55 articles on Saturday, August 24


arXiv:1908.08043v1 [pdf, other]
Spitzer catalog of Herschel-selected ultrared dusty, star-forming galaxies
Comments: 33 pages, 10 figures; accepted for publication in ApJS. The catalog tables will be available on ApJS and VizieR; authors' version is available now upon request

The largest Herschel extragalactic surveys, H-ATLAS and HerMES, have selected a sample of "ultrared" dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) with rising SPIRE flux densities ($S_{500} > S_{350} > S_{250}$; so-called "500 $\mu$m-risers") as an efficient way for identifying DSFGs at higher redshift ($z > 4$). In this paper, we present a large Spitzer follow-up program of 300 Herschel ultrared DSFGs. We have obtained high-resolution ALMA, NOEMA, and SMA data for 63 of them, which allow us to securely identify the Spitzer/IRAC counterparts and classify them as gravitationally lensed or unlensed. Within the 63 ultrared sources with high-resolution data, $\sim$65% appear to be unlensed, and $\sim$27% are resolved into multiple components. We focus on analyzing the unlensed sample by directly performing multi-wavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling to derive their physical properties and compare with the more numerous $z \sim 2$ DSFG population. The ultrared sample has a median redshift of 3.3, stellar mass of 3.7 $\times$ 10$^{11}$ $M_{\odot}$, star formation rate (SFR) of 730 $M_{\odot}$yr$^{-1}$, total dust luminosity of 9.0 $\times$ 10$^{12}$ $L_{\odot}$, dust mass of 2.8 $\times$ 10$^9$ $M_{\odot}$, and V-band extinction of 4.0, which are all higher than those of the ALESS DSFGs. Based on the space density, SFR density, and stellar mass density estimates, we conclude that our ultrared sample cannot account for the majority of the star-forming progenitors of the massive, quiescent galaxies found in infrared surveys. Our sample contains the rarer, intrinsically most dusty, luminous and massive galaxies in the early universe that will help us understand the physical drivers of extreme star formation.


arXiv:1908.08045v1 [pdf, other]
Modeling the Gaia Color-Magnitude Diagram with Bayesian Neural Flows to Constrain Distance Estimates
Comments: 15 pages, 8 figures

We demonstrate an algorithm for learning a flexible color-magnitude diagram from noisy parallax and photometry measurements using a normalizing flow, a deep neural network capable of learning an arbitrary multi-dimensional probability distribution. We present a catalog of 640M photometric distance posteriors to nearby stars derived from this data-driven model using Gaia DR2 photometry and parallaxes. Dust estimation and dereddening is done iteratively inside the model and without prior distance information, using the Bayestar map. The signal-to-noise (precision) of distance measurements improves on average by more than 48% over the raw Gaia data, and we also demonstrate how the accuracy of distances have improved over other models, especially in the noisy-parallax regime. Applications are discussed, including significantly improved Milky Way disk separation and substructure detection. We conclude with a discussion of future work, which exploits the normalizing flow architecture to allow us to exactly marginalize over missing photometry, enabling the inclusion of many surveys without losing coverage.


arXiv:1908.08046v1 [pdf, other]
The Optical Afterglow of GW170817: An Off-axis Structured Jet and Deep Constraints on a Globular Cluster Origin
Comments: 11 pages, 6 figures, 2 tables. Accepted to ApJ Letters

We present a revised and complete optical afterglow light curve of the binary neutron star merger GW170817, enabled by deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) F606W observations at $\approx\!584$ days post-merger, which provide a robust optical template. The light curve spans $\approx 110-362$ days, and is fully consistent with emission from a relativistic structured jet viewed off-axis, as previously indicated by radio and X-ray data. Combined with contemporaneous radio and X-ray observations, we find no spectral evolution, with a weighted average spectral index of $\langle \beta \rangle = -0.583 \pm 0.013$, demonstrating that no synchrotron break frequencies evolve between the radio and X-ray bands over these timescales. We find that an extrapolation of the post-peak temporal slope of GW170817 to the luminosities of cosmological short GRBs matches their observed jet break times, suggesting that their explosion properties are similar, and that the primary difference in GW170817 is viewing angle. Additionally, we place a deep limit on the luminosity and mass of an underlying globular cluster of $L \lesssim 6.7 \times 10^{3}\,L_{\odot}$, or $M \lesssim 1.3 \times 10^{4}\,M_{\odot}$, at least 4 standard deviations below the peak of the globular cluster mass function of the host galaxy, NGC4993. This limit provides a direct and strong constraint that GW170817 did not form and merge in a globular cluster. As highlighted here, HST (and soon JWST) enables critical observations of the optical emission from neutron star merger jets and outflows.


arXiv:1908.08047v1 [pdf, other]
Interpretation and diversity of exoplanetary material orbiting white dwarfs
Comments: 16 pages, 9 figures; accepted to MNRAS

Nine metal-polluted white dwarfs are observed with medium-resolution optical spectroscopy,where photospheric abundances are determined and interpreted through comparison against solar system objects. An improved method of making such comparisons is presented that overcomes potential weaknesses of prior analyses, with the numerous sources of error considered to highlight the limitations on interpretation. The stars are inferred to be accreting rocky, volatile-poor asteroidal materials with origins in differentiated bodies, in line with the consensus model. The most heavily polluted star in the sample has 14 metals detected, and appears to be accreting material from a rocky planetesimal, whose composition is mantle-like with a small Fe-Ni core component. Some unusual abundances are present: one star is strongly depleted in Ca, while two others show Na abundances elevated above bulk Earth, speculated either to reflect diversity in the formation conditions of the source material, or to be traces of past accretion events. Another star shows clear signs that accretion ceased around 5 Myr ago,causing Mg to dominate the photospheric abundances, as it has the longest diffusion time of the observed elements. Observing such post-accretion systems allows constraints to be placed on models of the accretion process.


arXiv:1908.08048v1 [pdf, other]
Modeling Time Dependent Water Chemistry Due to Powerful X-ray Flares from T-Tauri Stars
Comments: 15 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ

Young stars emit strong flares of X-ray radiation that penetrate the surface layers of their associated protoplanetary disks. It is still an open question as to whether flares create significant changes in disk chemical composition. We present models of the time-evolving chemistry of gas-phase water during X-ray flaring events. The chemistry is modeled at point locations in the disk between 1 and 50 au at vertical heights ranging from the mid-plane to the surface. We find that strong, rare flares, i.e., those that increase the unattenuated X-ray ionization rate by a factor of 100 every few years, can temporarily increase the gas-phase water abundance relative to H can by more than a factor of $\sim3-5$ along the disk surface (Z/R $\ge$ 0.3). We report that a "typical" flare, i.e., those that increase the unattenuated X-ray ionization rate by a factor of a few every few weeks, will not lead to significant, observable changes. Dissociative recombination of H$_3$O$^+$, water adsorption and desorption onto dust grains, and ultraviolet photolysis of water and related species are found to be the three dominant processes regulating the gas-phase water abundance. While the changes are found to be significant, we find that the effect on gas phase water abundances throughout the disk is short-lived (days). Even though we do not see a substantial increase in long term water (gas and ice) production, the flares' large effects may be detectable as time varying inner disk water 'bursts' at radii between 5 and 30 au with future far infrared observations.


arXiv:1908.08052v1 [pdf, other]
Tidal circularization of gaseous planets orbiting white dwarfs
Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS

A gas giant planet which survives the giant branch stages of evolution at a distance of many au and then is subsequently perturbed sufficiently close to a white dwarf will experience orbital shrinkage and circularization due to star-planet tides. The circularization timescale, when combined with a known white dwarf cooling age, can place coupled constraints on the scattering epoch as well as the active tidal mechanisms. Here, we explore this coupling across the entire plausible parameter phase space by computing orbit shrinkage and potential self-disruption due to chaotic f-mode excitation and heating in planets on orbits with eccentricities near unity, followed by weakly dissipative equilibrium tides. We find that chaotic f-mode evolution activates only for orbital pericentres which are within twice the white dwarf Roche radius, and easily restructures or destroys ice giants but not gas giants. This type of internal thermal destruction provides an additional potential source of white dwarf metal pollution. Subsequent tidal evolution for the surviving planets is dominated by non-chaotic equilibrium and dynamical tides which may be well-constrained by observations of giant planets around white dwarfs at early cooling ages.


arXiv:1908.08053v1 [pdf, other]
The case of NGC 6302: The impact of shocks in the derivation of Nitrogen abundances
Comments: 17 pages, 3 Figures. Accepted for publication in MNRAS

High nitrogen abundance is characteristic of Type I planetary nebulae as well as their highly filamentary structure. In the present work we test the hypothesis of shocks as a relevant excitation mechanism for a Type-I nebula, NGC 6302, using recently released diagnostic diagrams to distinguish shocks from photoexcitation. The construction of diagrams depends on emission line ratios and kinematical information. NGC 6302 shows the relevance of shocks in peripheral regions and the importance to the whole nebula. Using shocks, we question the usual assumption of ICF calculation, justifying a warning to broadly used abundance derivation methods. From a kinematical analysis, we derive a new distance for NGC 6302 of $805\pm143\,$ pc.


arXiv:1908.08055v1 [pdf, other]
Structural and Stellar Population Properties vs. Bulge Types in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Central Galaxies
Comments: 23 pages, 17 figures, submitted to MNRAS

This paper studies pseudo-bulges (P-bulges) and classical bulges (C-bulges) in Sloan Digital Sky Survey central galaxies using the new bulge indicator $\Delta\Sigma_1$, which measures relative central stellar-mass surface density within 1 kpc. We compare $\Delta\Sigma_1$ to the established bulge-type indicator $\Delta\langle\mu_e\rangle$ from Gadotti (2009) and show that classifying by $\Delta\Sigma_1$ agrees well with $\Delta\langle\mu_e\rangle$. $\Delta\Sigma_1$ requires no bulge-disk decomposition and can be measured on SDSS images out to $z = 0.07$. Bulge types using it are mapped onto twenty different structural and stellar-population properties for 12,000 SDSS central galaxies with masses 10.0 < log $M_*$/$M_{\odot}$ < 10.4. New trends emerge from this large sample. Structural parameters show fairly linear log-log relations vs. $\Delta\Sigma_1$ and $\Delta\langle\mu_e\rangle$ with only moderate scatter, while stellar-population parameters show a highly non-linear "elbow" in which specific star-formation rate remains roughly flat with increasing central density and then falls rapidly at the elbow, where galaxies begin to quench. P-bulges occupy the low-density end of the horizontal arm of the elbow and are universally star-forming, while C-bulges occupy the elbow and the vertical branch and exhibit a wide range of star-formation rates at fixed density. The non-linear relation between central density and star-formation rate has been seen before, but this mapping onto bulge class is new. The wide range of star-formation rates in C-bulges helps to explain why bulge classifications using different parameters have sometimes disagreed in the past. The elbow-shaped relation between density and stellar indices suggests that central structure and stellar-populations evolve at different rates as galaxies begin to quench.


arXiv:1908.08056v1 [pdf, other]
The Progenitors of Calcium-Strong Transients
Comments: Submitted

A new class of faint, spectroscopically peculiar transients has emerged in the last decade. We term these events "calcium-strong transients" (CaSTs) because of their atypically high calcium-to-oxygen nebular line ratios. Previous studies have struggled to deduce the identity of their progenitors due to a combination of their extremely extended radial distributions with respect to their host galaxies and their relatively high rate of occurrence. In this work, we find that the CaST radial distribution is consistent with the radial distribution of two populations of stars: old (ages > 5 Gyr), low-metallicity (Z/Zsol < 0.3) stars and globular clusters. While no obvious progenitor scenario arises from considering old, metal-poor stars, the alternative production site of globular clusters leads us to narrow down the list of possible candidates to three binary scenarios: mergers of helium and oxygen/neon white dwarfs; tidal disruptions of helium white dwarfs by neutron stars; and stable accretion from low-mass helium-burning stars onto white dwarfs. While rare in the field, these binary systems can be formed dynamically at much higher rates in globular clusters. Subsequent binary hardening both increases their interaction rate and ejects them from their parent globular clusters prior to mass transfer contact. Their production in, and ejection from, globular clusters may explain their radial distribution and the absence of globular clusters at their explosion site. This model predicts a currently undiscovered high rate of CaSTs in nuclear star clusters. Alternatively, an undetermined progenitor scenario involving old, low-metallicity stars may instead hold the key to understanding CaSTs.


arXiv:1908.08057v1 [pdf, other]
Bias to CMB lensing from lensed foregrounds
Comments: No comment found

Extragalactic foregrounds are known to constitute a limiting systematic in temperature-based CMB lensing with AdvACT, SPT-3G, Simons Observatory and CMB S4. Furthermore, since these foregrounds are emitted at cosmological distances, they are also themselves lensed. The correlation between this foreground lensing and CMB lensing causes an additional bias in CMB lensing estimators. In this paper, we quantify for the first time this "lensed foreground bias" for the standard CMB lensing quadratic estimator, the CMB shear and the CMB magnification estimators, in the case of Simons Observatory and in the absence of multi-frequency component separation. This percent-level bias is highly significant in cross-correlation of CMB lensing with LSST galaxies, and comparable to the statistical signal-to-noise in CMB lensing auto-spectrum. We discuss various mitigation strategies, and show that "lensed foreground bias-hardening" methods can reduce this bias at some cost in signal-to-noise.


arXiv:1908.08060v1 [pdf, other]
A search for IceCube events in the direction of ANITA neutrino candidates
Comments: Presented at the 36th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2019). See arXiv:1907.11699 for all IceCube contributions

The Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) collaboration has reported a total of three neutrino candidates from the experiment's first three flights. One of these was the lone candidate in a search for Askaryan radio emission, and the others can be interpreted as tau-neutrinos, with important caveats. Among a variety of explanations for these events, they may be produced by astrophysical transients with various characteristic timescales. We test the hypothesis that these events are astrophysical in origin by searching for IceCube counterparts. Using seven years of IceCube data from 2011 through 2018, we search for neutrino point sources using integrated, triggered, and untriggered approaches, and account for the substantial uncertainty in the directional reconstruction of the ANITA events. Due to its large livetime and effective area over many orders of magnitude in energy, IceCube is well suited to test the astrophysical origin of the ANITA events.


arXiv:1908.08061v1 [pdf, other]
Impact of Cosmic-Ray Feedback on Accretion and Chemistry in Circumstellar Disks
Comments: 19 pages, 9 figures, accepted to ApJ

We use the gas-grain chemistry code UCLCHEM to explore the impact of cosmic-ray feedback on the chemistry of circumstellar disks. We model the attenuation and energy losses of the cosmic-rays as they propagate outwards from the star and also consider ionization due to stellar radiation and radionuclides. For accretion rates typical of young stars, $\dot M_* \sim 10^{-9}-10^{-6}$ M_\odot yr$^{-1}$, we show that cosmic rays accelerated by the stellar accretion shock produce a cosmic-ray ionization rate at the disk surface $\zeta \gtrsim 10^{-15}$ s$^{-1}$, at least an order of magnitude higher than the ionization rate associated with the Galactic cosmic-ray background. The incident cosmic-ray flux enhances the disk ionization at intermediate to high surface densities ($\Sigma > 10$ g cm$^{-2}$) particularly within 10 au of the star. We find the dominant ions are C$^+$, S$^+$ and Mg$^+$ in the disk surface layers, while the H$_3^+$ ion dominates at surface densities above 1.0 g cm$^{-2}$. We predict the radii and column densities at which the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) is active in T Tauri disks and show that ionization by cosmic-ray feedback extends the MRI-active region towards the disk mid-plane. However, the MRI is only active at the mid-plane of a minimum mass solar nebula disk if cosmic-rays propagate diffusively ($\zeta \propto r^{-1}$) away from the star. The relationship between accretion, which accelerates cosmic rays, the dense accretion columns, which attenuate cosmic rays, and the MRI, which facilitates accretion, create a cosmic-ray feedback loop that mediates accretion and may produce luminosity variability.


arXiv:1908.08066v1 [pdf, other]
Consistency of the Infrared Variability of Sgr A* over 22 years
Comments: 22 pages, 20 figures, accepted to ApJ Letters

We report new infrared measurements of the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Center, Sgr A*, over a decade that was previously inaccessible at these wavelengths. This enables a variability study that addresses variability timescales that are ten times longer than earlier published studies. Sgr A* was initially detected in the near-infrared with adaptive optics observations in 2002. While earlier data exists in form of speckle imaging (1995 - 2005), Sgr A* was not detected in the initial analysis. Here, we improved our speckle holography analysis techniques. This has improved the sensitivity of the resulting speckle images by up to a factor of three. Sgr A* is now detectable in the majority of epochs covering 7 years. The brightness of Sgr A* in the speckle data has an average observed K magnitude of 16.0, which corresponds to a dereddened flux density of $3.4$ mJy. Furthermore, the flat power spectral density (PSD) of Sgr A* between $\sim$80 days and 7 years shows its uncorrelation in time beyond the proposed single power-law break of $\sim$245 minutes. We report that the brightness and its variability is consistent over 22 years. This analysis is based on simulations using Witzel et al. (2018) model to characterize infrared variability from 2006 to 2016. Finally, we note that the 2001 periapse of the extended, dusty object G1 had no apparent effect on the near-infrared emission from accretion flow onto Sgr A*. The result is consistent with G1 being a self-gravitating object rather than a disrupting gas cloud.


arXiv:1908.08075v1 [pdf, other]
FIRTEZ-dz: A Forward and Inverse solver of the polarized Radiative Transfer Equation under Zeeman regime in geometrical scale
Comments: No comment found

We present a numerical code that solves the forward and inverse problem of the polarized radiative transfer equation in geometrical scale under the Zeeman regime. The code is fully parallelized, making it able to easily handle large observational and simulated datasets. We checked the reliability of the forward and inverse modules through different examples. In particular, we show that even when properly inferring various physical parameters (temperature, magnetic field components, and line-of-sight velocity) in optical depth, their reliability in height-scale depends on the accuracy with which the gas-pressure or density are known. The code is made publicly available as a tool to solve the radiative transfer equation and perform the inverse solution treating each pixel independently. An important feature of this code, that will be exploited in the future, is that working in geometrical-scale allows for the direct calculation of spatial derivatives, which are usually required in order to estimate the gas pressure and/or density via the momentum equation in a three-dimensional volume, in particular the three-dimensional Lorenz force.


arXiv:1908.08084v1 [pdf, other]
X-ray properties of z>4 blazars
Comments: 15 pages, 30 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS

We present the X-ray analysis of the largest flux-limited complete sample of blazar candidates at z>4 selected from the Cosmic Lens All Sky Survey (CLASS). After obtaining a nearly complete (24/25) X-ray coverage of the sample (from Swift-XRT, XMM-Newton and Chandra), we analysed the spectra in order to identify the bona-fide blazars. We classified the sources based on the shape of their Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) and, in particular, on the flatness of the X-ray emission and its intensity compared to the optical one. We then compared these high-z blazars with a blazar sample selected at lower redshifts (z~1). We found a significant difference in the X-ray-to-radio luminosity ratios, with the CLASS blazars having a mean ratio 2.4+/-0.5 times larger than low-z blazars. We tentatively interpret this evolution as due to the interaction of the electrons of the jet with the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons, which is expected to boost the observed X-ray emission at high redshifts. Such a dependence has been already observed in highly radio-loud AGNs in the recent literature. This is the first time it is observed using a statistically complete radio flux limited sample of blazars. We have then evaluated whether this effect could explain the differences in the cosmological evolution recently found between radio and X-ray selected samples of blazars. We found that the simple version of this model is not able to solve the tension between the two evolutionary results.


arXiv:1908.08092v1 [pdf, other]
Saturn's south polar cloud composition and structure inferred from 2006 Cassini/VIMS spectra and ISS images
Comments: 28 pages, 21 figures, 7 tables

We used 0.85 - 5.1 micron 2006 observations by Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) to constrain the unusual vertical structure and compositions of cloud layers in Saturn's south polar region, the site of a powerful vortex circulation, shadow-casting cloud bands, and spectral evidence of ammonia ice clouds without the lightning usually associated with such features. We modeled spectral observations with a 4-layer model that includes (1) a stratospheric haze, (2) a top tropospheric layer of non-absorbing (possibly diphosphine) particles near 300 mbar, with a fraction of an optical depth (much less than found elsewhere on Saturn), (3) a moderately thicker layer (1 - 2 optical depths) of ammonia ice particles near 900 mbar, and (4) extending from 5 bars up to 2-4 bars, an assumed optically thick layer where NH4SH and H20 are likely condensables. What makes the 3-micron absorption of ammonia ice unexpectedly apparent in these polar clouds, is not penetrating convection, but instead the relatively low optical depth of the top tropospheric cloud layer, perhaps because of polar downwelling and/or lower photochemical production rates. We did not find any evidence for optically thick eyewalls that were previously thought to be responsible for the observed shadows. Instead, we found evidence for small step-wise decreases in optical depth of the stratospheric haze near 87.9 deg S and in the putative diphosphine layer near 88.9 deg S, which are the likely causes of shadows and bright features we call antishadows. We found changes as a function of latitude in the phosphine vertical profile and in the arsine mixing ratio that support the existence of downwelling within 2 deg of the pole.


arXiv:1908.08094v1 [pdf, other]
Laboratory Calibrations of Fe XII-XIV Line-Intensity Ratios for Electron Density Diagnostics
Comments: No comment found

We have used an electron beam ion trap to measure electron-density-diagnostic line-intensity ratios for extreme ultraviolet lines from F XII, XIII, and XIV at wavelengths of 185-205 255-276 Angstroms. These ratios can be used as density diagnostics for astrophysical spectra and are especially relevant to solar physics. We found that density diagnostics using the Fe XIII 196.53/202.04 and the Fe XIV 264.79/274.21 and 270.52A/274.21 line ratios are reliable using the atomic data calculated with the Flexible Atomic Code. On the other hand, we found a large discrepancy between the FAC theory and experiment for the commonly used Fe XII (186.85 + 186.88)/195.12 line ratio. These FAC theory calculations give similar results to the data tabulated in CHIANTI, which are commonly used to analyze solar observations. Our results suggest that the discrepancies seen between solar coronal density measurements using the Fe XII (186.85 + 186.88)/195.12 and Fe XIII 196.54/202.04 line ratios are likely due to issues with the atomic calculations for Fe XII.


arXiv:1908.08096v1 [pdf, other]
Interpretation of shadows and antishadows on Saturn and the evidence against south polar eyewalls
Comments: 13 pages, 14 figures, 1 table

Cassini spacecraft observations of Saturn in 2006 revealed south polar cloud shadows, the common interpretation of which was initiated by Dyudina et al. (2008, Science 319, 1801) who suggested they were being cast by concentric cloud walls, analogous to the physically and optically thick eyewalls of a hurricane. Here we use radiative transfer results of Sromovsky et al. (2019, Icarus, doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2019.113398), in conjunction with Monte Carlo calculations and physical models, to show that this interpretation is almost certainly wrong because (1) optically thick eyewalls should produce very bright features in the poleward direction that are not seen, while the moderately brighter features that are seen appear in the opposite direction, (2) eyewall shadows should be very dark, but the observed shadows create only 5-10\% I/F variations, (3) radiation transfer modeling of clouds in this region have detected no optically thick wall clouds and no significant variation in pressures of the model cloud layers, and (4) there is an alternative explanation that is much more consistent with observations. The most plausible scenario is that the shadows near 87.9 deg S and 88.9 deg S are both cast by overlying translucent aerosol layers from edges created by step decreases in their optical depths, the first in the stratospheric layer at the 50 mbar level and the second in a putative diphosphine layer near 350 mbar, with optical depths reduced at the poleward side of each step by 0.15 and 0.12 respectively at 752 nm. These steps are sufficient to create shadows of roughly the correct size and shape, falling mainly on the underlying ammonia ice layer near 900 mbar, and to create the bright features we call antishadows.


arXiv:1908.08115v1 [pdf, other]
HII versus HI in the `green valley' galaxies: direct comparison
Comments: 10 pages, re-submitted to MNRAS after revision

We study the morphology and kinematics of the ionization state of the gas in four 'green valley' early-type galaxies at different stages of their transition from a 'blue cloud' of star-forming galaxies to the sequence of passive evolution. The previous HI mapping of the considered sample reveals a spatial offset between the cold gas reservoirs and stellar discs depending on the post-starburst age. Consideration of the ionized-gas properties is essential to understand the role of various feedback processes in star formation quenching. We performed long-slit and 3D optical spectroscopic observations at the 6-m Russian telescope and compared the gas and stellar kinematics. Spatial distribution of the ionized gas is in agreement with HI maps; however, the one-order higher angular resolution in the HII velocity fields allows us to study non-circular gas motions in detail, like the AGN-driven outflow in the nucleus of J1117+51. The most intriguing result is the global HI+HII gas counter-rotation relative to the stellar disc in J1237+39. Therefore, in this case all the observed gas in the 'green valley' galaxy was captured from the environment via accretion or minor merging.


arXiv:1908.08128v1 [pdf, other]
Delensing Degree-Scale $B$-Mode Polarization with High-Redshift Line Intensity Mapping
Comments: 9 pages, 4 figures, 1 table. Matches version published in Phys. Rev. D

Cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments that constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ are now approaching the sensitivity at which delensing---removing the $B$ modes induced by the gravitational lensing of large-scale structure---is necessary. We consider the improvement in delensing that maps of large-scale structure from tomographic line intensity mapping (IM) experiments targeting $2 < z < 10$ could provide. Compared to a nominal baseline of cosmic infrared background and internal delensing at CMB-S4 sensitivity, we find that the addition of high-redshift IM data could improve delensing performance by ~11%. Achieving the requisite sensitivity in the IM data is feasible with next-generation experiments that are now being planned. However, these results are contingent on the ability to measure low-$k$ modes along the line of sight. Without these modes, IM datasets are unable to to correlate with the lensing kernel and do not aid in delensing.


arXiv:1908.08138v1 [pdf, other]
Kinetic Simulations of Radiative Magnetic Reconnection in the Magnetized Coronae of Accreting Black Holes
Comments: 16 pages, 13 figures, submitted to ApJ

We perform two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of reconnection in magnetically dominated electron-positron plasmas subject to strong Compton cooling. Magnetic reconnection under such conditions can operate in accretion disk coronae around black holes, which produce hard X-rays through Comptonization. Our simulations show that most of the plasma in the reconnection layer is kept cold by Compton losses and locked in magnetically dominated plasmoids with a small thermal pressure. Compton drag clears cavities inside plasmoids and also affects their bulk motions. These effects, however, weakly change the reconnection rate and the plasmoid size distribution from those in non-radiative reconnection. This demonstrates that the reconnection dynamics is governed by similar magnetic stresses in both cases and weakly affected by thermal pressure. We examine the energy distribution of particles energized by radiative reconnection and observe two distinct components. (1) A mildly relativistic peak, which results from bulk motions of cooled plasmoids. This component receives most of the reconnection power and dominates the output X-ray emission. The peak has a quasi-Maxwellian shape with an effective temperature of ~100 keV. Thus, it mimics thermal Comptonization used previously to fit hard-state spectra of accreting black holes. (2) A high-energy tail, which receives ~20% of the reconnection power. It is populated by particles accelerated impulsively at X-points or "picked up" by fast outflows from X-points. The high-energy particles immediately cool, and their inverse Compton emission explains the MeV spectral tail detected in the hard state of Cyg X-1. Our first-principle simulations support magnetic reconnection as a mechanism powering hard X-ray emission from accreting black holes.


arXiv:1908.08139v1 [pdf, other]
Cosmic Ray Spectrum and Composition from PeV to EeV from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory
Comments: Presented at the 36th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2019). See arXiv:1907.11699 for all IceCube contributions

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole is a multi-component detector capable of measuring the cosmic ray energy spectrum and composition from PeV to EeV, the energy region typically thought to cover the transition from galactic to extragalactic sources of cosmic rays. The IceTop array at the surface is sensitive to the electromagnetic part of the air shower while the deep in-ice array detects the high-energy (TeV) muonic component of air showers. IceTop's reconstructed shower size parameter, S$_{125}$, is unfolded into a high statistics all-particle energy spectrum. Furthermore, for air showers that pass through both arrays, the in-ice reconstructed muon energy loss information is combined with S$_{125}$ in a machine learning algorithm to simultaneously extract both the all-particle energy spectrum and individual spectra for elemental groups. The all-particle spectra as well as spectra for individual elemental groups are presented.


arXiv:1908.08148v1 [pdf, other]
Not so different after all: Properties and Spatial Structure of Column Density Peaks in the Pipe and Orion A Clouds
Comments: 17 pages, 14 figures. Accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

We present a comparative study of the physical properties and the spatial distribution of column density peaks in two Giant Molecular Clouds (GMC), the Pipe Nebula and Orion A, which exemplify opposite cases of star cluster formation stages. The density peaks were extracted from dust extinction maps constructed from Herschel/SPIRE farinfrared images. We compare the distribution functions for dust temperature, mass, equivalent radius and mean volume density of peaks in both clouds, and made a more fair comparison by isolating the less active Tail region in Orion A and by convolving the Pipe Nebula map to simulate placing it at a distance similar to that of the Orion Complex. The peak mass distributions for Orion A, the Tail, and the convolved Pipe, have similar ranges, sharing a maximum near 5 M$_\odot$, and a similar power law drop above 10 M$_\odot$. Despite the clearly distinct evolutive stage of the clouds, there are very important similarities in the physical and spatial distribution properties of the column density peaks, pointing to a scenario where they form as a result of uniform fragmentation of filamentary structures across the various scales of the cloud, with density being the parameter leading the fragmentation, and with clustering being a direct result of thermal fragmentation at different spatial scales. Our work strongly supports the idea that the formation of clusters in GMC could be the result of the primordial organization of pre-stellar material


arXiv:1908.08149v1 [pdf, other]
X-ray Intra-day Variability of the TeV Blazar Mrk 421 with Suzaku
Comments: 16 pages, 3 figures, 3 tables, accepted by ApJ

We present X-ray flux and spectral analyses of the three pointed Suzaku observations of the TeV high synchrotron peak blazar Mrk 421 taken throughout its complete operational duration. The observation taken on 5 May 2008 is, at 364.6 kiloseconds (i.e., 101.3 hours), the longest and most evenly sampled continuous observation of this source, or any blazar, in the X-ray energy 0.8 - 60 keV until now. We found large amplitude intra-day variability in all soft and hard bands in all the light curves. The discrete correction function analysis of the light curves in soft and hard bands peaks on zero lag, showing that the emission in hard and soft bands are cospatial and emitted from the same population of leptons. The hardness ratio plots imply that the source is more variable in the harder bands compared to the softer bands. The source is harder-when-brighter, following the general behavior of high synchrotron peak blazars. Power spectral densities of all three light curves are red noise dominated, with a range of power spectra slopes. If one assumes that the emission originates very close to the central super massive black hole, a crude estimate for its mass, of ~ 4 * 10^{8} M_{\odot}, can be made; but if the variability is due to perturbations arising there that are advected into the jet and are thus Doppler boosted, substantially higher masses are consistent with the quickest seen variations. We briefly discuss the possible physical mechanisms most likely responsible for the observed flux and spectral variability.


arXiv:1908.08170v1 [pdf, other]
Early acceleration of electrons and protons at the nonrelativistic quasiparallel shocks with different obliquity angles
Comments: 10 pages, 10 figures, accepted for publication in RAA

The early acceleration of protons and electrons in the nonrelativistic collisionless shocks with three obliquities are investigated through 1D particle-in-cell simulations. In the simulations, the charged particles possessing a velocity of $0.2\, c$ flow towards a reflecting boundary, and the shocks with a sonic Mach number of $13.4$ and a Alf\'{v}en Mach number of $16.5$ in the downstream shock frame are generated. In these quasi-parallel shocks with the obliquity angles $\theta = 15^\circ$, $30^\circ$, and $45^\circ$, some of the protons and the electrons can be injected into the acceleration processes, and their downstream spectra in the momentum space show a power law tail at a time of $1.89\times10^5 \omega_{\rm pe}^{-1}$, where $\omega_{\rm pe}$ is the electron plasma frequency. Moreover, the charged particles reflected at the shock excite magnetic waves upstream of the shock. The shock drift acceleration is more prominent with a larger obliquity angle for the shocks, but the accelerated particles diffuse parallel to the shock propagation direction more easily to participate in the diffusive shock acceleration. At the time still in the early acceleration stage, more energetic protons and electrons appear in the downstream of the shock for $\theta = 15^\circ$ compared with the other two obliquities; moreover, in the upstream region, the spectrum of the accelerated electrons is the hardest for $\theta_{\rm nB} = 45^\circ$ among the three obliquities, whereas the proton spectra for $\theta_{\rm nB} = 15^\circ$ and $45^\circ$ are similar as a result of the competition of the effectiveness of the shock drift acceleration and the diffusive shock acceleration.


arXiv:1908.08186v1 [pdf, other]
Discovery of an Outbursting 12.8 Minute Ultracompact X-Ray Binary
Comments: full OGLE light curve is available at http://www.astrouw.edu.pl/ogle/ogle4/OGLE-UCXB-01/

We report the discovery of OGLE-UCXB-01, a 12.8 minute variable object located in the central field of Galactic bulge globular cluster Djorg 2. The presence of frequent, short-duration brightenings at such an ultrashort period in long-term OGLE photometry together with the blue color of the object in Hubble Space Telescope images and the detection of moderately hard X-rays by Chandra observatory point to an ultracompact X-ray binary system. The observed fast period decrease makes the system a particularly interesting target for gravitational-wave detectors such as the planned Laser Interferometer Space Antenna.


arXiv:1908.08217v1 [pdf, other]
Nonlinear Reconstruction of the Velocity Field
Comments: 13 pages, 12 figures

We propose a new velocity reconstruction method based on the displacement estimation by recently developed methods. The velocity is first reconstructed by transfer functions in Lagrangian space and then mapped into Eulerian space. High resolution simulations are used to test the performance. We find that the new reconstruction method outperforms the standard velocity reconstruction in the sense of better cross-correlation coefficient, less velocity misalignment and smaller amplitude difference. We conclude that this new method has the potential to improve the large-scale structure sciences involving a velocity reconstruction, such as kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich measurement and supernova cosmology.


arXiv:1908.08220v1 [pdf, other]
Planetary-scale variations in winds and UV brightness at the Venusian cloud top: Periodicity and temporal evolution
Comments: 44 pages, 19 figures

Planetary-scale waves at the Venusian cloud-top cause periodic variations in both winds and ultraviolet (UV) brightness. While the wave candidates are the 4-day Kelvin wave and 5-day Rossby wave with zonal wavenumber 1, their temporal evolutions are poorly understood. Here we conducted a time series analysis of the 365-nm brightness and cloud-tracking wind variations, obtained by the UV Imager onboard the Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter Akatsuki from June to October 2017, revealing a dramatic evolution of planetary-scale waves and corresponding changes in planetary-scale UV features. We identified a prominent 5-day periodicity in both the winds and brightness variations, whose phase velocities were slower than the dayside mean zonal winds (or the super-rotation) by >35 m s$^{-1}$. The reconstructed planetary-scale vortices were nearly equatorially symmetric and centered at ~35{\deg} latitude in both hemispheres, which indicated that they were part of a Rossby wave. The amplitude of winds variation associated with the observed Rossby wave packet were amplified gradually over ~20 days and attenuated over ~50 days. Following the formation of the Rossby wave vortices, brightness variation emerges to form rippling white cloud belts in the 45{\deg}-60{\deg} latitudes of both hemispheres. ~3.8-day periodic signals were observed in the zonal wind and brightness variations in the equatorial region before the Rossby wave amplification. Although the amplitude and significance of the 3.8-day mode were relatively low in the observation season, this feature is consistent with a Kelvin wave, which may be the cause of the dark clusters in the equatorial region.


arXiv:1908.08236v1 [pdf, other]
Dark matter searches with the IceCube Upgrade
Comments: Presented at the 36th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2019). See arXiv:1907.11699 for all IceCube contributions

Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are well-motivated candidates for Dark Matter (DM). WIMP models often include self-annihilation into Standard Model particles such as neutrinos which could potentially be detected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. Various searches for a dark matter induced signal have been performed with the existing IceCube detector. However, since there is so far no evidence for WIMPs at TeV scales, more attention is brought to DM candidates at GeV masses, for which the IceCube detector is not sensitive due to its energy threshold. The IceCube collaboration is currently preparing the construction of the IceCube Upgrade which is planned to be deployed in the 2022/2023 South Pole summer season. The IceCube Upgrade will consist of 7 new in-ice strings with about 700 additional optical sensors. This dense sensor array inside the IceCube-DeepCore volume will enhance the reconstruction capability of few-GeV neutrinos. We present first studies on the potential improvements of this upgrade on IceCube's sensitivity to Dark Matter annihilating in the Galactic Center.


arXiv:1908.08248v1 [pdf, other]
Searches for point-like sources of cosmic neutrinos with 11 years of ANTARES data
Comments: Presented at the 36th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2019)

The main goal of the ANTARES neutrino telescope is the identification of neutrinos from cosmic accelerators. The good visibility towards the Southern sky for neutrino energies below 100 TeV and the good angular resolution for reconstructed events make the telescope excellent to test for the presence of point-like sources, especially of Galactic origin. The median angular resolution for track-like events (mainly from $\nu_{\mu}$ CC interactions) is $0.4^{\circ}$ while the median angular resolution for contained shower-like events (mainly from $\nu_{e}$ CC and all-flavour NC interactions) is $3^{\circ}$. Recently the ANTARES Collaboration published the result of the search for cosmic point-like neutrino sources using track-like and shower-like events collected during nine years of data taking. In this contribution, an update to this analysis using eleven years of data recorded between early 2007 and the end of 2017, for a total livetime of 3136 days, is presented. Moreover, the results of a search for time and space correlation between the ANTARES events and 54 IceCube tracks and those of the searches for neutrino candidates associated with the IceCube-170922A event or from the direction of the TXS 0506+056 blazar are reported.


arXiv:1908.08265v1 [pdf, other]
A short observational view of black hole X-ray binaries with INTEGRAL
Comments: Solicited review; to appear in Proceedings of the 12th INTEGRAL conference and 1st AHEAD Gamma-ray Workshop, Geneva (Switzerland), 11-15 February 2019, Ed. C. Ferrigno, E. Bozzo, P. von Balmoos

Accreting black holes are unique tools to understand the physics under extreme gravity. While black hole X-ray binaries differ vastly in mass from AGN, their accretion and ejection flows are assumed to be essentially similar. Black hole X-ray binaries or microquasars are, however, quasars for the impatient as variability timescales scale directly with mass. State changes, i.e., strong variations in emission properties, in black hole X-ray binaries can happen within hours and whole outburst cycles within months to years. But our understanding of the drivers of such changes and the contributions of individual accretion and ejection components to the overall emission is still lacking. Here, I highlight some of the INTEGRAL's unique contributions to the understanding of black hole X-ray binaries through its coverage of the energies above the spectral cutoff, its long uninterrupted monitoring observations and the measurements of hard X-ray / soft $\gamma$-ray polarization.


arXiv:1908.08276v1 [pdf, other]
Revisiting the expected Micro-X signal from the 3.5 keV line
Comments: No comment found

One of the future instruments to resolve the origin of the unidentified 3.5 keV emission line is the Micro-X sounding rocket telescope. According to the estimate made in 2015, Micro-X will be able to detect on average about 18.2 photons from the 3.5 keV line during its 300-second-long planned observation. However, this estimate is based on the extrapolation of the 3.5 keV line signal from the innermost Galactic Centre (GC) region available in 2015. With newly available reports on the 3.5 keV line emission in five off-centre regions, we found that similar Micro-X payload will result in 3.4-4.3 counts on average, depending on the dark matter distribution. Therefore, we show that the 3.5 keV line is unlikely to be detected with a single Micro-X launch using an original Micro-X payload. Increasing its field-of-view from 20$^\circ$ to 33$^\circ$ and its repointing out of GC (to avoid the brightest X-ray point source on the sky, Sco X-1) will increase the expected number of counts from 3.5 keV line to 7.5-7.9, which corresponds to its expected marginal ($\sim 2\sigma$) detection within a single Micro-X observation.


arXiv:1908.08279v1 [pdf, other]
Contour Detection in Cassini ISS images based on Hierarchical Extreme Learning Machine and Dense Conditional Random Field
Comments: No comment found

In Cassini ISS (Imaging Science Subsystem) images, contour detection is often performed on disk-resolved object to accurately locate their center. Thus, the contour detection is a key problem. Traditional edge detection methods, such as Canny and Roberts, often extract the contour with too much interior details and noise. Although the deep convolutional neural network has been applied successfully in many image tasks, such as classification and object detection, it needs more time and computer resources. In the paper, a contour detection algorithm based on H-ELM (Hierarchical Extreme Learning Machine) and DenseCRF (Dense Conditional Random Field) is proposed for Cassini ISS images. The experimental results show that this algorithm's performance is better than both traditional machine learning methods such as SVM, ELM and even deep convolutional neural network. And the extracted contour is closer to the actual contour. Moreover, it can be trained and tested quickly on the general configuration of PC, so can be applied to contour detection for Cassini ISS images.


arXiv:1908.08290v1 [pdf, other]
Into the Darkness: Classical and Type II Cepheids in the Zona Galactica Incognita
Comments: Accepted for publication by The Astrophysical Journal

The far side of the Milky Way's disk is one of the most concealed parts of the known Universe due to extremely high interstellar extinction and point source density toward low Galactic latitudes. Large time-domain photometric surveys operating in the near-infrared hold great potential for the exploration of these vast uncharted areas of our Galaxy. We conducted a census of distant classical and type II Cepheids along the southern Galactic mid-plane using near-infrared photometry from the VISTA Variables in the V\'ia L\'actea survey. We performed a machine-learned classification of the Cepheids based on their infrared light curves using a convolutional neural network. We have discovered 640 distant classical Cepheids with up to ~40 magnitudes of visual extinction, and over 500 type II Cepheids, most of them located in the inner bulge. Intrinsic color indices of individual Cepheids were predicted from sparse photometric data using a neural network, allowing their use as accurate reddening tracers. They revealed a steep, spatially varying near-infrared extinction curve toward the inner bulge. Type II Cepheids in the Galactic bulge were also employed to measure robust mean selective-to-absolute extinction ratios. They trace a centrally concentrated spatial distribution of the old bulge population with a slight elongation, consistent with earlier results from RR Lyrae stars. Likewise, the classical Cepheids were utilized to trace the Galactic warp and various substructures of the Galactic disk, and to uncover significant vertical and radial age gradients of the thin disk population at the far side of the Milky Way.


arXiv:1908.08293v1 [pdf, other]
A Sparkler in the Fireworks Galaxy: Discovery of an Ultraluminous X-ray Transient with a Strong Oxygen Line in NGC 6946
Comments: Accepted for publication in ApJ. 22 pages, 4 tables, 9 figures

We discovered and studied an ultraluminous X-ray source (CXOU J203451.1+601043) that appeared in the spiral galaxy NGC 6946 at some point between 2008 February and 2012 May, and has remained at luminosities $\approx$2-4 $\times 10^{39}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in all observations since then. Our spectral modelling shows that the source is generally soft, but with spectral variability from epoch to epoch. Using standard empirical categories of the ultraluminous regimes, we find that CXOU J203451.1+601043 was consistent with a broadened disk state in 2012, but was in a transitional state approaching the super-soft regime in 2016, with substantial down-scattering of the hard photons (similar, for example, to the ultraluminous X-ray source in NGC 55). It has since hardened again in 2018-2019 without any significant luminosity change. The most outstanding property of CXOU J203451.1+601043 is a strong emission line at an energy of of $(0.66 \pm 0.01)$ keV, with equivalent width of $\approx$100 eV, and de-absorbed line luminosity of $\approx$2 $\times 10^{38}$ erg s$^{-1}$, seen when the continuum spectrum was softest. We identify the line as OVIII Ly$\alpha$ (rest frame energy of 0.654 keV); we interpret it as a strong indicator of a massive outflow. Our finding supports the connection between two independent observational signatures of the wind in super-Eddington sources: a lower temperature of the Comptonized component, and the presence of emission lines in the soft X-ray band. We speculate that the donor star is oxygen-rich: a CO or O-Ne-Mg white dwarf in an ultracompact binary. If that is the case, the transient behaviour of CXOU J203451.1+601043 raises intriguing theoretical questions.


arXiv:1908.08299v1 [pdf, other]
Probing neutrino emission at GeV energies from compact binary mergers with IceCube
Comments: Presented at the 36th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2019). See arXiv:1907.11699 for all IceCube contributions

The advent of Multi-Messenger Astronomy has allowed for new types of source searches within the neutrino community. We present the results of the first search for GeV astrophysical neutrinos emitted from Compact Binary Mergers, i.e. binary black hole or binary neutron star mergers, detected by the LIGO and Virgo interferometers. We introduce a new approach that lowers the energy threshold of IceCube from roughly 10 GeV to <1 GeV. This method uses an innovative event selection of GeV neutrino events in IceCube and searches for a statistically significant increase in the amount of GeV-like events detected around the Compact Binary Merger time. We compare our results with constraints set by high-energy neutrino searches, and describe the complementarity of these low and high-energy searches.


arXiv:1908.08300v1 [pdf, other]
First search for GeV neutrinos from bright gamma-ray solar flares using the IceCube Neutrino Observatory
Comments: Presented at the 36th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2019). See arXiv:1907.11699 for all IceCube contributions

In response to a reported increase in the total neutrino flux in the Homestake experiment in coincidence with solar flares at the end of the eighties, solar neutrino detectors have searched for solar flare signals. Solar flares convert magnetic energy into thermal energy of plasma and kinetic energy of charged particles such as protons. As a consequence of magnetic reconnection, protons are injected downwards from the coronal acceleration region and can interact with dense plasma in the lower solar atmosphere, producing mesons that will subsequently decay into gamma rays and neutrinos at O(MeV-GeV) energies. The main motivation to search for solar flare neutrinos comes from their hadronic origin. As inherent products of high-energy proton collisions with the chromosphere, they are a direct probe of the proton accelerated towards the chromosphere. Using a multi-messenger approach, it is therefore possible to constrain the proton acceleration taking place in the solar flares, including the spectral index of the accelerated flux and its shape. We present the results of the first search for GeV neutrinos emitted during solar flares carried out with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. We present a new approach which allows us to strongly lower the energy threshold of IceCube, originally designed to detect 10 GeV - PeV neutrinos. We compare the results with theoretical estimates of the corresponding flux.


arXiv:1908.08350v1 [pdf, other]
Properties of barred galaxies in the MaNGA galaxy survey
Comments: 4 pages, 3 figures, Proceedings of IAUS 353, ed. J. Shen, M. Valluri, and J. A. Sellwood

We present the initial results of a census of 684 barred galaxies in the MaNGA galaxy survey. This large sample contains galaxies with a wide range of physical properties, and we attempt to link bar properties to key observables for the whole galaxy. We find the length of the bar, when normalised for galaxy size, is correlated with the distance of the galaxy from the star formation main sequence, with more passive galaxies hosting larger-scale bars. Ionised gas is observed along the bars of low-mass galaxies only, and these galaxies are generally star-forming and host short bars. Higher-mass galaxies do not contain H{\alpha} emission along their bars, however, but are more likely to host rings or H{\alpha} at the centre and ends of the bar. Our results suggest that different physical processes are at play in the formation and evolution of bars in low- and high-mass galaxies.


arXiv:1908.08364v1 [pdf, other]
H.E.S.S. searches for TeV gamma rays associated to high-energy neutrinos
Comments: Proceedings of the 36th International Cosmic Ray Conference, 2019, Madison, WI, USA

The detection of an astrophysical flux of high-energy neutrinos by IceCube is a major step forward in the search for the origin of cosmic rays, as this emission is expected to originate in hadronic interactions taking place in or near cosmic-ray accelerators. No neutrino point sources, or significant correlation with known astrophysical objects, have been identified in the IceCube data so far. The hadronic interactions responsible for the neutrino emission should also lead to the production of high-energy gamma rays. The search for neutrino sources can then be performed by studying the spatial and temporal correlations between neutrino events and very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) gamma rays. We report here on the search for VHE gamma-ray emission with the H.E.S.S. imaging air Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) at the reconstructed position of muon neutrino events detected by IceCube. We will provide an up-to-date summary of the extensive program to perform prompt IACT observations of realtime IceCube neutrino event positions. A recent highlight of this program are the H.E.S.S. observations during the broad multi-wavelength campaign that followed the detection of the neutrino event IceCube-170922A arriving from a direction consistent with the location of a flaring gamma-ray blazar TXS 0506+056 in September 2017. We'll present the H.E.S.S. observations obtained within ~4h hours of the neutrino detection as well as a complementary search for gamma-ray emission at longer timescales and put them into the multi-wavelength and multi-messenger context.


arXiv:1908.08377v1 [pdf, other]
Short Duration Stellar Flares in GALEX Data
Comments: 53 pages, 21 figures, 4 tables

We report on a population of short duration near-ultraviolet (NUV) flares in stars observed by the Kepler and GALEX missions. We analyzed NUV light curves of 34,276 stars observed from 2009-2013 by both the GALEX (NUV) and Kepler (optical) space missions with the eventual goal of investigating multi-wavelength flares. From the GALEX data we constructed light curves with a 10 second cadence, and ultimately detected 1,904 short duration flares on 1,021 stars. The vast majority (94.5\%) of these flares have durations less than five minutes, with flare flux enhancements above the quiescent flux level ranging from 1.5 to 1700. The flaring stars are primarily solar-like, with T$_{\rm eff}$ ranging from 3,000-11,000 K and radii between 0.5-15 R$_{\odot}$. This set of flaring stars is almost entirely distinct from that of previous flare surveys of Kepler data and indicates a previously undetected collection of small flares contained within the Kepler sample. The range in flare energies spans 1.8$\times$10$^{32}$-8.9$\times$10$^{37}$ erg, with associated relative errors spanning 2-87\%. The flare frequency distribution by energy follows a power-law with index $\alpha=1.72\pm0.05$, consistent with results of other solar and stellar flare studies at a range of wavelengths. This supports the idea that the NUV flares we observe are governed by the same physical processes present in solar and optical flares. The relationship between flare duration and associated flare energy extends results found for solar and stellar white-light flares, and suggests that these flares originate in regions with magnetic field strengths of several hundred Gauss, and length scales of order 10$^{10}$ cm.


arXiv:1908.08393v1 [pdf, other]
The gravitational-wave follow-up program of the Cherenkov Telescope Array
Comments: No comment found

The birth of gravitational-wave / electromagnetic astronomy was heralded by the joint observation of gravitational waves (GWs) from a binary neutron star (BNS) merger by Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo, GW170817, and of gamma-rays from the short gamma-ray burst GRB170817A by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and INTEGRAL. This detection provided the first direct evidence that at least a fraction of BNSs are progenitors of short GRBs. GRBs are now also known to emit very-high-energy (VHE, > 100 GeV) photons as has been shown by recent independent detections of the GRBs 1901114C and 180720B by the ground-based gamma-ray detectors MAGIC and H.E.S.S. In the next years, the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will boost the searches for VHE counterparts thanks to its unprecedented sensitivity, rapid response and capability to monitor large sky areas via survey-mode operation. In this contribution, we present the CTA program of observations following the detection of GW events. We discuss various follow-up strategies and links to multi-wavelength and multi-messenger observations. Finally we outline the capabilities and prospects of detecting VHE emission from GW counterparts.


arXiv:1908.08396v1 [pdf, other]
Puffy accretion disks: sub-Eddington, optically thick, and stable
Comments: 8 pages, 5 figures

We report on a new class of solutions of black hole accretion disks that we have found through three-dimensional, global, radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations in general relativity. It combines features of the canonical thin, slim and thick disk models but differs in crucial respects from each of them. We expect these new solutions to provide a more realistic description of black hole disks than the slim disk model. We are presenting a disk solution for a non-spinning black hole at a sub-Eddington mass accretion rate, $\dot M=0.6\,\dot M_{\rm Edd}$. By the density scale-height measure the disk appears to be thin, having a high density core near the equatorial plane of height $h_{\rho} \sim 0.1 \,r$, but most of the inflow occurs through a highly advective, turbulent, optically thick, Keplerian region that sandwiches the core and has a substantial geometrical thickness comparable to the radius, $H \sim r$. The accreting fluid is supported above the midplane in large part by the magnetic field, with the gas and radiation to magnetic pressure ratio $\beta \sim 1$, this makes the disk thermally stable, even though the radiation pressure strongly dominates over gas pressure. A significant part of the radiation emerging from the disk is captured by the black hole, so the disk is less luminous than a thin disk would be at the same accretion rate.


arXiv:1908.08400v1 [pdf, other]
Galaxy number counts at second order: an independent approach
Comments: 42 pages, 4 figures

Next generation surveys will be capable of determining cosmological parameters beyond percent level.To match this precision, theoretical descriptions should look beyond the linear perturbations to approximate the observables in large scale structure. A quantity of interest is the Number density of galaxies detected by our instruments. This has been focus of interest recently, and several efforts have been made to explain relativistic effects theoretically, thereby testing the full theory. However, the results at nonlinear level from previous works are in disagreement. We present a new and independent approach to computing the relativistic galaxy number counts to second order in cosmological perturbation theory. We derive analytical expressions for the full second order relativistic observed redshift, for the angular diameter distance and for the volume spanned by a survey. Finally, we compare our results with previous works at the level of the general distance-redshift relation to second order, finding that our result is in agreement at linear order.


arXiv:1908.08404v1 [pdf, other]
ALMA CO Observations of a Giant Molecular Cloud in M33: Evidence for High-Mass Star Formation Triggered by Cloud-Cloud Collisions
Comments: 9 pages, 6 figures, 1 table, submitted to the Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan (PASJ)

We report the first evidence for high-mass star formation triggered by collisions of molecular clouds in M33. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, we spatially resolved filamentary structures of giant molecular cloud 37 in M33 using $^{12}$CO($J$ = 2-1), $^{13}$CO($J$ = 2-1), and C$^{18}$O($J$ = 2-1) line emission at a spatial resolution of $\sim$2 pc. There are two individual molecular clouds with a systematic velocity difference of $\sim$6 km s$^{-1}$. Three continuum sources representing up to $\sim$10 high-mass stars with the spectral types of B0V-O7.5V are embedded within the densest parts of molecular clouds bright in the C$^{18}$O($J$ = 2-1) line emission. The two molecular clouds show a complementary spatial distribution with a spatial displacement of $\sim$3.5 pc, and show a V-shaped structure in the position-velocity diagram. These observational features traced by CO and its isotopes are consistent with those in high-mass star-forming regions created by cloud-cloud collisions in the Galactic and Magellanic Cloud HII regions. Our new finding in M33 indicates that the cloud-cloud collision is a promising process to trigger high-mass star formation in the Local Group.


arXiv:1908.08418v1 [pdf, other]
Discovery of weak magnetic fields in four DZ white dwarfs in the local 20pc volume. Implications for the frequency of magnetic fields with cooling age
Comments: Accepted by A&A

We report the discovery of weak magnetic fields in three white dwarfs within the local 20pc volume (WD 0816-310, WD 1009-184, and WD 1532+129), and we confirm the magnetic nature of a fourth star (WD 2138-332) in which we had previously detected a field at a 3 sigma level. The spectra of all these white dwarfs are characterised by the presence of metal lines and lack of H and He lines, that is, they belong to the spectral class DZ. The polarisation signal of the Ca II H+K lines of WD 1009-184 is particularly spectacular, with an amplitude of 20% that is due to the presence of a magnetic field with an average line-of-sight component of 40kG. We have thus established that at least 40% of the known DZ white dwarfs with an He-rich atmosphere contained in the 20pc volume have a magnetic field, while further observations are needed to establish whether the remaining DZ white dwarfs in the same volume are magnetic or not. Metal lines in the spectra of DZ white dwarfs are thought to have originated by accretion from rocky debris, and it might be argued that a link exists between metal accretion and higher occurrence of magnetism. However, we are not able to distinguish whether the magnetic field and the presence of a polluted atmosphere have a common origin, or if it is the presence of metal lines that allows us to detect a higher frequency of magnetic fields in cool white dwarfs, which would otherwise have featureless spectra. We argue that the new highly sensitive longitudinal field measurements that we have made in recent years are consistent with the idea that the magnetic field appears more frequently in older than in younger white dwarfs.


arXiv:1908.08421v1 [pdf, other]
Multi-messenger tests of cosmic-ray acceleration in radiatively inefficient accretion flows
Comments: 15 pages, 6 figures, 3 tables

The cores of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been suggested as the sources of IceCube neutrinos, and recent numerical simulations have indicated that hot AGN coronae of Seyfert galaxies and radiatively inefficient accretion flows (RIAFs) of low-luminosity AGNs (LLAGNs) may be promising sites of ion acceleration. We present detailed studies on detection prospects of high-energy multi-messenger emissions from RIAFs in nearby LLAGNs. We construct a model of RIAFs that can reproduce the observational features of the current X-ray observations of nearby LLAGNs. We then calculate the high-energy particle emissions from nearby individual LLAGNs, including MeV gamma rays from thermal electrons, TeV--PeV neutrinos produced by non-thermal protons, and sub-GeV to sub-TeV gamma rays from proton-induced electromagnetic cascades. We find that, although these are beyond the reach of current facilities, proposed future experiments such as e-ASTROGAM and IceCube-Gen2 should be able to detect the MeV gamma rays and the neutrinos, respectively, or else they can place meaningful constraints on the parameter space of the model. On the other hand, the detection of high-energy gamma rays due to the electromagnetic cascades will be challenging with the current and near-future experiments, such as Fermi and Cherenkov Telescope Array. In an accompanying paper, we demonstrate that LLAGNs can be a source of the diffuse soft gamma-ray and TeV--PeV neutrino backgrounds, whereas in the present paper, we focus on the prospects for multi-messenger tests which can be applied to reveal the nature of the high-energy neutrinos and photons from LLAGNs.


arXiv:1908.08423v1 [pdf, other]
What Determines the Sizes of Bars in Spiral Galaxies?
Comments: pdflatex, 14 pages, 11 figures; accepted by MNRAS. Data, code, and Jupyter notebooks available at https://github.com/perwin/s4g_barsizes

I use volume- and mass-limited subsamples and recently published data from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) to investigate how the size of bars depends on galaxy properties. The known correlation between bar semi-major-axis $a$ and galaxy stellar mass (or luminosity) is actually *bimodal*: for $\log M_{\star} < 10.1$, bar size is almost independent of stellar mass ($a \propto M_{\star}^{0.1}$), while it is a strong function for higher masses ($a \propto M_{\star}^{0.6}$). Bar size is a slightly stronger function of galaxy half-light radius $r_{e}$ and (especially) exponential disc scale length $h$ ($a \propto h^{0.8}$). Correlations between stellar mass and galaxy size can explain the bar-size--$M_{\star}$ correlation -- but only for galaxies with $\log M_{\star} < 10.1$; at higher masses, there is an extra dependence of bar size on $M_{\star}$ itself. Despite theoretical arguments that the presence of gas can affect bar growth, there is no evidence for any residual dependence of bar size on (present-day) gas mass fraction. The traditional dependence of bar size on Hubble type (longer bars in early-type discs) can be explained as a side-effect of stellar-mass--Hubble-type correlations. Finally, I show that galaxy size ($r_{e}$ or $h$) can be modeled as a function of stellar mass and both bar presence and bar size: barred galaxies tend to be more extended than unbarred galaxies of the same mass, with larger bars correlated with larger sizes.


arXiv:1908.08446v1 [pdf, other]
Characterization of Two PMT Models for the IceCube Upgrade mDOM
Comments: Presented at the 36th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2019). See arXiv:1907.11699 for all IceCube contributions

The IceCube Upgrade will expand the IceCube Neutrino Observatory with nearly 800 new optical modules. A large fraction of these will be multi-PMT optical modules (mDOMs), featuring 24 PMTs pointing uniformly in all directions, providing an almost homogeneous angular coverage and providing an effective photosensitive area more than twice that of current IceCube optical modules. Two PMT models from different manufacturers are currently considered for use in the mDOM: a 3.5 inch PMT from HZC Photonics and a 3 inch PMT from Hamamatsu. Both PMTs have been characterized in terms of gain, timing, quantum efficiency and dark noise rate as a function of temperature. The obtained characterization results are presented here.


arXiv:1908.08449v1 [pdf, other]
On the recent parametric determination of an asteroseismological model for the DBV star KIC 08626021
Comments: 8 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication in A&A

Asteroseismology of white dwarf (WD) stars is a powerful tool that allows to reveal the hidden chemical structure of WD and infer details about their evolution by comparing the observed periods with those obtained from stellar models. A recent asteroseismological study has reproduced the period spectrum of the helium rich pulsating WD KIC 08626021 with an unprecedented precision. The chemical structure derived from that analysis is notably different from that expected for a WD according to currently accepted formation channels, thus posing a challenge to the theory of stellar evolution. We explore the relevant micro- and macro-physics processes acting during the formation and evolution of KIC 08626021 that could lead to a chemical structure similar to that found through asteroseismology. We quantify to which extent is necessary to modify the physical processes that shapes the chemical structure, in order to reproduce the most important features of the asteroseismic model. We model the previous evolution of KIC 08626021 by exploring specific changes in the 12C+alpha reaction rate, screening processes, microscopic diffusion, as well as convective boundary mixing during core-He burning. We find that, in order to reproduce the core chemical profile derived for KIC 0862602, the 12C+alpha nuclear reaction rate has to be increased by a factor of $\sim$ 10 during the helium-core burning, and reduced by a factor of $\sim$ 1000 during the following helium-shell burning, as compared with the standard predictions for this rate. In addition, the main chemical structures derived for KIC 0862602 cannot be reconciled with our present knowledge of white dwarf formation. We find that within our current understanding of white dwarf formation and evolution, it is difficult to reproduce the most important asteroseismologically-derived features of the chemical structure of KIC 08626021.


arXiv:1908.08456v1 [pdf, other]
Validating time-distance helioseismic inversions for non-separable subsurface profiles of an average supergranule
Comments: 20 pages, 7 figures

Supergranules are divergent 30-Mm sized cellular flows observed everywhere at the solar photosphere. Their place in the hierarchy of convective structures and their origin remain poorly understood (Rincon et al., 2018). Estimating supergranular depth is of particular interest since this may help point to the underlying physics. However, their subsurface velocity profiles have proven difficult to ascertain. Birch et al. (2006) had suggested that helioseismic inferences would benefit from an ensemble average over multiple realizations of supergranules due to the reduction in realization noise. Bhattacharya et al. (2017) used synthetic forward-modelled seismic wave travel times and demonstrated the potential of helioseismic inversions at recovering the flow profile of an average supergranule that is separable in the horizontal and vertical directions, although the premise of this calculation has since been challenged by Ferret (2019). In this work we avoid this assumption and carry out a validation test of helioseismic travel-time inversions starting from plausible synthetic non-separable profiles of an average supergranule. We compute seismic wave travel times and sensitivity kernels by simulating wave propagation through this background. We find that, while the ability to recover the exact profile degrades based on the number of parameters involved, we are nevertheless able to recover the peak depth of our models in a few iterations where the measurements are presumably above the noise cutoff. This represents an important step towards unraveling the physics behind supergranules, as we start appreciating the parameters that we may reliably infer from a time-distance helioseismic inversion.


arXiv:1908.08458v1 [pdf, other]
Searches for steady neutrino emission from 3FHLblazars using eight years of IceCube data from theNorthern hemisphere
Comments: Presented at the 36th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2019). See arXiv:1907.11699 for all IceCube contributions

Located at the South Pole, the IceCube Neutrino Observatory is the world largest neutrino telescope, instrumenting one cubic kilometre of Antarctic ice at a depth between 1450m to 2450m. In 2013 IceCube reported the first observations of a diffuse astrophysical high-energy neutrino flux. Although the IceCube Collaboration has identified more than 100 high-energy neutrino events, the origin of this neutrino flux is still not known. Blazars, a subclass of Active Galactic Nuclei and one of the most powerful classes of objects in the Universe, have long been considered promising sources of high energy neutrinos. A blazar origin of this high-energy neutrino flux can be examined using stacking methods testing the correlation between IceCube neutrinos and catalogs of hypothesized sources. Here we present the results of a stacking analysis for 1301 blazars from the third catalog of hard \textit{Fermi}-LAT sources (3FHL). The analysis is performed on 8 years of through-going muon data from the Northern Hemisphere, recorded by IceCube between 2009 and 2016. No excess of neutrinos from the blazar position was found and first limits on the neutrino production of these sources will be shown.


arXiv:1908.08462v1 [pdf, other]
The amplitude of the kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations in 4U 1636$-$53 in the frequency-energy space
Comments: No comment found

We present for the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636$-$53, and for the first time for any source of kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (kHz QPOs), the two-dimensional behaviour of the fractional rms amplitude of the kHz QPOs in the parameter space defined by QPO frequency and photon energy. We find that the rms amplitude of the lower kHz QPO increases with energy up to $\sim12$ keV and then decreases at higher energies, while the rms amplitude of the upper kHz QPO either continues increasing or levels off at high energies. The rms amplitude of the lower kHz QPO increases and then decreases with frequency, peaking at $\sim 760$ Hz, while the amplitude of the upper kHz QPO decreases with frequency, with a local maximum at around $\sim 770$ Hz, and is consistent with becoming zero at the same QPO frequency, $\sim1400$ Hz, in all energy bands, thus constraining the neutron-star mass at $M_{NS} \leq 1.6 M_{\odot}$, under the assumption that this QPO reflects the Keplerian frequency at the inner edge of the accretion disc. We show that the slope of the rms energy spectrum is connected to the changing properties of the kHz QPOs in different energy bands as its frequencies change. Finally, we discuss a possible mechanism responsible for the radiative properties of the kHz QPOs and, based on a model in which the QPO arises from oscillations in a Comptonising cloud of hot electrons, we show that the properties of the kHz QPOs can constrain the thermodynamic properties of the inner accretion flow.


arXiv:1908.08468v1 [pdf, other]
Discovery of tidally-perturbed pulsations in the eclipsing binary U Gru: a pioneering system for tidal asteroseismology
Comments: 9 pages, 4 figures, accepted (in press) for publication in ApJ Letters

The interior physics of stars is currently not well constrained for early-type stars. This is particularly pertinent for multiple systems as binary interaction becomes more prevalent for more massive stars, which strongly affects their evolution. High-precision photometry from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission offers the opportunity to remedy the dearth of observations of pulsating stars that show evidence of binary interaction, specifically pulsating mass-accreting components of semi-detached Algol-type eclipsing binary (oEA) systems. We present the TESS light curve of the circular eclipsing binary system U Gru (TIC 147201138), which shows evidence for free heat-driven pressure modes and a series of tidally-perturbed pressure modes. We highlight the asteroseismic potential of studying pulsating stars in binary systems, and demonstrate how tidal asteroseismology can be applied to infer the influence of binary interaction on stellar structure.


arXiv:1908.08477v1 [pdf, other]
Using SPTpol, Planck 2015, and non-CMB data to constrain tilted spatially-flat and untilted non-flat $Λ$CDM, XCDM, and $φ$CDM dark energy inflation cosmologies
Comments: 24 pages, 14 figures, 6 tables

We use six tilted spatially-flat and untilted non-flat dark energy cosmological models in analyses of South Pole Telescope polarization (SPTpol) cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, alone and in combination with Planck 2015 CMB data and non-CMB data. All best-fit cosmological models have CMB anisotropy power spectra that do not provide good fits to the SPTpol data, differing at the 2 to 3$\sigma$ level. In all models, there is no significant difference between the model that best fits the SPTpol data and the one that best fits the Planck CMB and non-CMB data. When the smaller angular scale SPTpol data are used jointly with either the Planck data alone or with the Planck CMB and the non-CMB data to constrain untilted non-flat models, spatially-closed models remain favored over their corresponding flat limits. When used in conjunction with Planck data, non-CMB data (baryon acoustic oscillation measurements in particular, from six experiments) have significantly more constraining power than the SPTpol data.


arXiv:1908.08511v1 [pdf, other]
Spatially resolved spectroscopy of the debris disk HD 32297: Further evidence of small dust grains
Comments: No comment found

Spectro-photometry of debris disks in total intensity and polarimetry can provide new insight into the properties of the dust grains therein (size distribution and optical properties). We aim to constrain the morphology of the highly inclined debris disk HD 32297. We also intend to obtain spectroscopic and polarimetric measurements to retrieve information on the particle size distribution within the disk for certain grain compositions. We observed HD 32297 with SPHERE in Y, J, and H bands in total intensity and in J band in polarimetry. The observations are compared to synthetic models of debris disks and we developed methods to extract the photometry in total intensity overcoming the data-reduction artifacts, namely the self-subtraction. The spectro-photometric measurements averaged along the disk mid-plane are then compared to model spectra of various grain compositions. These new images reveal the very inner part of the system as close as 0.15". The disk image is mostly dominated by the forward scattering making one side (half-ellipse) of the disk more visible, but observations in total intensity are deep enough to also detect the back side for the very first time. The images as well as the surface brightness profiles of the disk rule out the presence of a gap as previously proposed. We do not detect any significant asymmetry between the northeast and southwest sides of the disk. The spectral reflectance features a "gray to blue" color which is interpreted as the presence of grains far below the blowout size. The presence of sub-micron grains in the disk is suspected to be the result of gas drag and/or "avalanche mechanisms". The blue color of the disk could be further investigated with additional total intensity and polarimetric observations in K and H bands respectively to confirm the spectral slope and the fraction of polarization.