then discuss the basic principles of Kubernetes and Helm, and how they are used as the deployment base for the LSST Science Platform. Furthermore, we provide an example of how an external group may use these publicly available software resources to deploy their own instance of the LSST Science Platform, and customize it to their needs. Finally, we discuss how more astronomy software can follow these patterns to gain similar benefits.

arXiv:1911.06433v1 [pdf, other]
Morphological signatures induced by dust back reaction in discs with an embedded planet
Comments: Accepted by MNRAS. 18 pages, 11 figures

Recent observations have revealed a gallery of substructures in the dust component of nearby protoplanetary discs, including rings, gaps, spiral arms, and lopsided concentrations. One interpretation of these substructures is the existence of embedded planets. Not until recently, however, most of the modelling effort to interpret these observations ignored the dust back reaction to the gas. In this work, we conduct local-shearing-sheet simulations for an isothermal, inviscid, non-self-gravitating, razor-thin dusty disc with a planet on a fixed circular orbit. We systematically examine the parameter space spanned by planet mass ($0.1M_\text{th} \le M_\text{p} \le 1M_\text{th}$, where $M_\text{th}$ is the thermal mass), dimensionless stopping time ($10^{-3} \le \tau_\text{s} \le 1$), and solid abundance ($0 < Z \le 1$). We find that when the dust particles are tightly coupled to the gas ($\tau_\text{s} < 0.1$), the spiral arms are less open and the gap driven by the planet becomes deeper with increasing $Z$, consistent with a reduced speed of sound in the approximation of a single dust-gas mixture. By contrast, when the dust particles are marginally coupled ($0.1 \lesssim \tau_\text{s} \lesssim 1$), the spiral structure is insensitive to $Z$ and the gap structure in the gas can become significantly skewed and unidentifiable. When the latter occurs, the pressure maximum radially outside of the planet is weakened or even extinguished, and hence dust filtration by a low-mass ($M_\text{p} < M_\text{th}$) planet could be reduced or eliminated. Finally, we find that the gap edges where the dust particles are accumulated as well as the lopsided large-scale vortices driven by a massive planet, if any, are unstable, and they are broken into numerous small-scale dust-gas vortices.

arXiv:1911.06434v1 [pdf, other]
Design and Performance of Hafnium Optical and Near-IR Kinetic Inductance Detectors
Comments: No comment found

We report on the design and performance of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) sensitive to single photons in the optical to near-infrared range using hafnium as the sensor material. Our test device had a superconducting transition temperature of 395 mK and a room temperature normal state resistivity of 97 $\mu \Omega$ cm with an RRR = 1.6. Resonators on the device displayed internal quality factors of around 200,000. Similar to the analysis of MKIDs made from other highly resistive superconductors, we find that modeling the temperature response of the detector requires an extra broadening parameter in the superconducting density of states. Finally, we show that this material and design is compatible with a full-array fabrication process which resulted in pixels with decay times of about 40 $\mu$s and resolving powers of ~9 at 800 nm.

arXiv:1911.06439v1 [pdf, other]
Radiative Properties of Magnetically-Arrested Disks
Comments: 21 pages, 7 figures, to appear in ApJ

Magnetically-arrested disks (MADs) appear when accretion flows are supplied with a sufficient amount of magnetic flux. In this work, we use results of magnetohydrodynamic simulations to set the configuration of the magnetic field and investigate the dynamics and radiative properties of the resulting accretion flow (i.e., without that of the jet) of MAD. The method developed here is applied to both the MAD and the standard and normal evolution (SANE) accretion flow with or without large scale magnetic fields. For the radiative processes, we include synchrotron, bremsstrahlung and Compton scattering. We find that, in general, MAD accretion flows have similar spectra to those of the SANE, which complicates the task of distinguishing MADs from SANEs. At the same accretion rates, MADs are systematically brighter than SANEs. However, the critical accretion rate above which the hot solution ceases to exist is lower in MAD. Consequently, the maximum luminosity the MAD can reach is comparable but slightly lower than that of SANE, and the dependence on the magnetic flux is weak. We then discuss implications of our results for active galactic nuclei and accreting black-hole binaries.

arXiv:1911.06445v1 [pdf, other]
Concept study of a small Compton polarimeter to fly on a CubeSat
Comments: 8 pages, 2 figures. In Proceedings of the 12th INTEGRAL conference and 1st AHEAD Gamma-ray Workshop, Geneva (Switzerland), 11-15 February 2019, Ed. C. Ferrigno, E. Bozzo, P. von Ballmoos, to appear in the Journal of the Italian Astronomical Society

Application of cubesats in astronomical observations has been getting more and more mature in recent years. Here we report a concept study of a small Compton polarimeter to fly on a cubesat for observing polarization of soft gamma-rays from a black-hole X-ray binary, Cygnus X-1. Polarization states provide very useful diagnostics on the emission mechanism and the origin of those gamma rays. In our study, we conducted Monte Carlo simulations to decide the basic design of this small polarimeter. Silicon detectors and cerium bromide scintillators were employed in this study. We estimated its on-axis Compton efficiency at different energies and its data telemetry requirement when flying in a low earth orbit. Our results indicate that it is feasible to achieve high signal-to-noise ratio for observing Cyg X-1 with such a small instrument. Based on this study, we will proceed to have a more realistic design and look for opportunities of a cubesat space mission.

arXiv:1911.06447v1 [pdf, other]
Radio/X-ray Correlation in the Mini-Outburts of Black Hole X-ray Transient GRS 1739--278
Comments: 8 pages, 3 figures and 1 table. AAS journal submitted

We present quasi-simultaneous radio and X-ray observations of the black hole X-ray binary GRS 1739--278 of its 2015-2016 mini-outbursts, i.e. between 2015 June 10 and 2016 October 31, with the X-ray-to-radio time interval being less than one day. The monitor champaign was run by \swift\, in the X-rays and by JVLA in the radio (at both 5 GHz and 8 GHz). We find the brightest radio emission is actually achieved during the soft sate, where radio spectrum is unexpectedly flat with a spectral index $\alpha\approx -0.2$ (flux $F_\nu\propto \nu^\alpha$). For the radio emission in hard state, we also find a large diversity in the spectral index, i.e. a majority of radio spectra are optically thick with $-0.5 < \alpha < 0.5$, while a few are optically thin with $\alpha < -1$. We also investigate the correlation between the luminosities in radio (monochromatic at 5 GHz, $L_R$) and 1-10 keV X-rays ($L_X$) during the hard state. We find this source does not follow the standard correlation whose $p\approx 0.6$ (in the form of $L_R\propto L_X^p$), but instead belongs to the "outlier" category that may follow a hybrid correlation. For more than orders of magnitude variation in the X-ray luminosity this source exhibits a flat correlation with $p\approx 0.16$. Both the slope and the corresponding luminosity range agree well with those in H1743--322, the prototype of the hybrid correlation.

arXiv:1911.06456v1 [pdf, other]
Is there really a `Hubble tension'?
Comments: 2 pages, 2 figures

Errors in redshift measurements as small as $\Delta z \sim 0.0001$ can have significant impact on the value of inferred cosmological parameters such as $H_0$ (Davis et al. 2019). We have earlier reported that the redshifts of over 100 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) which are in common between the SDSSII-SNLS3 Joint Lightcurve Analysis (JLA) catalogue (Betoule et al. 2014) and the subsequent Pantheon compilation (Scolnic et al. 2018) are discrepant - some by as much as $\Delta z \sim 0.1$ (Rameez 2019a). We study the impact of this on the inferred value of $H_0$ using calibrations of the supernova absolute magnitude via the 'local distance ladder' (Riess et al. 2016). For supernovae with $\Delta z > 0.025$, the JLA redshifts favour $H_0 \sim 72$~km~s$^{-1}$Mpc$^{-1}$, while the Pantheon redshifts favour $H_0 \sim 68$~km~s$^{-1}$Mpc$^{-1}$. For comparison the value inferred (assuming the flat $\Lambda$CDM model) from the Planck data on CMB anisotropies is $H_0 \sim 67.4 \pm 0.5$~km~s$^{-1}$Mpc$^{-1}$ (Aghanim et al. 2018). Thus the systematic uncertainties that apparently still plague the distance ladder measurement of $H_0$ undermine the significance of the discrepancy claimed by Riess et al. (2019).

arXiv:1911.06461v1 [pdf, other]
Perturbation theory for the redshift-space matter power spectra after reconstruction
Comments: 15 pages, 3 figures

We derive the one-loop perturbative formula of the redshift-space matter power spectrum after density field reconstruction in the Zeldovich approximation. We find that the reconstruction reduces the amplitudes of nonlinear one-loop perturbative terms significantly by partially erasing the nonlinear mode-coupling between density and velocity fields. In comparison with N-body simulations, we find that both the monopole and quadrupole spectra of reconstructed matter density fields agree with the one-loop perturbation theory up to higher wavenumber than those before reconstruction. We also evaluate the impact on cosmic growth rate assuming the survey volume and the number density like the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and find that the total error, including statistical and systematic ones due to one-loop approximation, decreases by half.

arXiv:1911.06508v1 [pdf, other]
gamma Cas stars: Normal Be stars with disks impacted by the wind of a helium-star companion?
Comments: 16 pages, 7 figures, Astronomy and Astrophysics, in press, Abstract abridged

$\gamma$ Cas stars are a $\sim$1% minority among classical Be stars with hard but only moderately strong continuous thermal X-ray flux and mostly very early-B spectral type. The X-ray flux has been suggested to originate from matter accelerated via magnetic disk-star interaction, by a rapidly rotating neutron star (NS) companion via the propeller effect, or by accretion onto a white dwarf (WD) companion. In view of the growing number of identified $\gamma$ Cas stars and the only imperfect matches between these suggestions and the observations, alternative models should be pursued. Two of the three best-observed $\gamma$ Cas stars, $\gamma$ Cas itself and $\pi$ Aqr, have a low-mass companion with low optical flux; interferometry of BZ Cru is inconclusive. Binary-evolution models are examined for their ability to produce such systems. The OB+He-star stage of post-mass transfer binaries, which is otherwise observationally unaccounted, can potentially reproduce many observed properties of $\gamma$ Cas stars. The interaction of the fast wind of helium stars with the disk and/or with the wind of Be stars may give rise to the production of hard X-rays. While not modelling this process, it is shown that the energy budget is favourable, and that the wind velocities may lead to hard X-rays as observed in $\gamma$ Cas stars. Furthermore, their observed number appears to be consistent with the evolutionary models. Within the Be+He-star binary model, the Be stars in $\gamma$ Cas stars are conventional classical Be stars. They are encompassed by O-star+Wolf-Rayet systems towards higher mass, where no stable Be decretion disks exist, and by Be+sdO systems at lower mass where the sdO winds may be too weak to cause the $\gamma$ Cas phenomenon. In decreasing order of the helium-star mass, the descendants could be Be+black-hole, Be+NS or Be+WD binaries.

arXiv:1911.06522v1 [pdf, other]
Extensive photometry of the intermediate polar V1033 Cas (IGR J00234+6141)
Comments: 13 pages, 9 figures, accepted for publication in Astrophysics and Space Science

To measure the spin period of the white dwarf in V1033 Cas with high precision, we performed extensive photometry. Observations were obtained over 34 nights in 2017. The total duration of the observations was 143 h. We found that the spin period of the white dwarf is equal to 563.11633+/-0.00010 s. Using this period, we derived the oscillation ephemeris with a long validity of 100 years. The spin oscillation semi-amplitude was stable and was equal to 95.5+/-1.3 mmag. This is a very large semi-amplitude of the spin oscillation among intermediate polars, which have similar and lesser spin periods. This large semi-amplitude suggests that the system is noticeably inclined. The spin pulse profile was sinusoidal with high accuracy. This may mean that the spin oscillation is produced by a single accretion curtain whereas the second accretion curtain may be obscured by the accretion disc. Despite the large amount of our observations, we did not detect sidebands. The semi-amplitudes of the undetected sideband oscillations do not exceed 10 mmag. The absence of sideband oscillations seems puzzling. We detected the orbital variability of V1033 Cas with a period of 4.0243+/-0.0028 h and with a semi-amplitude of 55+/-4 mmag. The orbital variability semi-amplitude seems large and also suggests that the system is noticeably inclined. Using our oscillation ephemeris and the times of spin pulse maximum obtained in the past, we found that the spin period is very stable. dP/dt is most probably less than -4 X 10^(-12). This contradicts the assumption that the white dwarf in V1033 Cas is not spinning at equilibrium. Our spin period and our oscillation ephemeris can be used for further investigations of the stability of the spin period in V1033 Cas.

arXiv:1911.06546v1 [pdf, other]
Idealised simulations of the deep atmosphere of hot jupiters: Deep, hot, adiabats as a robust solution to the radius inflation problem
Comments: 13 pages, 12 figures. Accepted for publication in A&A

Context: The anomalously large radii of hot Jupiters has long been a mystery. However, by combining both theoretical arguments and 2D models, a recent study has suggested that the vertical advection of potential temperature leads to an adiabatic temperature profile in the deep atmosphere hotter than the profile obtained with standard 1D models. Aims: In order to confirm the viability of that scenario, we extend this investigation to three dimensional, time-dependent, models. Methods: We use a 3D GCM, DYNAMICO to perform a series of calculations designed to explore the formation and structure of the driving atmospheric circulations, and detail how it responds to changes in both upper and deep atmospheric forcing. Results: In agreement with the previous, 2D, study, we find that a hot adiabat is the natural outcome of the long-term evolution of the deep atmosphere. Integration times of order $1500$ years are needed for that adiabat to emerge from an isothermal atmosphere, explaining why it has not been found in previous hot Jupiter studies. Models initialised from a hotter deep atmosphere tend to evolve faster toward the same final state. We also find that the deep adiabat is stable against low-levels of deep heating and cooling, as long as the Newtonian cooling time-scale is longer than $\sim 3000$ years at $200$ bar. Conclusions: We conclude that the steady-state vertical advection of potential temperature by deep atmospheric circulations constitutes a robust mechanism to explain hot Jupiter inflated radii. We suggest that future studies of hot Jupiters are evolved for a longer time than currently done, and, when possible, include models initialised with a hot deep adiabat. We stress that this mechanism stems from the advection of entropy by irradiation induced mass flows and does not require (finely tuned) dissipative process, in contrast with most previously suggested scenarios.

arXiv:1911.06559v1 [pdf, other]
A citizen science exploration of the X-ray transient sky using the EXTraS science gateway
Comments: Accepted for publication in Future Generation Computing Systems, Special issue on Science gateways 2018

Modern soft X-ray observatories can yield unique insights into time domain astrophysics, and a huge amount of information is stored - and largely unexploited - in data archives. Like a treasure-hunt, the EXTraS project harvested the hitherto unexplored temporal domain information buried in the serendipitous data collected by the European Photon Imaging Camera instrument onboard the XMM- Newton satellite in 20 years of observations. The result is a vast catalogue, describing the temporal behaviour of hundreds of thousands of X-ray sources. But the catalogue is just a starting point because it has to be, in its turn, further analysed. During the project an education activity has been defined and run in several workshops for high school students in Italy, Germany and UK. The final goal is to engage the students, and in perspective citizen scientists, to go through the whole validation process: they look into the data and try to discover new sources, or to characterize already known sources. This paper describes how the EXTraS science gateway is used to accomplish these tasks and highlights the first discovery, a flaring X-ray source in the globular cluster NGC 6540.

arXiv:1911.06560v1 [pdf, other]
A science gateway for Exploring the X-ray Transient and variable sky using EGI Federated Cloud
Comments: No comment found

Modern soft X-ray observatories can yield unique insights into time domain astrophysics, and a huge amount of information is stored - and largely unexploited - in data archives. Like a treasure-hunt, the EXTraS project harvested the hitherto unexplored temporal domain information buried in the serendipitous data collected by the European Photon Imaging Camera instrument onboard the ESA XMM-Newton, in 16 years of observations. All results have been released to the scientific community, together with new software analysis tools. This paper presents the architecture of the EXTraS science gateway, that has the goal to provide the software to the scientific community through a Web based portal using the EGI Federated Cloud infrastructure. The main focus is on the light software architecture of the portal and on the technological insights for an effective use of the EGI ecosystem.

arXiv:1911.06579v1 [pdf, other]
Physical Properties of the star-forming clusters in NGC 6334
Comments: Accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysics. 20 pages with 15 figures and 3 tables, plus Appendices with extra figures and tables. (Abstract modified)

We have studied the high-mass star-forming complex NGC 6334 with ALMA in the continuum emission at a frequency of 87.6 GHz, achieving a spatial resolution of 1300 au. Detecting 142 compact sources distributed over the whole observed area, we then used machine learning algorithms to group the compact cores in different clusters. A total of four main clusters were identified: NGC 6334-E, NGC 6334-I, NGC 6334-I(N) and NGC 6334-I(NW). The typical separations between cluster members (4000-12000 au) together with the core masses (0.2-100 $M_{\odot}$) are in agreement with turbulent fragmentation at scales of 0.1 pc. We find that the CMFs (core mass functions) show an excess of massive cores compared to the IMF. Typical uncertainties in temperature or unresolved multiplicity may mimic the observed excess of massive cores. Evidence of mass segregation in NGC 6334-I and NGC 6334-I(N), with the most massive cores located closer to the center, was found. Correlations between the physical properties of the clusters and their evolutionary stage were searched for, and found to show a larger separation between cores in the more evolved clusters, favouring the role of gas expulsion and stellar ejection over time. From these results, we suggest that NGC 6334-I(N) was primordially segregated, while NGC 6334-I may have become mass-segregated over time due to dynamical effects. Finally, the lack of massive cores in the most evolved cluster suggests that the gas reservoir may be already exhausted, while the less evolved clusters still have access to a larger gas mass reservoir. In general, the fragmentation in NGC 6334 at large scales (about 1 pc) is governed by turbulent pressure, while at smaller scales (a few hundred au), thermal pressure regulates the fragmentation process.

arXiv:1911.06604v1 [pdf, other]
Kinematic study of the molecular gas associated with two cometary globules in Sh2-236
Comments: Accepted for publication in A&A

Cometary globules, dense molecular gas structures exposed to the UV radiation, are found inside HII regions. Understanding the nature and origin of these structures through a kinematic study of the molecular gas is useful to advance in our knowledge of the interplay between radiation and molecular gas. Using ASTE we carried out molecular observations towards two cometary globules (Sim129 and Sim130) in the HII region Sh2-236. We mapped two regions with the 12CO J=3-2 and HCO+ J=4-3 lines. Additionally, two single pointings of C2H (N=4-3), HNC and HCN J=4-3 were observed. We combined our observations with public infrared and optical data to analyse the distribution and kinematics of the gas. We found kinematic signatures of infalling gas in the 12CO J=3-2 and C2H J=4-3 spectra towards Sim129 . We detected HCO+, HCN, and HNC J=4-3 only towards Sim130. The HCN/HNC integrated ratio of about 3 found in Sim130 suggests that the possible star formation activity within the globule has not yet ionized the gas. The location of NVSS 052255+33315, which peaks towards the brightest border of the globule, supports this scenario. The non-detection of these molecules towards Sim129 could be due to the radiation arising from the star formation activity inside this globule. The ubiquitous presence of the C2H molecule towards both globules shows the action of nearby O-B stars irradiating their external layers. Based on mid-infrared emission, we identified two new structures: a region of diffuse emission (R1) located, in projection, in front of the head of Sim129, and a pillar-like feature (P1) placed besides Sim130. Based on 12CO J=3-2, we found molecular gas associated with Sim129, Sim130, R1 and P1 at radial velocities of -1.5, -11, +10, and +4 km/s, respectively. Therefore, while Sim129 and P1 are located at the far side of the shell, Sim130 is placed at the near side, consistent with earlier results.

arXiv:1911.06605v1 [pdf, other]
Modeling bias in supermassive black hole spin measurements
Comments: 13 pages, 8 figures

X-ray reflection spectroscopy (or iron line method) is a powerful tool to probe the strong gravity region of black holes, and currently is the only technique for measuring the spin of supermassive black holes. While all the available relativistic reflection models assume thin accretion disks, we know that several sources accrete near or above the Eddington limit and therefore must have thick accretion disks. In this Letter, we estimate the systematic error on the spin measurement when a source with a thick accretion disk is fitted with a thin disk model. Our results clearly show that the spin can be significantly overestimated. Current spin measurements of sources with high mass accretion rate are therefore not reliable.

arXiv:1911.06617v1 [pdf, other]
Magnetic fields in circumstellar envelopes of evolved AGB stars
Comments: 22 pages, 15 figures

In this paper, a time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic model is presented which aimed at understanding the superwind production by an evolved AGB star and the consecutive formation of a dense circumstellar envelope around it. We know henceforth from various observations that a large scale magnetic field, probably toroidal in shape, is duly attested within these envelopes. Where does this large scale coherent field come from ? The apparent antinomy between the quasi-round dense circumstellar envelopes and their likely descendants, i.e. the elongated or bipolar Planetary Nebulae is also questioned. How is the spherical symmetry broken ? We suggest in the present model that the nebula must effectively appear round during the superwind phase from the point of view of a distant observer. By contrast anisotropic structures are already appearing at the same time, but these ones remain hidden in the innermost regions. We predict thus the existence of a large bipolar cavity above the AGB star during the slow superwind phase. We then conjecture that the PPNe phase begins when the fast wind emitted by the core engulfs this cavity and increases the anisotropy of the distribution of gas. Thus even though paradoxically enough a beautiful evolved PNe can eventually emerge from a quasi-round dense circumstellar envelope.

arXiv:1911.06622v1 [pdf, other]
Photometric and spectroscopic study of 5 pre-main sequence stars in the vicinity of NGC 7129
Comments: 15 pages, 15 figures, Accepted in Serbian Astronomical Journal

We present results from long-term optical photometric and spectroscopic observations of 5 pre-main sequence stars, located in the vicinity of the bight nebula NGC 7129. We obtained UBVRI photometric observations in the field centered on the star V391 Cep, north-west of the bright nebula NGC 7129. Our multicolor CCD observations spanned the period from February 1998 to November 2016. At the time of our photometric monitoring, a total of thirteen medium-resolution optical spectra of the stars were obtained. The results from our photometric study show that all stars exhibit strong variability in all optical passbands. Long-term light curves of the five stars indicate the typical of classical T Tauri stars variations in brightness with large amplitudes. We did not find any reliable periodicity in the brightness variations of all five stars. The results from spectral observations showed that all studied stars can be classified as a classical T Tauri stars with reach emission line spectra and strong variability in the profiles and intensity of emission lines.

arXiv:1911.06623v1 [pdf, other]
Deep Clustering for Mars Rover image datasets
Comments: No comment found

In this paper, we build autoencoders to learn a latent space from unlabeled image datasets obtained from the Mars rover. Then, once the latent feature space has been learnt, we use k-means to cluster the data. We test the performance of the algorithm on a smaller labeled dataset, and report good accuracy and concordance with the ground truth labels. This is the first attempt to use deep learning based unsupervised algorithms to cluster Mars Rover images. This algorithm can be used to augment human annotations for such datasets (which are time consuming) and speed up the generation of ground truth labels for Mars Rover image data, and potentially other planetary and space images.

arXiv:1911.06637v1 [pdf, other]
A Full-disk Image Standardization of the Chromosphere Observation at Huairou Solar Observing Station
Comments: 10 pages, 8 figures

Observations of local features in the solar chromosphere began in 1992 at Huairou Solar Observing Station, while the full-disk chromosphere observations were carried out since 2000. In order to facilitate researchers to use full-disk chromosphere observation, algorithms have been developed to standardize the full-disk images. The algorithms include the determination of the center of the image and size standardization, geometric correction and intensity normalization. The solar limb of each image is determined from a histogram analysis of its intensity distribution. The center and radius are then calculated and the image is corrected for geometric distortions. Images are re-scaled to have a fixed radius of 500 pixels and centered within the 1024$\times$1024 frame. Finally, large-scale variations in intensity, such as limb-darkening, are removed using a median filter. This paper provides a detailed description of these algorithms, and a summary of the properties of these chromosheric full-disk observations to be used for further scientific investigations.

arXiv:1911.06638v1 [pdf, other]
Two-dimensional simulations of coronal rain dynamics. I. Model with vertical magnetic field and an unbounded atmosphere
Comments: 14 pages, 11 figures; submitted to Astronomy & Astrophysics

Aims. We aim to improve the understanding of the physical mechanisms behind the slower than free-fall motion and the two-stage evolution (an initial phase of acceleration followed by an almost constant velocity phase) detected in coronal rain events. Methods. Using the Mancha3D code, we solve the 2D ideal MHD equations. We represent the solar corona as an isothermal vertically stratified atmosphere with a uniform vertical magnetic field and the plasma condensation as a density enhancement described by a 2D Gaussian profile. We analyse the temporal evolution of the descending plasma and study its dependence on parameters such as density and magnetic field strength. Results. We confirm previous findings that the pressure gradient is the main force that opposes the action of gravity and slows down the blob descent and that larger densities require larger pressure gradients to reach the constant speed phase. We find that the shape of a condensation with a horizontal variation of density is distorted as it falls, due to the denser parts of the blob falling faster than the lighter ones. This is explained by the fact that the duration of the initial acceleration phase, and therefore the maximum falling speed attained by the plasma, increases with the ratio of blob to coronal density. We also find that the magnetic field plays a fundamental role in the evolution of the descending condensations. A strong enough magnetic field (greater than 10 G in our simulations) forces each plasma element to follow the path given by a particular field line, which allows to describe the evolution of each vertical slice of the blob in terms of 1D dynamics, without influence of the adjacent slices. In addition, under the typical conditions of the coronal rain events, the magnetic field prevents the development of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.

arXiv:1911.06645v1 [pdf, other]
Thermal instability of thin accretion disks in the presence of wind and toroidal magnetic field
Comments: Accepted for publication in ApJ

We study the local thermal stability of thin accretion disks. We present a full stability analysis in the presence of a magnetic field and more importantly wind. For wind, we use a general model suitable for adequately describing several kinds of winds. First, we explicitly show that the magnetic field, irrespective of the type of wind, has a stabilizing effect. This is also true when there is no wind. In this case, we confirm the other works already presented in the literature. However, our main objective is to investigate the local thermal stability of the disk in the presence of the wind. In this case, interestingly, the response of disk is directly related to the type of wind. In other words, in some cases, the wind can stabilize the disk. On the other hand, in some cases, it can destabilize the disk. We found that in some thin disk models where the magnetic pressure cannot explain the stability of the disk by including a typical contribution for magnetic pressure, the wind can provide a viable explanation for the thermal stability.

arXiv:1911.06676v1 [pdf, other]
Multiple nitrogen reservoirs in a protoplanetary disk at the epoch of comet and giant planet formation
Comments: No comment found

The isotopic ratio of nitrogen measured in primitive Solar System bodies shows a broad range of values, the origin of which remains unknown. One key question is whether these isotopic reservoirs of nitrogen predate the comet formation stage or are posterior to it. Another central question is elucidating the processes that can produce the observed variations in the 14N/15N isotopic ratio. Disks that orbit pre-main-sequence stars provide unique opportunities for observing the chemical content of analogs of the protosolar nebula and therefore for building a comprehensive scenario for the origin of nitrogen in the Solar System and in planet-forming disks. We present spectrally and spatially resolved observations of the hyperfine structure of the 4-3 rotational transition of HCN and its main isotopologs H13CN and HC15N in the disk orbiting the 8 Myr old TTauri star TW Hya. The spatially averaged HCN/H13CN and HCN/HC15N abundance ratios are 86+/-4 and 223+/-21, respectively. The latter value is significantly lower than the CN:C15N ratio 323+/-30 in this disk and thus provides the first evidence that two isotopic reservoirs of nitrogen are present in a disk at the stage of giant planet and comet formation. Furthermore, we find clear evidence for an increase in the ratio of HCN to HC15N with radius. The ratio in the outer disk is 339+/-28, in excellent agreement with direct measurements in the local interstellar medium, and with the bulk nitrogen isotopic ratio predicted from galactic evolution calculations. In the comet formation region at r=20 au, the ratio is a factor ~3 lower, 121+/-11. This radial increase qualitatively agrees with the scenario in which selective photodissociation of N 2 is the dominant fractionation process. However, our isotopic ratios and kinetic temperature of the HCN-emitting layers quantitatively disagree with models of nitrogen chemistry in disks.

arXiv:1911.06678v1 [pdf, other]
Photometric and spectroscopic Studies of Superoutbursts of Three Dwarf Novae Independently Identified by The SVOM/GWAC System in 2018
Comments: 15 pages, 13 figures and 5 tables, to appear in AJ

We report our photometric and spectroscopic follow-up observations of the superoutbursts of three dwarf novae (GWAC\,180415A, GWAC\,181017A and GWAC\,181211A) identified independently by the Ground Wide-angle Cameras system, one of the ground-based instruments of the China-France SVOM mission. Based on a combination of our photometry and that taken from the AAVSO, our period analysis of the superhumps enables us to determine the mass ratios to be 0.0967-0.1163, 0.1879-0.1883 and 0.0981-0.1173 for GWAC\,180415A, GWAC\,181017A and GWAC\,181211A, respectively. GWAC\,180415A can be firmly identified as a WZ sge-type dwarf novae due to its long duration ($\sim2$ weeks) multiple rebrightenings with amplitudes of 3-4 magnitudes, the early superhump associated with a double-wave modulation and the low mass ratio. The inferred low mass ratio and location in the $\varepsilon-P_{\mathrm{orb}}$ diagram suggest that GWAC\,181211A is a WZ sge-type dwarf novae candidate. The measured Balmer decrements suggest the Balmer line emission is produced from an optical thick region in GWAC\,180415A and GWAC\,181017A, and from an optical thin region in GWAC\,181211A.

arXiv:1911.06680v1 [pdf, other]
New hard-TeV extreme blazars detected with the MAGIC telescopes
MAGIC Collaboration, V. A. Acciari, S. Ansoldi, L. A. Antonelli, A. Arbet Engels, K. Asano, D. Baack, A. Babić, B. Banerjee, U. Barres de Almeida, J. A. Barrio, J. Becerra González, W. Bednarek, L. Bellizzi, E. Bernardini, A. Berti, J. Besenrieder, W. Bhattacharyya, C. Bigongiari, A. Biland, O. Blanch, G. Bonnoli, Ž. Bošnjak, G. Busetto, R. Carosi, G. Ceribella, Y. Chai, A. Chilingaryan, S. Cikota, S. M. Colak, U. Colin, E. Colombo, J. L. Contreras, J. Cortina, S. Covino, V. D'Elia, P. Da Vela, F. Dazzi, A. De Angelis, B. De Lotto, M. Delfino, J. Delgado, D. Depaoli, F. Di Pierro, L. Di Venere, E. Do Souto Espiñeira, D. Dominis Prester, A. Donini, D. Dorner, M. Doro, D. Elsaesser, V. Fallah Ramazani, A. Fattorini, G. Ferrara, D. Fidalgo, L. Foffano, M. V. Fonseca, L. Font, C. Fruck, S. Fukami, R. J. García López, M. Garczarczyk, S. Gasparyan, M. Gaug, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, N. Godinović, D. Green, D. Guberman, D. Hadasch, A. Hahn, J. Herrera, J. Hoang, D. Hrupec, M. Hütten, T. Inada, S. Inoue, K. Ishio, Y. Iwamura, L. Jouvin, D. Kerszberg, H. Kubo, J. Kushida, A. Lamastra, D. Lelas, F. Leone, E. Lindfors, S. Lombardi, F. Longo, M. López, R. López-Coto, A. López-Oramas, S. Loporchio, B. Machado de Oliveira Fraga, C. Maggio, P. Majumdar, M. Makariev, M. Mallamaci, G. Maneva, M. Manganaro, K. Mannheim, L. Maraschi, M. Mariotti, M. Martínez, D. Mazin, S. Mićanović, D. Miceli, M. Minev, J. M. Miranda, R. Mirzoyan, E. Molina, A. Moralejo, D. Morcuende, V. Moreno, E. Moretti, P. Munar-Adrover, V. Neustroev, C. Nigro, K. Nilsson, D. Ninci, K. Nishijima, K. Noda, L. Nogués, S. Nozaki, S. Paiano, M. Palatiello, D. Paneque, R. Paoletti, J. M. Paredes, P. Peñil, M. Peresano, M. Persic, P. G. Prada Moroni, E. Prandini, I. Puljak, W. Rhode, M. Ribó, J. Rico, C. Righi, A. Rugliancich, L. Saha, N. Sahakyan, T. Saito, S. Sakurai, K. Satalecka, K. Schmidt, T. Schweizer, J. Sitarek, I. Šnidarić, D. Sobczynska, A. Somero, A. Stamerra, D. Strom, M. Strzys, Y. Suda, T. Surić, M. Takahashi, F. Tavecchio, P. Temnikov, T. Terzić, M. Teshima, N. Torres-Albà, L. Tosti, V. Vagelli, J. van Scherpenberg, G. Vanzo, M. Vazquez Acosta, C. F. Vigorito, V. Vitale, I. Vovk, M. Will, D. Zarić, C. Arcaro, A. Carosi, F. D'Ammando, F. Tombesi, A. Lohfink
Comments: 30 pages, 9 figures, accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal Supplement

Extreme high-frequency peaked BL Lac objects (EHBLs) are blazars which exhibit extremely energetic synchrotron emission. They also feature non-thermal gamma-ray emission whose peak lies in the very high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) range, and in some sources exceeds 1TeV: this is the case of hard-TeV EHBLs such as 1ES 0229+200. With the aim of increasing the EHBL population, ten targets were observed with the MAGIC telescopes from 2010 to 2017, for a total of 262 h of good quality data. The data were complemented by coordinated Swift observations. The X-ray data analysis confirms that all the sources but two are EHBLs. The sources show only a modest variability and a harder-when-brighter behavior, typical for this class of objects. At VHE gamma rays, three new sources were detected and a hint of signal was found for another new source. In each case the intrinsic spectrum is compatible with the hypothesis of a hard-TeV nature of these EHBLs. The broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of all sources are built and modeled in the framework of a single-zone purely leptonic model. The VHE gamma-ray detected sources were also interpreted with a spine-layer and a proton synchrotron models. The three models provide a good description of the SEDs. However, the resulting parameters differ substantially in the three scenarios, in particular the magnetization parameter. This work presents a first mini-catalog of VHE gamma-ray and multi-wavelength observations of EHBLs.

arXiv:1911.06693v1 [pdf, other]
Towards a deeper understanding of the physics driving galaxy quenching -- inferring trends in the gas content via extinction
Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS Letters

In order to investigate the importance of different proposed quenching mechanisms, we use an indirect method to estimate gas masses for ~62,000 SDSS DR7 galaxies. We infer gas surface densities from dust column densities as traced by extinction within the fibre, applying a metallicity correction to account for varying dust-to-gas ratios. We find that both gas fraction and star formation efficiency (SFE) decrease moving away from the star forming main sequence (MS) towards quiescence for all galaxy masses. We further show that both quantities correlate similarly strongly with the departure from the MS, implying the need for any physical model of quenching to invoke a change in $\textit{both}$ gas fraction and SFE. Our results call for a better understanding of the physical processes driving the decrease in star formation efficiency, which has received relatively little attention in the theory of quenching until now.

arXiv:1911.06724v1 [pdf, other]
PolStar -- An Explorer-Class FUV Spectropolarimetry Mission to Map the Environments of Massive Stars
Comments: No comment found

PolStar is an Explorer-class far ultraviolet (FUV) spectropolarimetry mission designed to target massive stars and their environments. PolStar will take advantage of resonance lines only available in the FUV to measure for the first time the magnetic and wind environment around massive stars to constrain models of rotation and mass loss.

arXiv:1911.06768v1 [pdf, other]
Semita: a novel cosmological filament finding algorithm
Comments: 10 pages, 11 figures

We introduce an algorithm aimed to identify large-scale filaments founded on the conception that these structures are bridges of matter that connect high density peaks. Our method is based on two standard tools, the Minimal Spanning Tree (MST) and the Friends of Friends (FoF) algorithm. Briefly, the complete process consists of five stages. Initially, we use the FoF algorithm to select intermediate density regions to stave off underdense zones (voids). Next, we build the MST by restricting it only to the regions defined in the previous step. Then the tree is pruned according to the length of its branches keeping the most dominant and discarding the more tenuous ones. Finally, the filaments are individualised according to the mass of the ends and smoothed using a B-spline fitting routine. To assess the results of the filament finder we apply it to a cosmological simulation. By focusing our analysis on those filaments whose halos at the ends have large masses, we found that the radial density profile, at scales around $1\, h^{-1} \mathrm{Mpc}$, follow a power law function with index -2. Even though the method only relies on halo positions, it is capable to recover the expected velocity field in filamentary structures. Large infall velocities coming from low density environment approach perpendicularly to the filaments and diverges toward to the ends. By studying the transverse velocity dispersion, we estimate the dynamical linear density following Eisenstein et al. (1997), finding a good correspondence between that and the actual mass per unit length of the filaments.

arXiv:1911.06776v1 [pdf, other]
36 GHz methanol lines from nearby galaxies: maser or quasi-thermal emission?
Comments: Accepted by Astronomy & Astrophysics, 8 pages, 1 table, 3 figures

Methanol (CH3OH) is one of the most abundant interstellar molecules, offering a vast number of transitions to be studied, including many maser lines. While the strongest Galactic CH3OH lines, the so-called class II masers, show no indications for the presence of superluminous counterparts in external galaxies, the less luminous Galactic class I sources appear to be different. Here we report class I 36GHz CH3OH 4(-1) - 3(0) E line emission from the nearby galaxies Maffei2 and IC342, measured with the 100-m telescope at Effelsberg at three different epochs within a time span of about five weeks. The 36GHz methanol line of Maffei2 is the second most luminous among the sources detected with certainty outside the Local Group of galaxies. This is not matched by the moderate infrared luminosity of Maffei2. Higher resolution data are required to check whether this is related to its prominent bar and associated shocks. Upper limits for M82, NGC4388, NGC5728 and Arp220 are also presented. The previously reported detection of 36GHz maser emission in Arp220 is not confirmed. Non-detections are reported from the related class I 44GHz methanol transition towards Maffei2 and IC342, indicating that this line is not stronger than its 36GHz counterpart. In contrast to the previously detected 36GHz CH3OH emission in NGC253 and NGC4945, our 36GHz profiles towards Maffei2 and IC342 are similar to those of previously detected non-masing lines from other molecular species. However, by analogy to our Galactic center region, it may well be possible that the 36GHz methanol lines in Maffei~2 and IC~342 are composed of a large number of faint and narrow maser features that remain spatially unresolved. In view of this, a search for a weak broad 36GHz line component would also be desirable in NGC253 and NGC4945.

arXiv:1911.06798v1 [pdf, other]
Statistics on 24 spiral galaxies having different observed arm locations using different arm tracers
Comments: 33 pages; 12 figures; 5 tables; 60 references

The density wave theory predicted some physical offsets among different tracers of star formation. To test this prediction, here we compiled data on 40 galaxies searched observationally for a physical offset between spiral arm tracers, and found that 24 of them have a positive offset. In a spiral arm, an arm tracer in a region with a given temperature may be at a different location (offset) than an arm tracer in a region with a colder temperature. Some conditions are found to be necessary or sufficient in order to detect an offset between two arm tracers. To find the offset of a tracer from another tracer, one needs a proper linear resolution. Starting in the dust lane and going across the spiral arm, we seek the observed physical width of the star-forming zone (offset). In our sample of 24 galaxies with measured offsets, we find offsets with a median value near 326 pc and a mean near 370 pc. These offsets are comparable to those found in our Milky Way galaxy, between the cold diffuse CO 1-0 gas set at 0 pc, and the hot dust near 350 pc. Preliminary statistics are performed on the angular velocity of the gas and stars and angular velocity of the spiral pattern. Their observed orbital velocity of 200 km/s at a typical galactic radius near 4 kpc yields an angular speed of the gas and stars near 60 km/s/kpc. Their deduced angular rotation for the spiral pattern averages 36 km/s/kpc. These observational results are close to the results predicted by the shock-induced star-forming density wave theory. These mean or median property values will be useful for finding other galaxies that can support density waves.

arXiv:1911.06806v1 [pdf, other]
Anomalous peculiar motions of high-mass young stars in the Scutum spiral arm
Comments: 27 pages, 52 figures, 4 tables, accepted for publication in A&A

We present trigonometric parallax and proper motion measurements toward 22 GHz water and 6.7 GHz methanol masers in 16 high-mass star-forming regions. These sources are all located in the Scutum spiral arm of the Milky Way. The observations were conducted as part of the Bar and Spiral Structure Legacy (BeSSeL) survey. A combination of 14 sources from a forthcoming study and 14 sources from the literature, we now have a sample of 44 sources in the Scutum spiral arm, covering a Galactic longitude range from 0$^\circ$ to 33$^\circ$. A group of 16 sources shows large peculiar motions of which 13 are oriented toward the inner Galaxy. A likely explanation for these high peculiar motions is the combined gravitational potential of the spiral arm and the Galactic bar.