68 articles on Wednesday, July 17

arXiv:1907.06642v1 [pdf, other]
Estimating the angular power spectrum of the gravitational-wave background in the presence of shot noise
Comments: 10 pages, 3 figures

There has been much recent interest in studying anisotropies in the astrophysical gravitational-wave (GW) background, as these could provide us with interesting new information about galaxy clustering and large-scale structure. However, this information is obscured by shot noise, caused by the finite number of GW sources that contribute to the background at any given time. We develop a new method for estimating the angular spectrum of anisotropies, based on the principle of combining statistically-independent data segments. We show that this gives an unbiased estimate of the true, astrophysical spectrum, removing the offset due to shot noise power, and that in the limit of many data segments, it is the most efficient (i.e. lowest-variance) estimator possible.

arXiv:1907.06643v1 [pdf, other]
Physical Characterization of Active Asteroid (6478) Gault
Comments: 9 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in ApJL

Main belt asteroid (6478) Gault has been dynamically linked with two overlapping asteroid families: Phocaea, dominated by S-type asteroids, and Tamara, dominated by low-albedo C-types. This object has recently become an interesting case for study, after images obtained in late 2018 revealed that it was active and displaying a comet-like tail. Previous authors have proposed that the most likely scenarios to explain the observed activity on Gault were rotational excitation or merger of near-contact binaries. Here we use new photometric and spectroscopic data of Gault to determine its physical and compositional properties. Lightcurves derived from the photometric data showed little variation over three nights of observations, which prevented us from determining the rotation period of the asteroid. Using WISE observations of Gault and the near-Earth Asteroid Thermal Model (NEATM) we determined that this asteroid has a diameter $<$6 km. NIR spectroscopic data obtained with the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) showed a spectrum similar to that of S-complex asteroids, and a surface composition consistent with H chondrite meteorites. These results favor a compositional affinity between Gault and asteroid (25) Phocaea, and rules out a compositional link with the Tamara family. From the spectroscopic data we found no evidence of fresh material that could have been exposed during the outburst episodes.

arXiv:1907.06645v1 [pdf, other]
Environment from cross-correlations: connecting hot gas and the quenching of galaxies
Comments: 19 pages, 8 figures, submitted to MNRAS

The observable properties of galaxies are known to depend on both internal processes and the external environment. In terms of the environmental role, we still do not have a clear picture of the processes driving the transformation of galaxies. This may be due to the fact that these environmental processes depend on local physical conditions (e.g., local tidal force or hot gas density), whereas observations typically probe only broad-brush proxies for these conditions (e.g., host halo mass, distance to the N^th nearest neighbour, etc.). Here we propose a new method that directly links galaxies to their local environments, by using spatial cross-correlations of galaxy catalogues with maps from large-scale structure surveys (e.g., thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich [tSZ] effect, diffuse X-ray emission, weak lensing of galaxies or the CMB). We focus here on the quenching of galaxies and its link to local hot gas properties. Maps of galaxy overdensity and quenched fraction excess are constructed from volume-limited SDSS catalogs, which are cross-correlated with maps of tSZ effect from Planck and X-ray emission from ROSAT. Strong signals out to Mpc scales are detected for all cross-correlations and are compared to predictions from cosmological hydrodynamical simulations (the EAGLE and BAHAMAS simulations). The simulations successfully reproduce many, but not all, of the observed power spectra, with an indication that environmental quenching may be too efficient in the simulations. We demonstrate that the cross-correlations are sensitive to both the internal and external processes responsible for quenching. The methods outlined in this paper can be easily adapted to other observables and, with upcoming surveys, will provide a stringent direct test of physical models for environmental transformation.

arXiv:1907.06648v1 [pdf, other]
SOFIA/HAWC+ traces the magnetic fields in NGC 1068
Comments: 13 pages, 7 figures, Submitted to ApJ

We report the first detection of galactic spiral structure by means of thermal emission from magnetically aligned dust grains. Our 89 $\mu$m polarimetric imaging of NGC 1068 with the High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera/Polarimeter (HAWC+) on NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) also sheds light on magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the galaxy's inner-bar and active galactic nucleus (AGN). We find correlations between the 89 $\mu$m magnetic field vectors and other tracers of spiral arms, and a symmetric polarization pattern as a function of the azimuthal angle arising from the projection and inclination of the disk field component in the plane of the sky. The observations can be fit with a logarithmic spiral model with pitch angle of $16.9^{+2.7}_{-2.8}$$^{\circ}$ and a disk inclination of $48\pm2^{\circ}$. We infer that the bulk of the interstellar medium from which the polarized dust emission originates is threaded by a magnetic field that closely follows the spiral arms. Inside the central starburst disk ($<1.6$ kpc), the degree of polarization is found to be lower than for far-infrared sources in the Milky Way, and has minima at the locations of most intense star formation near the outer ends of the inner-bar. Inside the starburst ring, the field direction deviates from the model, becoming more radial along the leading edges of the inner-bar. The polarized flux and dust temperature peak $\sim 3-6''$ NE of the AGN at the location of a bow shock between the AGN outflow and the surrounding interstellar medium, but the AGN itself is weakly polarized ($< 1$%) at both 53 and 89 $\mu$m.

arXiv:1907.06649v1 [pdf, other]
The lensing properties of subhaloes in massive elliptical galaxies in sterile neutrino cosmologies
Comments: 17 pages, 11 figures, submitted to MNRAS

We use high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations run with the EAGLE model of galaxy formation to study the differences between the properties of - and subsequently the lensing signal from subhaloes of massive elliptical galaxies at redshift 0.2, in Cold and Sterile Neutrino Dark matter models. We focus on the two 7 keV SN models that bracket the range of matter power spectra compatible with resonantly-produced SN as the source of the observed 3.5 keV line. We derive an accurate parametrization for the subhalo mass function in these two SN models relative to CDM, as well as the subhalo spatial distribution, density profile, and projected number density and the dark matter fraction in subhaloes. We create mock lensing maps from the simulated haloes to study the differences in the lensing signal in the framework of subhalo detection. We find that subhalo convergence is well described by a log-normal distribution and that signal of subhaloes in the power spectrum is lower in SN models with respect to CDM, at a level of 10 to 80 per cent, depending on the scale. However, the scatter between different projections is large and might make the use of power-spectrum studies on the typical scales of current lensing images very difficult. Moreover, in the framework of individual detections through gravitational imaging a sample of ~30 lenses with an average sensitivity of M_sub=5 10^7 M_sun would be required to discriminate between CDM and the considered sterile neutrino models.

arXiv:1907.06652v1 [pdf, other]
Cataloging Accreted Stars within Gaia DR2 using Deep Learning
Comments: 24 pages and 13 Figures + 4 appendices,

The goal of this paper is to develop a machine learning based approach that utilizes phase space alone to separate the Gaia DR2 stars into two categories: those accreted onto the Milky Way from in situ stars that were born within the Galaxy. Traditional selection methods that have been used to identify accreted stars typically rely on full 3D velocity and/or metallicity information, which significantly reduces the number of classifiable stars. The approach advocated here is applicable to a much larger fraction of Gaia DR2. A method known as transfer learning is shown to be effective through extensive testing on a set of mock Gaia catalogs that are based on the FIRE cosmological zoom-in hydrodynamic simulations of Milky Way-mass galaxies. The machine is first trained on simulated data using only 5D kinematics as inputs, and is then further trained on a cross-matched Gaia/RAVE data set, which improves sensitivity to properties of the real Milky Way. The result is a catalog that identifies ~650,000 accreted stars within Gaia DR2. This catalog can yield empirical insights into the merger history of the Milky Way, and could be used to infer properties of the dark matter distribution.

arXiv:1907.06653v1 [pdf, other]
An Introductory Review on Cosmic Reionization
Comments: Published online in Contemporary Physics on 15 July 2019. 30 pages, 10 figures

The universe goes through several phase transitions during its formative stages. Cosmic reionization is the last of them, where ultraviolet and X-ray radiation escape from the first generations of galaxies heating and ionizing their surroundings and subsequently the entire intergalactic medium. There is strong observational evidence that cosmic reionization ended approximately one billion years after the Big Bang, but there are still uncertainties that will be clarified with upcoming optical, infrared, and radio facilities in the next decade. This article gives an introduction to the theoretical and observational aspects of cosmic reionization and discusses their role in our understanding of early galaxy formation and cosmology.

arXiv:1907.06654v1 [pdf, other]
Scaling relations and baryonic cycling in local star-forming galaxies
Comments: 20 pages, 14 figures. Submitted to A&A, comments are welcome

Metallicity and gas content are intimately related in the baryonic exchange cycle of galaxies, and galaxy evolution scenarios can be constrained by quantifying this relation. To this end, we have compiled a sample of ~450 galaxies in the Local Universe, dubbed "MAGMA" (Metallicity And Gas for Mass Assembly), which covers an unprecedented range in parameter space, spanning more than 5 orders of magnitude in stellar mass (Mstar), star-formation rate (SFR), and gas mass (Mgas), and a factor of ~60 in metallicity [Z, 12+log(O/H)]. We have applied 4-dimensional and 3-dimensional (3D) principal component analyses (PCAs) to our sample, to assess the true dimensionality of the data. In confirmation of previous work, we find that even with the vast parameter space covered by MAGMA, the relations between Mstar, SFR, Z and Mgas (MHI+MH2) require only two dimensions to describe the hypersurface. Nevertheless, to accommodate the curvature in the Mstar-Z relation, we have applied a piecewise 3D PCA that successfully predicts observed 12+log(O/H) to an accuracy of ~0.07 dex. We also present a new relation to express Mgas as a linear combination of Mstar and SFR, to an accuracy of ~0.2 dex. Finally, for the first time on a statistically significant sample with all the necessary measurements, we quantify Mgas as a function of Mstar and evaluate the effect of gas on the mass-metallicity relation (MZR). By inferring the metallicity-loading and mass-loading factors for the outflows produced by the MAGMA galaxies, we find that the metal-retention efficiency is not constant with Mstar; metals are expelled more efficiently from low-mass galaxies than from massive ones. Agreement with earlier work is excellent, but is highly sensitive to the values adopted for the stellar nucleosynthetic yield y. Our analysis shows clearly that gas content and outflows driven by star formation shape the MZR.

arXiv:1907.06655v1 [pdf, other]
Thermal Infrared Imaging of MWC 758 with the Large Binocular Telescope: Planetary Driven Spiral Arms?
Comments: 10 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ

Theoretical studies suggest that a giant planet around the young star MWC 758 could be responsible for driving the spiral features in its circumstellar disk. Here, we present a deep imaging campaign with the Large Binocular Telescope with the primary goal of imaging the predicted planet. We present images of the disk in two epochs in the $L^{\prime}$ filter (3.8 $\mu m$) and a third epoch in the $M^{\prime}$ filter (4.8 $\mu m$). The two prominent spiral arms are detected in each observation, which constitute the first images of the disk at $M^\prime$, and the deepest yet in $L^\prime$ ($\Delta L^\prime=$12.1 exterior to the disk at 5$\sigma$ significance). We report the detection of a S/N$\sim$3.9 source near the end of the Sourthern arm, and, from the source's detection at a consistent position and brightness during multiple epochs, we establish a $\sim$90% confidence-level that the source is of astrophysical origin. We discuss the possibilities that this feature may be a) an unresolved disk feature, and b) a giant planet responsible for the spiral arms, with several arguments pointing in favor of the latter scenario. We present additional detection limits on companions exterior to the spiral arms, which suggest that a $\lesssim$4 M$_{Jup}$ planet exterior to the spiral arms could have escaped detection. Finally, we do not detect the companion candidate interior to the spiral arms reported recently by Reggiani et al. (2018), although forward modelling suggests that such a source would have likely been detected.

arXiv:1907.06657v1 [pdf, other]
Cosmological test of gravity using weak lensing voids
Comments: 10 pages, 5 figures, 1 table. Submitted to MNRAS

Modifications to General Relativity (GR) often incorporate screening mechanisms in order to remain compatible with existing tests of gravity. The screening is less efficient in underdense regions, which suggests that cosmic voids can be a useful cosmological probe for constraining modified gravity models. In particular, weak lensing by voids has been proposed as a promising test of such theories. Usually, voids are identified from galaxy distributions, making them biased tracers of the underlying matter field. An alternative approach is to study voids identified in weak lensing maps -- weak lensing voids -- which have been shown to better correspond to true underdense regions. In this paper, we study the ability of weak lensing voids to detect the signatures of modified gravity. Focusing on the void abundance and weak lensing profiles, we find that both statistics are sensitive probes of gravity. These are quantified in terms of the signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) with which an LSST-like survey will be able to distinguish between different gravity models. We find that the tangential shear profiles of weak lensing voids are considerably better than galaxy voids at this, though voids have somewhat lower SNR than weak lensing peaks. The abundances of voids and peaks have respectively $\rm{SNR} = 40$ and $50$ for a popular class of modified gravity in an LSST-like survey.

arXiv:1907.06658v1 [pdf, other]
A Space-based All-sky MeV gamma-ray Survey with the Electron Tracking Compton Camera
Comments: 14 pages, 5 figures, 1 table, Astro 2020 APC white paper

A sensitive survey of the MeV gamma-ray sky is needed to understand important astrophysical problems such as gamma-ray bursts in the early universe, progenitors of Type Ia supernovae, and the nature of dark matter. However, the study has not progressed remarkably since the limited survey by COMPTEL onboard CGRO in the 1990s. Tanimori et al. have developed a Compton camera that tracks the trajectory of each recoil electron in addition to the information obtained by the conventional Compton cameras, leading to superior imaging. This Electron Tracking Compton Camera (ETCC) facilitates accurate reconstruction of the incoming direction of each MeV photon from a wide sky at ~degree angular resolution and with minimized particle background using trajectory information. The latest ETCC model, SMILE-2+, made successful astronomical observations during a day balloon flight in 2018 April and detected diffuse continuum and 511 keV annihilation line emission from the Galactic Center region at a high significance in ~2.5 hours. We believe that MeV observations from space with upgraded ETCCs will dramatically improve our knowledge of the MeV universe. We advocate for a space-based all-sky survey mission with multiple ETCCs onboard and detail its expected benefits.

arXiv:1907.06660v1 [pdf, other]
Nekhoroshev Estimates for the Survival Time of Tightly Packed Planetary Systems
Comments: No comment found

$N$-body simulations of non-resonant tightly-packed planetary systems have found that their survival time (i.e. time to first close encounter) grows exponentially with their interplanetary spacing and planetary masses. Although this result has important consequences for the assembly of planetary systems by giants collisions and their long-term evolution, this underlying exponential dependence is not understood from first principles, and previous attempts based on orbital diffusion have only yielded power-law scalings. We propose a different picture, where the deviations of the system from its initial conditions is not limited by orbital diffusion, but by the lifetime of a series of confining barriers in phase-space---invariant KAM tori---that are slowly destroyed with time. Thus, we show that survival time of the system $T$ can be estimated using the Nekhoroshev's stability limit and obtain a heuristic formula for systems away from overlapping two-body mean-motion resonances as: $T/P=c_1 \frac{a}{\Delta a} \exp \left(c_2 \frac{\Delta a}{a} /\mu^{1/4}\right)$, where $P$ is the average Keplerian period, $a$ is the average semi major axis, $\Delta a\ll a$ is the difference between the semi major axes of neighbouring planets, $\mu$ is the planet to star mass ratio, and $c_1$ and $c_2$ are dimensionless constants. We show that this formula is in good agreement with numerical N-body experiments for $c_1=5 \cdot 10^{-4}$ and $c_2=8$, supporting our proposal that the lifetime of non-resonant planetary is primarily determined by the lifetime of KAM tori, which are likely destroyed by three-body resonances.

arXiv:1907.06662v1 [pdf, other]
A Substellar Companion to a Hot Star in K2's Campaign 0 Field
Comments: 12 pages, 12 figures, accepted for publication in PASP

The K2 mission has enabled searches for transits in crowded stellar environments very different from the original Kepler mission field. We describe here the reduction and analysis of time series data from K2's Campaign 0 superstamp, which contains the 150 Myr open cluster M35. We report on the identification of a substellar transiting object orbiting an A star at the periphery of the superstamp. To investigate this transiting source, we performed ground based follow-up observations, including photometry with the Las Cumbres Observatory telescope network and high resolution spectroscopy with Keck/HIRES. We confirm that the host star is a hot, rapidly rotating star, precluding precision radial velocity measurements. We nevertheless present a statistical validation of the planet or brown dwarf candidate using speckle interferometry from the WIYN telescope to rule out false positive stellar eclipsing binary scenarios. Based on parallax and proper motion data from Gaia Data Release 2 (DR2), we conclude that the star is not likely to be a member of M35, but instead is a background star around 100 pc behind the cluster. We present an updated ephemeris to enable future transit observations. We note that this is a rare system as a hot host star with a substellar companion. It has a high potential for future follow-up, including Doppler tomography and mid-infrared secondary transit observations.

arXiv:1907.06666v1 [pdf, other]
Measuring neutrino masses with large-scale structure: Euclid forecast with controlled theoretical error
Comments: 50 pages, 5 figures

We present a Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC) forecast for the precision of neutrino mass and cosmological parameter measurements with a Euclid-like galaxy clustering survey. We use a complete perturbation theory model for the galaxy one-loop power spectrum and tree-level bispectrum, which includes bias, redshift space distortions, IR resummation for baryon acoustic oscillations and UV counterterms. The latter encapsulate various effects of short-scale dynamics which cannot be modeled within perturbation theory. Our MCMC procedure consistently computes the non-linear power spectra and bispectra as we scan over different cosmologies. The second ingredient of our approach is the theoretical error covariance which captures uncertainties due to higher-order non-linear corrections omitted in our model. Having specified characteristics of a Euclid-like spectroscopic survey, we generate and fit mock galaxy power spectrum and bispectrum likelihoods. Our results suggest that even under very agnostic assumptions about non-linearities and short-scale physics a future Euclid-like survey will be able to measure the sum of neutrino masses with a standard deviation of 28 meV. When combined with the most recent Planck likelihood, this uncertainty decreases to 19meV. Reducing the theoretical error on the bispectrum down to the two-loop level marginally tightens the bound to 17 meV.

arXiv:1907.06669v1 [pdf, other]
Understanding Broad Mg II Variability in Quasars with Photoionization
Comments: 16 pages, 10 figures, submitted to ApJ, comments welcome

The broad Mg II line in quasars has distinct variability properties compared with broad Balmer lines: it is less variable, and usually does not display a "breathing" mode, the increase in the average cloud distance when luminosity increases. We demonstrate that these variability properties of Mg II can be reasonably well explained by simple Locally Optimally Emitting Cloud (LOC) photoionization models. In our fiducial LOC model, the Mg II-emitting gas is on average more distant from the ionizing source than the $H{\alpha}$/$H{\beta}$ gas, and responds with a lower amplitude to continuum variations. If the broad-line region (BLR) is truncated at a physical radius of $\sim 0.1$ pc (for a $10^8M_{\odot}$ BH accreting at Eddington ratio of 0.1), most of the Mg II flux will always be emitted near this outer boundary and hence will not display breathing. These results indicate that reverberation mapping results on broad Mg II, while generally more difficult to obtain due to the lower line responsivity, can still be used to infer the Mg II BLR size and hence black hole mass. But it is possible that Mg II does not have a well defined intrinsic BLR size-luminosity relation for individual quasars, even though a global one for the general population may still exist. The dramatic changes in broad $H{\alpha}$/$H{\beta}$ emission in the observationally-rare changing-look quasars are fully consistent with photoionization responses to extreme continuum variability, and the LOC model provides natural explanations for the persistence of broad Mg II in changing-look quasars defined on $H{\alpha}$/$H{\beta}$, and the rare population of broad Mg II emitters in the spectra of massive inactive galaxies.

arXiv:1907.06674v1 [pdf, other]
Death by Dark Matter
Comments: 3 pages, 1 figure

Macroscopic dark matter refers to a variety of dark matter candidates that would be expected to (elastically) scatter off of ordinary matter with a large geometric cross-section. A wide range of macro masses $M_X$ and cross-sections $\sigma_X$ remain unprobed. We show that over a wide region within the unexplored parameter space, collisions of a macro with a human body would result in serious injury or death. We use the absence of such unexplained impacts with a well-monitored subset of the human population to exclude a region bounded by $\sigma_X \geq 10^{-8} - 10^{-7}$ cm$^2$ and $M_X < 50$ kg. Our results open a new window on dark matter: the human body as a dark matter detector.

arXiv:1907.06675v1 [pdf, other]
Synchrotron self-Compton as a likely mechanism of photons beyond the synchrotron limit in GRB 190114C
Comments: 14 pages, 4 figures. Submitted to ApJ

GRB 190114C, a long and luminous burst, was detected by several satellites and ground-based telescopes from radio wavelengths to GeV gamma-rays. In the GeV gamma-rays, the Fermi LAT detected 48 photons above 1 GeV during the first hundred seconds after the trigger time, and the MAGIC telescopes observed for more than one thousand seconds very-high-energy (VHE) emission above 300 GeV. Previous analysis of the multi-wavelength observations showed that although these are consistent with the synchrotron forward-shock model that evolves from a stratified stellar-wind to homogeneous ISM-like medium, photons above few GeVs can hardly be interpreted in the synchrotron framework. In the context of the synchrotron forward-shock model, we derive the light curves and spectra of the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model in the stratified and homogeneous medium. In particular, we study the evolution of these light curves during the stratified-to-homogeneous afterglow transition. Using the best-fit parameters reported for GRB 190114C we interpret the photons beyond the synchrotron limit in the SSC framework and model its spectral energy distribution. We conclude that low-redshift GRBs described under a favourable set of parameters as found in the early afterglow of GRB 190114C could be detected at hundreds of GeVs, and also afterglow transitions would allow that VHE emission could be observed for longer periods.

arXiv:1907.06676v1 [pdf, other]
Spectral Energy Distributions of Candidate Periodically-Variable Quasars: Testing the Binary Black Hole Hypothesis
Comments: 13 pages, 8 figures, 2 tables, submitted to MNRAS, comments welcome

Periodic quasars are candidates for binary supermassive black holes (BSBHs) efficiently emitting low frequency gravitational waves. Recently, $\sim$150 candidates were identified from optical synoptic surveys. However, they may be false positives caused by stochastic quasar variability given the few cycles covered (typically 1.5). To independently test the binary hypothesis, we search for evidence of truncated or gapped circumbinary accretion disks (CBDs) in their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Our work is motivated by CBD simulations that predict flux deficits as cutoffs from central cavities opened by secondaries or notches from minidisks around both BHs. We find that candidate periodic quasars show SEDs similar to those of control quasars matched in redshift and luminosity. While seven of 138 candidates show a blue cutoff in the IR-optical-UV SED, which may represent CBDs with central cavities, the red SED fraction is similar to that in control quasars, suggesting no correlation between periodicity and SED anomaly. Alternatively, dust reddening may cause red SEDs. The fraction of extremely radio-loud quasars, i.e., blazars (with $R>100$), is tentatively higher than that in control quasars (at 2.5$\sigma$). Our results suggest that, assuming most periodic candidates are robust, IR-optical-UV SEDs of CBDs are similar to those of accretion disks of single BHs, if the periodicity is driven by BSBHs; the higher blazar fraction may signal precessing radio jets. Alternatively, most current candidate periodic quasars identified from few-cycle light curves may be false positives. Their tentatively higher blazar fraction and lower Eddington ratios may both be caused by selection biases.

arXiv:1907.06678v1 [pdf, other]
Remote Dipole Field Reconstruction with Dusty Galaxies
Comments: 13 pages, 8 figures

The kinetic Sunyaev Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect, cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies induced by scattering of CMB photons from free electrons, forms the dominant blackbody component of the CMB on small angular scales. Future CMB experiments on the resolution/sensitivity frontier will measure the kSZ effect with high significance. Through the cross-correlation with tracers of structure, it will be possible to reconstruct the remote CMB dipole field (e.g. the CMB dipole observed at different locations in the Universe) using the technique of kSZ tomography. In this paper, we derive a quadratic estimator for the remote dipole field using the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) as a tracer of structure. We forecast the ability of current and next-generation measurements of the CMB and CIB to perform kSZ tomography. The total signal-to-noise of the reconstruction is order unity for current datasets, and can improve by a factor of up to $10^3$ for future datasets, based on statistical error only. The CIB-based reconstruction is highly correlated with a galaxy survey-based reconstruction of the remote dipole field, which can be exploited to improve constraints on cosmological parameters and models for the CIB and distribution of baryons.

arXiv:1907.06682v1 [pdf, other]
On the origin of the gamma-ray emission from Omega Centauri: Milisecond pulsars and dark matter annihilation
Comments: 13 pages, 5 figures

We explore two possible scenarios to explain the observed gamma-ray emission associated with the atypical globular cluster Omega-Centauri: emission from millisecond pulsars (MSP) and dark matter (DM) annihilation. In the first case the total number of MSPs needed to produce the gamma-ray flux is compatible with the known (but not confirmed) MSP candidates observed in X-rays. A DM interpretation is motivated by the possibility of Omega-Centauri being the remnant core of an ancient dwarf galaxy hosting a surviving DM component. At least two annihilation channels, light quarks and muons, can plausibly produce the observed gama-ray spectrum. We outline constraints on the parameter space of DM mass versus the product of the pair-annihilation cross section and integrated squared DM density (the so-called J-factor). We translate upper limits on the dark matter content of Omega-Centauri into lower limits on the annihilation cross section. This shows s-wave annihilation into muons to be inconsistent with CMB observations, while a small window for annihilation into light quarks is allowed. Further analysis of Omega-Centauri's internal kinematics, and/or additional information on the resident MSP population will yield much stronger constraints and shed light about the origin of this otherwise mysterious gamma-ray source.

arXiv:1907.06686v1 [pdf, other]
STACEX: RPC-based detector for a multi-messenger observatory in the Southern Hemisphere
Comments: Proc. of 36th International Cosmic Ray Conference -ICRC2019, July 24th - August 1st, 2019 Madison, WI, U.S.A

Extensice Air Shower (EAS) arrays are survey instruments able to monitor continuously all the overhead sky. Their wide field of view (about 2 sr) is ideal to complement directional detectors by performing unbiased sky surveys, by monitoring variable or flaring sources, such as AGNs, and to discover transients or explosive events (GRBs). With an energy threshold in the 100 GeV range EAS arrays are transient factories. All EAS arrays presently in operation or under installation are located in the Northern hemisphere. A new survey instrument located in the Southern Hemisphere should be a high priority to monitor the Inner Galaxy and the Galactic Center. STACEX is the proposal of a hybrid detector with ARGO-like RPCs coupled to Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCDs) mainly to lower the energy threshold at 100 GeV level. In this contribution we introduce the possibility of improving the low energy sensitivity of survey instruments by equipping RPCs, which were proved to be optimal detectors at 100 GeV energies by the ARGO-YBJ Collaboration, with WCDs. An EAS detector with high sensitivity between 100 GeV and 1 TeV would be a valuable complementary transient detector in the CTA era.

arXiv:1907.06687v1 [pdf, other]
The diverse lives of progenitors of hydrogen-rich core-collapse supernovae: the role of binary interaction
Comments: The paper has been accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics

Hydrogen-rich supernovae, known as Type II (SNe II), are the most common class of explosions observed following the collapse of the core of massive stars. We use analytical estimates and population synthesis simulations to assess the fraction of SNe II progenitors that are expected to have exchanged mass with a companion prior to explosion. We estimate that 1/3 to 1/2 of SN II progenitors have a history of mass exchange with a binary companion before exploding. The dominant binary channels leading to SN II progenitors involve the merger of binary stars. Mergers are expected to produce a diversity of SN II progenitor characteristics, depending on the evolutionary timing and properties of the merger. Alternatively, SN II progenitors from interacting binaries may have accreted mass from their companion, and subsequently been ejected from the binary system after their companion exploded. We show that the overall fraction of SN II progenitors that are predicted to have experienced binary interaction is robust against the main physical uncertainties in our models. However, the relative importance of different binary evolutionary channels is affected by changing physical assumptions. We further discuss ways in which binarity might contribute to the observed diversity of SNe II by considering potential observational signatures arising from each binary channel. For supernovae which have a substantial H-rich envelope at explosion (i.e., excluding Type IIb SNe), a surviving non-compact companion would typically indicate that the supernova progenitor star was in a wide, non-interacting binary. We argue that a significant fraction of even Type II-P SNe are expected to have gained mass from a companion prior to explosion.

arXiv:1907.06714v1 [pdf, other]
Search for Sources of Astrophysical Neutrinos Using Seven Years of IceCube Cascade Events
M. G. Aartsen, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, I. Ansseau, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, J. Auffenberg, S. Axani, P. Backes, H. Bagherpour, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., A. Barbano, S. W. Barwick, B. Bastian, V. Baum, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, C. Bohm, M. Börner, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, A. Burgman, J. Buscher, R. S. Busse, T. Carver, C. Chen, E. Cheung, D. Chirkin, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, P. Dave, J. P. A. M. de André, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, S. De Ridder, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, E. Dvorak, B. Eberhardt, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, P. A. Evenson, S. Fahey, A. R. Fazely, J. Felde, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, K. Ghorbani, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, D. Grant, Z. Griffith, M. Günder, M. Gündüz, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, L. Halve, F. Halzen, K. Hanson, A. Haungs, D. Hebecker, D. Heereman, P. Heix, K. Helbing, R. Hellauer, F. Henningsen, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, T. Hoinka, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, K. Jero, B. J. P. Jones, F. Jonske, R. Joppe, D. Kang, W. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, J. Kim, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, T. Kittler, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, M. Kowalski, K. Krings, G. Krückl, N. Kulacz, N. Kurahashi, A. Kyriacou, M. Labare, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, K. Leonard, A. Leszczyńska, M. Leuermann, Q. R. Liu, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, J. Lünemann, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, G. Maggi, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, P. Mallik, K. Mallot, S. Mancina, I. C. Mariş, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, R. Maunu, F. McNally, K. Meagher, M. Medici, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, T. Menne, G. Merino, T. Meures, J. Micallef, G. Momenté, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, P. Muth, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, G. Neer, H. Niederhausen, S. C. Nowicki, D. R. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, A. Olivas, A. O'Murchadha, E. O'Sullivan, T. Palczewski, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, P. Peiffer, C. Pérez de los Heros, S. Philippen, D. Pieloth, E. Pinat, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, A. Porcelli, P. B. Price, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, L. Rauch, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, R. Reimann, B. Relethford, M. Renschler, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, W. Rhode, M. Richman, S. Robertson, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, D. Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk, I. Safa, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, P. Schlunder, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, S. Shefali, M. Silva, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, M. Song, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, P. Steinmüller, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, A. Stößl, N. L. Strotjohann, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, F. Tenholt, S. Ter-Antonyan, A. Terliuk, S. Tilav, L. Tomankova, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, B. Ty, E. Unger, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, M. Usner, J. Vandenbroucke, W. Van Driessche, D. van Eijk, N. van Eijndhoven, S. Vanheule, J. van Santen, M. Vraeghe, C. Walck, A. Wallace, M. Wallraff, N. Wandkowsky, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, B. J. Whelan, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, L. Wille, D. R. Williams, L. Wills, M. Wolf, J. Wood, T. R. Wood, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, D. L. Xu, X. W. Xu, Y. Xu, J. P. Yanez, G. Yodh, S. Yoshida, T. Yuan, M. Zöcklein
Comments: 16 pages, 8 figures, 3 tables

Low background searches for astrophysical neutrino sources anywhere in the sky can be performed using cascade events induced by neutrinos of all flavors interacting in IceCube with energies as low as ~1 TeV. Previously, we showed that even with just two years of data, the resulting sensitivity to sources in the southern sky is competitive with IceCube and ANTARES analyses using muon tracks induced by charge current muon neutrino interactions - especially if the neutrino emission follows a soft energy spectrum or originates from an extended angular region. Here, we extend that work by adding five more years of data, significantly improving the cascade angular resolution, and including tests for point-like or diffuse Galactic emission to which this dataset is particularly well-suited. For many of the signal candidates considered, this analysis is the most sensitive of any experiment. No significant clustering was observed, and thus many of the resulting constraints are the most stringent to date. In this paper we will describe the improvements introduced in this analysis and discuss our results in the context of other recent work in neutrino astronomy.

arXiv:1907.06715v1 [pdf, other]
2020 Vision: Towards a Sustainable OIR System
Comments: Astro2020 APC White Paper

Open-access telescopes of all apertures are needed to operate a competitive and efficient national science program. While larger facilities contribute light-gathering power and angular resolution, smaller ones dominate for field of view, time-resolution, and especially, total available observing time, thereby enabling our entire, diversely-expert community. Smaller aperture telescopes therefore play a critical and indispensable role in advancing science. Thus, the divestment of NSF support for modest-aperture (1 - 4 m) public telescopes poses a serious threat to U.S. scientific leadership, which is compounded by the unknown consequences of the shift from observations driven by individual investigators to survey-driven science. Given the much higher cost efficiency and dramatic science returns for investments in modest aperture telescopes, it is hard to justify funding only the most expensive facilities. We therefore urge the Astro2020 panel to explicitly make the case for modest aperture facilities, and to recommend enhancing this funding stream to support and grow this critical component of the OIR System. Further study is urgently needed to prioritize the numerous exciting potential capabilities of smaller facilities,and to establish sustainable, long-term planning for the System.

arXiv:1907.06717v1 [pdf, other]
Evolved Massive Stars at Low-metallicity I. A Source Catalog for the Small Magellanic Cloud
Comments: 19 pages, 17 figures, A&A accepted, catalogs are included in the ancillary files

We present a clean, magnitude-limited (IRAC1 or WISE1 $\leq$ 15.0 mag) multiwavelength source catalog for the SMC with 45,466 targets in total, with the purpose of building an anchor for future studies, especially for the massive star populations at low-metallicity. The catalog contains data in 50 different bands including 21 optical and 29 infrared bands, ranging from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared. Additionally, radial velocities and spectral classifications were collected from the literature, as well as infrared and optical variability statistics were retrieved from different projects. The catalog was essentially built upon a $1''$ crossmatching and a $3''$ deblending between the SEIP source list and Gaia DR2 photometric data. Further constraints on the proper motions and parallaxes from Gaia DR2 allowed us to remove the foreground contamination. We estimated that about 99.5\% of the targets in our catalog were most likely genuine members of the SMC. By using the evolutionary tracks and synthetic photometry from MIST and the theoretical $\rm J-K_S$ color cuts, we identified 1,405 RSG, 217 YSG and 1,369 BSG candidates in the SMC in five different CMDs, where attention should also be paid to the incompleteness of our sample. We ranked the candidates based on the intersection of different CMDs. A comparison between the models and observational data shows that the lower limit of initial mass for the RSGs population may be as low as 7 or even 6 $M_{\odot}$ and the RSG is well separated from the AGB population even at faint magnitude, making RSGs a unique population connecting the evolved massive and intermediate stars, since stars with initial mass around 6 to 8 $M_{\odot}$ are thought to go through a second dredge-up to become AGBs. We encourage the interested reader to further exploit the potential of our catalog.

arXiv:1907.06753v1 [pdf, other]
SN 2012dn from early to late times: 09dc-like supernovae reassessed
Comments: 16 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication by MNRAS

As a candidate 'super-Chandrasekhar' or 09dc-like Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), SN 2012dn shares many characteristics with other members of this remarkable class of objects but lacks their extraordinary luminosity. Here, we present and discuss the most comprehensive optical data set of this SN to date, comprised of a densely sampled series of early-time spectra obtained within the Nearby Supernova Factory project, plus photometry and spectroscopy obtained at the VLT about 1 yr after the explosion. The light curves, colour curves, spectral time series and ejecta velocities of SN 2012dn are compared with those of other 09dc-like and normal SNe Ia, the overall variety within the class of 09dc-like SNe Ia is discussed, and new criteria for 09dc-likeness are proposed. Particular attention is directed to additional insight that the late-phase data provide. The nebular spectra show forbidden lines of oxygen and calcium, elements that are usually not seen in late-time spectra of SNe Ia, while the ionisation state of the emitting iron plasma is low, pointing to low ejecta temperatures and high densities. The optical light curves are characterised by an enhanced fading starting ~60 d after maximum and very low luminosities in the nebular phase, which is most readily explained by unusually early formation of clumpy dust in the ejecta. Taken together, these effects suggest a strongly perturbed ejecta density profile, which might lend support to the idea that 09dc-like characteristics arise from a brief episode of interaction with a hydrogen-deficient envelope during the first hours or days after the explosion.

arXiv:1907.06754v1 [pdf, other]
Integrating Undergraduate Research and Faculty Development in a Legacy Astronomy Research Project
Comments: Astro2020 White Paper submission, 12 pages

The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA Team (UAT) promotes long-term collaborative research opportunities for faculty and students from 23 U.S. public and private primarily undergraduate institutions (PUIs) within the context of the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind legacy survey project. Over twelve project years of partnering with Arecibo and Green Bank Observatories, the UAT has had a demonstrable impact on the health of a legacy astronomy project, science education, and equity/inclusion in astronomy, with successful outcomes for 373 UAT students (39% women; ~30% members of underrepresented groups) and 34 faculty (44% women). The UAT model is adaptable to many large scientific projects and can be supported by relatively modest funding. We recommend that granting agencies identify funding resources to support the model, either as an add-on to legacy grant support or as a stand-alone funding source. This could include encouragement of UAT-like components in large scale projects currently being developed, such as the LSST and TMT. By doing this, we will recognize the high numbers of astronomy research-trained heavy-teaching-load faculty at PUIs as an under-utilized resource of the astronomy community (see also White Paper by Ribaudo et al.). These members of our community have the skills and the strong desire to contribute meaningfully to their field, as well as the ability to encourage and interact closely with many talented and motivated undergraduate students from all backgrounds.

arXiv:1907.06756v1 [pdf, other]
Magnification, dust and time-delay constraints from the first resolved strongly lensed Type Ia supernova
Comments: 18 pages, 8 figures (including 2 in the Appendices), submitted to MNRAS, comments welcome!

We report lensing magnifications, extinction, and time-delay estimates for the first resolved, multiply-imaged Type Ia supernova iPTF16geu, at $z = 0.409$, using $Hubble\,Space\,Telescope$ ($HST$) observations in combination with supporting ground-based data. Multi-band photometry of the resolved images provides unique information about the differential dimming due to dust in the lensing galaxy. Using $HST$ and Keck AO reference images taken after the SN faded, we obtain a total lensing magnification for iPTF16geu of $\mu = 67.8^{+2.6}_{-2.9}$, accounting for extinction in the host and lensing galaxy. As expected from the symmetry of the system, we measure very short time-delays for the three fainter images with respect to the brightest one: -0.23 $\pm$ 0.99, -1.43 $\pm$ 0.74 and 1.36 $\pm$ 1.07 days. Interestingly, we find large differences between the magnifications of the four supernova images, even after accounting for uncertainties in the extinction corrections: $\Delta m_1 = -3.88^{+0.07}_{-0.06}$, $\Delta m_2 = -2.99^{+0.09}_{-0.08}$, $\Delta m_3 = -2.19^{+0.14}_{-0.15}$ and $\Delta m_4 = -2.40^{+0.14}_{-0.12}$ mag, discrepant with model predictions suggesting similar image brightnesses. A possible explanation for the large differences is gravitational lensing by substructures, micro- or millilensing, in addition to the large scale lens causing the image separations. We find that the inferred magnification is insensitive to the assumptions about the dust properties in the host and lens galaxy.

arXiv:1907.06767v1 [pdf, other]
Searching for Wide Companions and Identifying Circum(sub)stellar Disks through PSF-Fitting of Spitzer/IRAC Archival Images
Comments: Accepted to AJ, 23 pages, 14 figures

Direct imaging surveys have discovered wide-orbit planetary-mass companions that challenge existing models of both star and planet formation, but their demographics remain poorly sampled. We have developed an automated binary companion point spread function (PSF) fitting pipeline to take advantage of Spitzer's infrared sensitivity to planetary-mass objects and circum(sub)stellar disks, measuring photometry across the four IRAC channels of 3.6 $\mu$m, 4.5 $\mu$m, 5.8 $\mu$m, and 8.0 $\mu$m. We present PSF-fitting photometry of archival Spitzer/IRAC images for 11 young, low-mass ($M\sim0.044$-0.88 $M_{\odot}$; M7.5-K3.5) members of three nearby star-forming regions (Chameleon, Taurus, and Upper Scorpius; $d\sim$ 150 pc; $\tau\sim$ 1-10 Myr) that host confirmed or candidate faint companions at $\rho = 1.68^{\prime\prime}-7.31^{\prime\prime}$. We recover all system primaries, six confirmed, and two candidate low-mass companions in our sample. We also measure non-photospheric $[3.6]-[8.0]$ colors for three of the system primaries, four of the confirmed companions, and one candidate companion, signifying the presence of circumstellar or circum(sub)stellar disks. We furthermore report the confirmation of a $\rho=4.66^{\prime\prime}$ (540 au) companion to [SCH06] J0359+2009 which was previously identified as a candidate via imaging over five years ago, but was not studied further. Based on its brightness ($M_{[3.6]}=8.53$ mag), we infer the companion mass to be $M=20\pm5$ $M_\mathrm{Jup}$ given the primary's model-derived age of 10 Myr. Our framework is sensitive to companions with masses less than 10 $M_\mathrm{Jup}$ at separations of $\rho = 300$ au in nearby star-forming regions, opening up a new regime of parameter space that has yet to be studied in detail, discovering planetary-mass companions in their birth environments and revealing their circum(sub)stellar disks.

arXiv:1907.06769v1 [pdf, other]
Astro2020: Promoting Diversity and Inclusion in Astronomy Graduate Education: an Astro2020 APC White Paper by the AAS Taskforce on Diversity and Inclusion in Astronomy Graduate Education
Comments: 10 pages

The purpose of this white paper is to provide guidance to funding agencies, leaders in the discipline, and its constituent departments about strategies for (1) improving access to advanced education for people from populations that have long been underrepresented and (2) improving the climates of departments where students enroll. The twin goals of improving access to increase diversity and improving climate to enhance inclusiveness are mutually reinforcing, and they are both predicated on a fundamental problem of inequality in participation. This white paper has been endorsed by the Board of Trustees of the AAS.

arXiv:1907.06797v1 [pdf, other]
SpecTel: A 10-12 meter class Spectroscopic Survey Telescope
Comments: Submitted to the Astro2020 Decadal Survey as a facilities white paper

We recommend a conceptual design study for a spectroscopic facility in the southern hemisphere comprising a large diameter telescope, fiber system, and spectrographs collectively optimized for massively-multiplexed spectroscopy. As a baseline, we propose an 11.4-meter aperture, optical spectroscopic survey telescope with a five square degree field of view. Using current technologies, the facility could be equipped with 15,000 robotically-controlled fibers feeding spectrographs over 360<lambda<1330 nm with options for fiber-fed spectrographs at high resolution and a panoramic IFU at a separate focus. This would enable transformational progress via its ability to access a larger fraction of objects from Gaia, LSST, Euclid, and WFIRST than any currently funded or planned spectroscopic facility. An ESO-sponsored study (arXiv:1701.01976) discussed the scientific potential in ambitious new spectroscopic surveys in Galactic astronomy, extragalactic astronomy, and cosmology. The US community should establish links with European and other international communities to plan for such a powerful facility and maximize the potential of large aperture multi-object spectroscopy given the considerable investment in deep imaging surveys.

arXiv:1907.06798v1 [pdf, other]
Maintaining Capabilities in CCD Production for the Astronomy Community
Comments: submitted to the Astro2020 Decadal Survey as a state of the profession white paper, with emphasis on CCD fabrication

CCD detectors play a vital role in all aspects of optical astronomy. Critical to advancing research is the ability to partner with commercial foundries to produce custom devices that meet the needs of specific instruments. For more than 20 years, Teledyne DALSA Semiconductor was the primary industrial partner in the manufacturing of 150 mm wafers for CCDs. DALSA is migrating the manufacturing from 150mm to 200mm wafer diameter and will not be updating their CCD processing tools for the new format wafer. As a result, DALSA will no longer serve as a partner to the astronomy community in the manufacturing of CCDs. We recommend that the Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, and NASA jointly pursue a new commercial partner in CCD fabrication to maintain capabilities in custom CCD design for astronomy applications.

arXiv:1907.06807v1 [pdf, other]
Collision of ultra-relativistic proton with strong magnetic field: production of ultra-high energy photons and neutrinos
Comments: 14 pages, 3 figures

Proton-proton interaction and photo-hadronic interaction in cosmic accelerators are the two main channels for the production of cosmic ultra-high energy photons and neutrinos (TeV-PeV). In this Letter, we use FWW approach to obtain the production of cosmic ultra-high energy photons and neutrinos from the collision between UHE proton with magnetic field which could be considered as the virtualphoton in the rest frame of UHE proton. We name this as $pB$ process. The threshold for the occurrence of the $pB$ process is that the combination of the Lorentz factor of proton and the strength of the magnetic field is about $\gamma_p B \simeq 5\times 10^{18}$Gauss. Beyond this threshold, the rate of energy loss of proton due to the $pB$ process is about three orders higher than that due to the synchrotron radiation of proton in the same magnetic field. The $pB$ process might potentially happen in the atmosphere of white dwarfs, neutron stars or even that of stellar massive black holes.

arXiv:1907.06822v1 [pdf, other]
Clumpy galaxies in cosmological simulations: The effect of ISM model
Comments: 12 pages plus Appendix, 10 figures, 1 table, resubmitted to MNRAS after addressing the first round of comments by the referee

We study influence by models of inter-stellar medium (ISM) on properties of galaxies in cosmological simulations. We examine three models widely used in previous studies. The ISM models impose different equations of state on dense gas. Using zoom-in simulations, we demonstrate that switching the ISM models can control formation of giant clumps in massive discs at redshifts $z\sim1$--$2$ while their initial conditions and the other settings such as stellar feedback are unchanged. Thus, not only feedback but ISM models can also be responsible for clumpy morphologies of simulated galaxies. We find, however, that changing the ISM models hardly affects global properties of galaxies, such as the total stellar and gas masses, star formation rate, metallicity and stellar angular momentum, irrespective of the significant difference of clumpiness; namely the ISM models only change clumpiness of discs. In addition, our approach provides a test to investigate impact by clump formation on the evolution of disc galaxies using the same initial conditions and feedback. We find that clump formation does not significantly alter the properties of galaxies and therefore could not be the causes of starburst or quenching.

arXiv:1907.06830v1 [pdf, other]
Strong gravitational lensing of explosive transients
Comments: 43 pages, 20 figures, an invited review to be submitted, comments are welcome

Recent rapid progress in time domain surveys makes it possible to detect various types of explosive transients in the Universe in large numbers, some of which will be gravitationally lensed into multiple images. Although a large number of strongly lensed distant galaxies and quasars have already been discovered, strong lensing of explosive transients opens up new applications, including improved measurements of cosmological parameters, powerful probes of small scale structure of the Universe, and new observational tests of dark matter scenarios, thanks to their rapidly evolving light curves as well as their compact sizes. In particular, the compactness of these transient events indicates that the wave optics effect plays an important role in some cases, which can lead to totally new applications of these lensing events. Recently we have witnessed first discoveries of strongly lensed supernovae, and strong lensing events of other types of explosive transients such as gamma-ray bursts, fast radio bursts, and gravitational waves from compact binary mergers are expected to be observed soon. In this review article, we summarize the current state of research on strong gravitational lensing of explosive transients and discuss future prospects.

arXiv:1907.06841v1 [pdf, other]
Merging Rates of Compact Binaries in Galaxies: Perspectives for Gravitational Wave Detections
Comments: 23 pages, 10 figures. Accepted by ApJ

We investigate the merging rates of compact binaries in galaxies, and the related detection rate of gravitational wave (GW) events with AdvLIGO/Virgo and with the Einstein Telescope. To this purpose, we rely on three basic ingredients: (i) the redshift-dependent galaxy statistics provided by the latest determination of the star formation rate functions from UV+far-IR/(sub)millimeter/radio data; (ii) star formation and chemical enrichment histories for individual galaxies, modeled on the basis of observations; (iii) compact remnant mass distribution and prescriptions for merging of compact binaries from stellar evolution simulations. We present results for the intrinsic birthrate of compact remnants, the merging rates of compact binaries, GW detection rates and GW counts, attempting to differentiate the outcomes among BH-BH, NS-NS, and BH-NS mergers, and to estimate their occurrence in disk and spheroidal host galaxies. We compare our approach with the one based on cosmic SFR density and cosmic metallicity, exploited by many literature studies; the merging rates from the two approaches are in agreement within the overall astrophysical uncertainties. We also investigate the effects of galaxy-scale strong gravitational lensing of GW in enhancing the rate of detectable events toward high-redshift. Finally, we discuss the contribution of undetected GW emission from compact binary mergers to the stochastic background.

arXiv:1907.06842v1 [pdf, other]
GRID: a Student Project to Monitor the Transient Gamma-Ray Sky in the Multi-Messenger Astronomy Era
Jiaxing Wen, Xiangyun Long, Xutao Zheng, Yu An, Zhengyang Cai, Jirong Cang, Yuepeng Che, Changyu Chen, Liangjun Chen, Qianjun Chen, Ziyun Chen, Yingjie Cheng, Litao Deng, Wei Deng, Wenqing Ding, Hangci Du, Lian Duan, Quan Gan, Tai Gao, Zhiying Gao, Wenbin Han, Yiying Han, Xinbo He, Xinhao He, Long Hou, Fan Hu, Junling Hu, Bo Huang, Dongyang Huang, Xuefeng Huang, Shihai Jia, Yuchen Jiang, Yifei Jin, Ke Li, Siyao Li, Yurong Li, Jianwei Liang, Yuanyuan Liang, Wei Lin, Chang Liu, Gang Liu, Mengyuan Liu, Rui Liu, Tianyu Liu, Wanqiang Liu, Di'an Lu, Peiyibin Lu, Zhiyong Lu, Xiyu Luo, Sizheng Ma, Yuanhang Ma, Xiaoqing Mao, Yanshan Mo, Qiyuan Nie, Shuiyin Qu, Xiaolong Shan, Gengyuan Shi, Weiming Song, Zhigang Sun, Xuelin Tan, Songsong Tang, Mingrui Tao, Boqin Wang, Yue Wang, Zhiang Wang, Qiaoya Wu, Xuanyi Wu, Yuehan Xia, Hengyuan Xiao, Wenjin Xie, Dacheng Xu, Rui Xu, Weili Xu, Longbiao Yan, Shengyu Yan, Dongxin Yang, Hang Yang, Haoguang Yang, Yi-Si Yang, Yifan Yang, Lei Yao, Huan Yu, Yangyi Yu, Aiqiang Zhang, Bingtao Zhang, Lixuan Zhang, Maoxing Zhang, Shen Zhang, Tianliang Zhang, Yuchong Zhang, Qianru Zhao, Ruining Zhao, Shiyu Zheng, Xiaolong Zhou, Runyu Zhu, Yu Zou, Peng An, Yifu Cai, Hongbing Chen, Zigao Dai, Yizhong Fan, Changqing Feng, Hua Feng, He Gao, Liang Huang, Mingming Kang, Lixin Li, Zhuo Li, Enwei Liang, Lin Lin, Qianqian Lin, Congzhan Liu, Hongbang Liu, Xuewen Liu, Yinong Liu, Xiang Lu, Shude Mao, Rongfeng Shen, Jing Shu, Meng Su, Hui Sun, Pak-Hin Tam, Chi-Pui Tang, Yang Tian, Fayin Wang, Jianjun Wang, Wei Wang, Zhonghai Wang, Jianfeng Wu, Xuefeng Wu, Shaolin Xiong, Can Xu, Jiandong Yu, Wenfei Yu, Yunwei Yu, Ming Zeng, Zhi Zeng, Bin-Bin Zhang, Bing Zhang, Zongqing Zhao, Rong Zhou, Zonghong Zhu
Comments: accepted for publication in Experimental Astronomy

The Gamma-Ray Integrated Detectors (GRID) is a space mission concept dedicated to monitoring the transient gamma-ray sky in the energy range from 10 keV to 2 MeV using scintillation detectors onboard CubeSats in low Earth orbits. The primary targets of GRID are the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the local universe. The scientific goal of GRID is, in synergy with ground-based gravitational wave (GW) detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, to accumulate a sample of GRBs associated with the merger of two compact stars and study jets and related physics of those objects. It also involves observing and studying other gamma-ray transients such as long GRBs, soft gamma-ray repeaters, terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, and solar flares. With multiple CubeSats in various orbits, GRID is unaffected by the Earth occultation and serves as a full-time and all-sky monitor. Assuming a horizon of 200 Mpc for ground-based GW detectors, we expect to see a few associated GW-GRB events per year. With about 10 CubeSats in operation, GRID is capable of localizing a faint GRB like 170817A with a 90% error radius of about 10 degrees, through triangulation and flux modulation. GRID is proposed and developed by students, with considerable contribution from undergraduate students, and will remain operated as a student project in the future. The current GRID collaboration involves more than 20 institutes and keeps growing. On August 29th, the first GRID detector onboard a CubeSat was launched into a Sun-synchronous orbit and is currently under test.

arXiv:1907.06866v1 [pdf, other]
Probing antigravitational effects through CP violation on the Moon
Comments: No comment found

The environment on the Moon has numerous features that make it interesting not only for the study of astrophysical phenomena, but also elementary particle physics. In fact, vacuum conditions, low gravity, and exposure to a relatively intense irradiation of cosmic protons covering a large energy spectrum, make the lunar environment attractive for a wide range of particle physics experiments otherwise unworkable on Earth. We suggest one such experiment measuring the difference between the amount of CP violation as measured on the surface of the Earth and on the surface of the Moon, which could indicate quantum gravitational effects

arXiv:1907.06872v1 [pdf, other]
Open cluster survey within 1 kpc by the Gaia DR2
Comments: No comment found

We conducted a survey of open clusters within 1 kpc from the Sun using the astrometric and photometric data of Gaia DR2. We found 664 cluster candidates by visual inspection of the stellar distributions in proper motion space and spatial distributions in l-b space. All of the 664 cluster candidates have a well defined main-sequence except for two candidates if we consider that the main sequence of very young clusters are somewhat broad due to differential extinctions. Cross-matching of 662 open clusters with known open clusters in various catalogs resulted in 209 new open clusters. We present the basic data of newly discovered open clusters along with a brief description of the property of the new clusters. The majority of newly discovered open clusters have young and intermediate ages and they are likely to have member stars less than ~50.

arXiv:1907.06888v1 [pdf, other]
A comparison between the two lobes of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko based on D/H ratios in H2O measured with the Rosetta/ROSINA DFMS
Comments: 10 pages, 6 figures. Submitted to MNRAS

The nucleus of the Jupiter-family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko was discovered to be bi-lobate in shape when the European Space Agency spacecraft Rosetta first approached it in July 2014. The bi-lobate structure of the cometary nucleus has led to much discussion regarding the possible manner of its formation and on how the composition of each lobe might compare with that of the other. During its two-year-long mission from 2014 to 2016, Rosetta remained in close proximity to 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, studying its coma and nucleus in situ. Based on lobe-specific measurements of HDO and H2O performed with the ROSINA DFMS mass spectrometer on board Rosetta, the Deuterium-to-Hydrogen ratios in water from the two lobes could be compared. No appreciable difference was observed, suggesting that both lobes formed in the same region and are homogeneous in their Deuterium-to-Hydrogen ratios.

arXiv:1907.06905v1 [pdf, other]
Bounds on WIMP dark matter from galaxy clusters at low redshift
Comments: No comment found

The study of the cross-correlation angular power spectrum between gravitational tracers and electromagnetic signals can be a powerful tool to constrain Dark Matter (DM) microscopic properties. In this work we correlate \Fermi\ diffuse \g-ray maps with catalogues of galaxy clusters. To emphasize the sensitivity to a DM signal, we select clusters at low-redshift $0<z<0.2$ and with large-halo mass $M_{500}>10^{13}M_\odot$. The analysis is performed with four catalogues in different wavebands, including infrared, optical and X-rays. No evidence for a DM signal is identified. On the other hand, we derive competitive bounds: the thermal cross-section is excluded at 95\% C.L. for DM masses below 20 GeV and annihilation in the $\tau^+-\tau^-$ channel.

arXiv:1907.06908v1 [pdf, other]
Stable attitude dynamics of planar helio-stable and drag-stable sails
Comments: 28 pages, 31 figures

In this paper the planar orbit and attitude dynamics of an uncontrolled spacecraft is studied, taking on-board a deorbiting device. Solar and drag sails with the same shape are considered and separately studied. In both cases, these devices are assumed to have a simplified pyramidal shape that endows the spacecraft with helio and drag stable properties. The translational dynamics is assumed to be planar and hence the rotational dynamics occurs only around one of the principal axes of the spacecraft. Stable or slowly-varying attitudes are studied, subject to disturbances due to the Earth oblateness effect and gravity gradient torques, and either solar radiation pressure or atmospheric drag torque and acceleration. The results are analysed with respect to the aperture of the sail and the center of mass - center of pressure offset.

arXiv:1907.06910v1 [pdf, other]
Significance of bar quenching in the global quenching of star formation
Comments: Accepted for publication in A&A

The suppression of star formation in the inner kiloparsec regions of barred disk galaxies due to the action of bars is known as bar quenching. We investigate here the significance of bar quenching in the global quenching of star formation in the barred galaxies and their transformation to passive galaxies in the local Universe. We do this by measuring the offset of quenched barred galaxies from star-forming main sequence galaxies in the star formation rate-stellar mass plane and comparing it with the length of the bar, which is considered as a proxy of bar quenching. We constructed the star formation rate-stellar mass plane of 2885 local Universe face-on strong barred disk galaxies ($z<0.06$) identified by Galaxy Zoo. The barred disk galaxies studied here fall on the star formation main sequence relation with a significant scatter for galaxies above stellar mass 10$^{10.2}$ M$\odot$. We found that 34.97 $\%$ galaxies are within the intrinsic scatter (0.3 dex) of the main sequence relation, with a starburst population of 10.78 $\%$ (above the 0.3 dex) and a quenched population of 54.25 $\%$ (below the -0.3 dex) of the total barred disk galaxies in our sample. Significant neutral hydrogen (M$_{HI}$ >10$^{9}$ M$\odot$ with log M$_{HI}$/M$\star$ $\sim$ -1.0 to -0.5) is detected in the quenched barred galaxies with a similar gas content to that of the star-forming barred galaxies. We found that the offset of the quenched barred galaxies from the main sequence relation is not dependent on the length of the stellar bar. This implies that the bar quenching may not contribute significantly to the global quenching of star formation in barred galaxies. However, this observed result could also be due to other factors such as the dissolution of bars over time after star formation quenching, the effect of other quenching processes acting simultaneously, and/or the effects of environment.

arXiv:1907.06917v1 [pdf, other]
Deep learning classification of the continuous gravitational-wave signal candidates from the time-domain F-statistic search
Comments: 10 pages, 11 figures, submitted to the PRD

Many potential sources of gravitational waves still await for detection. Among them, particular attention is given to a non-axisymmetric neutron star. The emitted, almost monochromatic signal, is expected to be detected in the near future by LIGO and Virgo detectors. Although the gravitational waves waveform is well known, its small amplitude makes it extremely hard to detect. The accepted approach in searching for continuous gravitational waves is a matched filter technique, known as the F-statistic method. The method consists in cross correlation of the collected data stream with signal templates in the frequency domain. Thus, for an all-sky search in which the parameters of the sources are not known, large number of templates have to be checked and therefore a large number of candidate gravitational-wave signals is produced and further analyzed. In this work, we propose deep learning as a fast method of classification for various types of candidates. We consider three types of signals: the Gaussian noise, the continuous gravitational wave, and the stationary line mimicking local artifacts in the detector. We demonstrate one and two-dimensional implementations of a convolutional neural network classifier. We present the limitations of our model with respect to the various signal-to-noise ratios and frequencies of the signal. The following work presents deep learning as a supporting method for the matched filtering detection pipeline.

arXiv:1907.06924v1 [pdf, other]
EmCa -- Electromagnetic-Cascades Simulation Package
Comments: No comment found

Electromagnetic-Cascades (EmCa) is a Python package for the simulation of electromagnetic cascades in various materials. The showers are modeled using cascade equations and the relevant interactions, specifically pair production, Bremsstrahlung, Compton scattering and ionization. This methodology has the advantage of being computationally inexpensive and fast, unlike Monte Carlo methods. The code includes low and high energy material effects, allowing for a high range of validity of the simulation results. EmCa is easily extendable and offers a framework for testing different electromagnetic interaction models. In combination with MCEq, a Python package for hadronic particle showers using cascade equations, full simulations of atmospheric fluxes can be done.

arXiv:1907.06928v1 [pdf, other]
Generic energy transport solutions to the solar abundance problem -- a hint of new physics
Comments: No comment found

We consider the poorly studied before non-diffusive energy transport solutions to the solar abundance problem. We find the additional energy flux inside the Sun required to reconcile the Standard solar model with helioseismology. An example of an extension of the Standard model is suggested which can provide for this flux.

arXiv:1907.06962v1 [pdf, other]
Investigating the physical properties of galaxies in the Epoch of Reionization with MIRI/JWST spectroscopy
Comments: 11 pages, 6 figures, Accepted for publication in A&A

The James Webb Space Telescope will provide deep imaging and spectroscopy for sources at redshifts above 6, covering the Epoch of Reionization (EoR, 6 < z < 10). The Mid-IR instrument (MIRI) integral field spectrograph (MRS) will be the only instrument onboard JWST able to observe the brighest optical emission lines H$\alpha$ and [OIII]0.5007$\mu$m at redshifts above 7 and 9, respectively. This paper presents a study of the H$\alpha$ fluxes predicted by FIRSTLIGHT cosmological simulations for galaxies at redshifts of 6.5 to 10.5, and its detectability with MIRI. Deep (40 ks) spectroscopic integrations with MRS will be able to detect (S/N > 5) EoR sources at redshifts above 7 with intrinsic star formation rates of more than 2 M$_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$, and stellar masses above 4-9 $\times$ 10$^7$ M$_{\odot}$. In addition, the paper presents realistic MRS simulated observations of the expected (rest-frame) optical and near-infrared spectra for some spectroscopically confirmed EoR sources detected by ALMA as [OIII]88$\mu$m emitters. The MRS simulated spectra cover a wide range of low metallicities from about 0.2 to 0.02Z$_{\odot}$, and different [OIII]88$\mu$m/[OIII]0.5007$\mu$m line ratios. The simulated 10ks MRS spectra show S/N in the range of 5 to 90 for H$\beta$, [OIII]0.4959,0.5007$\mu$m, H$\alpha$ and HeI1.083$\mu$m emission lines of MACS1149-JD1 at z = 9.11, independent of metallicity. In addition, deep 40 ks simulated spectra of the luminous, merger candidate B14-65666 at z=7.15 shows the MRS capabilities of detecting, or putting strong upper limits, on the [NII]0.6584$\mu$m, [SII]0.6717,0.6731$\mu$m, and [SIII]0.9069,0.9532$\mu$m emission lines. In summary, MRS will enable the detailed study of key physical properties like internal extinction, instantaneous star formation, hardness of the ionizing continuum, and metallicity, in bright (intrinsic or lensed) EoR sources.

arXiv:1907.06966v1 [pdf, other]
Acoustic wave generation in collapsing massive stars with convective shells
Comments: 16 pages, 10 figures. Submitted to MNRAS

The convection that takes place in the innermost shells of massive stars plays an important role in the formation of core-collapse supernova explosions. Upon encountering the supernova shock, additional turbulence is generated, amplifying the explosion. In this work, we study how the convective perturbations evolve during the stellar collapse. Our main aim is to establish their physical properties right before they reach the supernova shock. To this end, we solve the linearized hydrodynamics equations perturbed on a stationary background flow. The latter is given by the spherical transonic Bondi accretion, while the convective perturbations are modeled as a combination of entropy and vorticity waves. We follow their evolution from large radii, where convective shells are initially located, down to small radii, where they are expected to encounter the accretion shock above the proto-neutron star. Considering typical vorticity perturbations with a Mach number $\sim 0.1$ and entropy perturbations $\delta S\sim 0.05 k_\mathrm{b}/\mathrm{baryon}$ at a radius of $1,500\,\mathrm{km}$, we find that the advection of these perturbations down to the shock generates strong acoustic waves with a relative amplitude $\delta p/\gamma p\sim 10\%$, in agreement with numerical simulations. The velocity perturbations consist of comparable contributions from vorticity and acoustic waves with values reaching $10\%$ of the sound speed ahead of the shock.

arXiv:1907.06970v1 [pdf, other]
Astro2020 APC White Paper: Pursuing diversity, equity, and inclusion in multimessenger astronomy collaborations over the coming decade
Comments: Submitted to the Astro2020 Decadal Survey APC White Paper call

A major goal for the astronomy and astrophysics communities is the pursuit of diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) in all ranks, from students through professional scientific researchers. Large scientific collaborations - increasingly a primary place for both professional interactions and research opportunities - can play an important role in the DEI effort. Multimessenger astronomy, a new and growing field, is based on the principle that working collaboratively produces synergies, enabling advances that would not be possible without cooperation. The nascent Multimessenger Diversity Network (MDN) is extending this collaborative approach to include DEI initiatives. After we review of the current state of DEI in astronomy and astrophysics, we describe the strategies the MDN is developing and disseminating to support and increase DEI in the fields over the coming decade: provide opportunities (real and virtual) to share DEI knowledge and resources, include DEI in collaboration-level activities, including external reviews, and develop and implement ways to recognize the DEI work of collaboration members.

arXiv:1907.06973v1 [pdf, other]
CO~($J=1-0$) Observations toward Filamentary Molecular Clouds in the Galactic Region with $l = [169\arcdeg.75, 174\arcdeg.75], b = [-0\arcdeg.75, 0\arcdeg.5]$
Comments: 50 pages, 25 figures, 5 tables. Accepted by Astrophysical Journal

We present observations of the CO isotopologues ($^{12}$CO, $^{13}$CO, and C$^{18}$O) toward the Galactic region with $169\arcdeg.75 \leqslant l \leqslant 174\arcdeg.75$ and $-0\arcdeg.75 \leqslant b \leqslant 0\arcdeg.5$, using the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7~m millimeter-wavelength telescope. Based on the $^{13}$CO~($J = 1-0$) data, we find five molecular clouds within the velocity range between $-$25 and 8~km~s$^{-1}$ that are all characterized by conspicuous filamentary structures. We have identified eight filaments with a length of 6.38--28.45~pc, a mean H$_2$ column density of 0.70$\times$10$^{21}$--6.53$\times$10$^{21}$~cm$^{-2}$, and a line mass of 20.24--161.91~$M_\sun$ pc$^{-1}$, assuming a distance of $\sim$1.7~kpc. Gaussian fittings to the inner parts of the radial density profiles lead to a mean FWHM width of 1.13$\pm$0.01~pc. The velocity structures of most filaments present continuous distributions with slight velocity gradients. We find that turbulence is the dominant internal pressure to support the fragmentation of filaments instead of thermal pressure. Most filaments have virial parameters smaller than 2; thus, they are gravitationally bound. Four filaments have an LTE line mass close to the virial line mass. We further extract dense clumps using the $^{13}$CO data and find that 64$\%$ of the clumps are associated with the filaments. According to the complementary IR data, most filaments have associated Class~II young stellar objects. Class~I objects are mainly found to be located in the filaments with a virial parameter close to 1. Within two virialized filaments, $^{12}$CO outflows have been detected, indicating ongoing star-forming activity therein.

arXiv:1907.06977v1 [pdf, other]
Astro2020 APC White Paper: Durable Agency Support for Exoplanet Catalogs and Archives
Comments: 8 pages, 1 figure, Astro2020 APC White Paper

Many projects in current exoplanet science make use of catalogs of known exoplanets and their host stars. These may be used for demographic, population, and statistical studies, or for identifying targets for future observations. The ability to efficiently and accurately conduct exoplanet science depends on the completeness, accuracy, and access to these catalogs. In this white paper, we argue that long-term agency support and maintenance of exoplanet archives is of crucial importance to achieving the scientific goals of the community and the strategic goals of the funding agencies. As such, it is imperative that these facilities are appropriately supported and maintained by the national funding agencies.

arXiv:1907.06980v1 [pdf, other]
Occultation observations of Saturn's rings with Cassini VIMS
Comments: 90 Pages, 22 Figures, Accepted for Publication in Icarus

We describe the prediction, design, execution and calibration of stellar and solar occultation observations of Saturn's rings by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) instrument on the Cassini spacecraft. Particular attention is paid to the technique developed for onboard acquisition of the stellar target and to the geometric and photometric calibration of the data. Examples of both stellar and solar occultation data are presented, highlighting several aspects of the data as well as the different occultation geometries encountered during Cassini's 13 year orbital tour. Complete catalogs of ring stellar and solar occultations observed by Cassini-VIMS are presented, as a guide to the standard data sets which have been delivered to the Planetary Data System's Ring Moon Systems Node.

arXiv:1907.06981v1 [pdf, other]
Astro2020 APC White Paper: Elevating the Role of Software as a Product of the Research Enterprise
Comments: arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1905.05116

Software is a critical part of modern research, and yet there are insufficient mechanisms in the scholarly ecosystem to acknowledge, cite, and measure the impact of research software. The majority of academic fields rely on a one-dimensional credit model whereby academic articles (and their associated citations) are the dominant factor in the success of a researcher's career. In the petabyte era of astronomical science, citing software and measuring its impact enables academia to retain and reward researchers that make significant software contributions. These highly skilled researchers must be retained to maximize the scientific return from petabyte-scale datasets. Evolving beyond the one-dimensional credit model requires overcoming several key challenges, including the current scholarly ecosystem and scientific culture issues. This white paper will present these challenges and suggest practical solutions for elevating the role of software as a product of the research enterprise.

arXiv:1907.06984v1 [pdf, other]
The luminosity function of quasars by the Principle of Maximum Entropy
Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS

We propose a different way to obtain the distribution of the luminosity function of quasars by using the Principle of Maximum Entropy. The input data comes from the SDSS-DR3 quasars counts, extending up to redshift 5 and limited from apparent magnitude $i=15$ to 19.1 at $z\lesssim3$ to $i=20.2$ for $z\gtrsim3$. Using only few initial data points, the Principle allows us to estimate probabilities and hence that luminosity curve. We carry out statistical tests to evaluate our results. The resulting luminosity function compares well to earlier determinations. And our results remain consistent either when the amount or choice of sampled sources is unbiasedly altered. Besides this we estimate the distribution of the luminosity function for redshifts in which there is only observational data in the vicinity.

arXiv:1907.07005v1 [pdf, other]
Ex Luna, Scientia: The Lunar Occultation eXplorer (LOX)
Comments: Astro2020 APC White Paper, Submitted to the National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey on Astronomy and Astrophysics (Astro2020); 15 pages

LOX is a lunar-orbiting astrophysics mission that will probe the cosmos at MeV energies. It is guided by open questions regarding thermonuclear, or Type-Ia, supernovae (SNeIa) and will characterize these inherently radioactive objects by enabling a systematic survey of SNeIa at gamma-ray energies for the first time. Astronomical investigations from lunar orbit afford new opportunities to advance our understanding of the cosmos. The foundation of LOX is an observational approach well suited to the all-sky monitoring demands of supernova investigations and time-domain astronomy. Its inherently wide field-of-view and continuous all-sky monitoring provides an innovative way of addressing decadal survey questions at MeV energies (0.1-10 MeV). The LOX approach achieves high sensitivity with a simple, high-heritage instrument design that eliminates the need for complex, position-sensitive detectors, kinematic event reconstruction, masks, or other insensitive detector mass, while also mitigating technology development, implementation complexity, and their associated costs. LOX can be realized within existing programs, like Explorer.

arXiv:1907.07038v1 [pdf, other]
Coronagraphic phase diversity through residual turbulence: performance study and experimental validation
Comments: This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society following peer review

Quasi-static aberrations in coronagraphic systems are the ultimate limitation to the capabilities of exoplanet imagers both ground-based and space-based. These aberrations - which can be due to various causes such as optics alignment or moving optical parts during the observing sequence - create light residuals called speckles in the focal plane that might be mistaken for a planets. For ground-based instruments, the presence of residual turbulent wavefront errors due to partial adaptive optics correction causes an additional difficulty to the challenge of measuring aberrations in the presence of a coronagraph. In this paper, we present an extension of COFFEE, the coronagraphic phase diversity, to the estimation of quasi-static aberrations in the presence of adaptive optics-corrected residual turbulence. We perform realistic numerical simulations to assess the performance that can be expected on an instrument of the current generation. We perform the first experimental validation in the laboratory which demonstrates that quasistatic aberrations can be corrected during the observations by means of coronagraphic phase diversity.

arXiv:1907.07048v1 [pdf, other]
The nature of the soft-excess and spectral variability in the Seyfert 1 galaxy Zw 229.015
Comments: 14 pages, 7 figures. Accepted for publication in MNRAS

We have carried out a systematic analysis of the nearby (z=0.0279) active galaxy Zw 229.015 using multi-epoch, multi-instrument and deep pointed observations with XMM-Newton, Suzaku, Swift and NuSTAR. Spectral and temporal variability are examined in detail on both the long (weeks-to-years) and short (hours) timescales. A deep Suzaku observation of the source shows two distinct spectral states; a bright-soft state and a dim-hard state in which changes in the power law component account for the differences. Partial covering, blurred reflection and soft Comptonisation models describe the X-ray spectra comparably well, but the smooth, rather featureless, spectrum may be favouring the soft Comptonisation scenario. Moreover, independent of the spectral model, the observed spectral variability is ascribed to the changes in the power law continuum only and do not require changes in the properties of the absorber or blurred reflector incorporated in the other scenarios. The multi-epoch observations between 2009 and 2018 can be described in similar fashion. This could be understood if the primary emission is originating at a large distance from a standard accretion disc or if the disc is optically thin and geometrically thick as recently proposed for Zw 229.015. Our investigation shows that Zw 229.015 behaves similar to sources like Akn 120 and Mrk 530, that exhibit a strong soft-excess, but weak Compton hump and Fe K${\alpha}$ emission.

arXiv:1907.07049v1 [pdf, other]
Spectral analysis of the hybrid PG 1159-type central stars of the planetary nebulae Abell 43 and NGC 7094
Comments: 27 pages, 22 figures

Stellar post asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) evolution can be completely altered by a final thermal pulse (FTP) which may occur when the star is still leaving the AGB (AFTP), at the departure from the AGB at still constant luminosity (late TP, LTP) or after the entry to the white-dwarf cooling sequence (very late TP, VLTP). Then convection mixes the He-rich material with the H-rich envelope. According to stellar evolution models the result is a star with a surface composition of $\mathrm{H}\approx\,20\,$% by mass (AFTP), $\approx 1\,$% (LTP), or (almost) no H (VLTP). Since FTP stars exhibit intershell material at their surface, spectral analyses establish constraints for AGB nucleosynthesis and stellar evolution. We performed a spectral analysis of the so-called hybrid PG 1159-type central stars (CS) of the planetary nebulae Abell 43 and NGC7094 by means of non-local thermodynamical equilibrium models. We confirm the previously determined effective temperatures of $T_\mathrm{eff} = 115\,000\pm 5\,000\,$K and determine surface gravities of $\log (g\,/\,\mathrm{cm/s^2}) = 5.6\pm 0.1$ for both. From a comparison with AFTP evolutionary tracks, we derive stellar masses of $0.57^{+0.07}_{-0.04}\,M_\odot$ and determine the abundances of H, He, and metals up to Xe. Both CS are likely AFTP stars with a surface H mass fraction of $0.25 \pm 0.03$ and $0.15 \pm 0.03$, respectively, and a Fe deficiency indicating subsolar initial metallicities. The light metals show typical PG 1159-type abundances and the elemental composition is in good agreement with predictions from AFTP evolutionary models. However, the expansion ages do not agree with evolution timescales expected from the AFTP scenario and alternatives should be explored.

arXiv:1907.07051v1 [pdf, other]
Damping of slow magnetoacoustic oscillations by the misbalance between heating and cooling processes in the solar corona
Comments: Accepted for publication in A&A

Rapidly decaying slow magnetoacoustic waves are regularly observed in the solar coronal structures, offering a promising tool for a seismological diagnostics of the coronal plasma, including its thermodynamical properties. The effect of damping of standing slow magnetoacoustic oscillations in the solar coronal loops is investigated accounting for the field-aligned thermal conductivity and a wave-induced misbalance between radiative cooling and some unspecified heating rates. The non-adiabatic terms were allowed to be arbitrarily large, corresponding to the observed values. The thermal conductivity was taken in its classical form, and a power-law dependence of the heating function on the density and temperature was assumed. The analysis was conducted in the linear regime and in the infinite magnetic field approximation. The wave dynamics is found to be highly sensitive to the characteristic time scales of the thermal misbalance. Depending on certain values of the misbalance time scales three regimes of the wave evolution were identified, namely the regime of a suppressed damping, enhanced damping where the damping rate drops down to the observational values, and acoustic over-stability. The specific regime is determined by the dependences of the radiative cooling and heating functions on thermodynamical parameters of the plasma in the vicinity of the perturbed thermal equilibrium. The comparison of the observed and theoretically derived decay times and oscillation periods allows us to constrain the coronal heating function. For typical coronal parameters, the observed properties of standing slow magnetoacoustic oscillations could be readily reproduced with a reasonable choice of the heating function.

arXiv:1907.07052v1 [pdf, other]
Robotic laser adaptive optics for rapid visible/near-infrared AO imaging and boosted-sensitivity low-resolution NIR integral field spectroscopy
Comments: Submitted to Astro2020 APC White Papers. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1606.07456

Large area surveys will dominate the next decade of astronomy, and the main limitation to science will be the thorough followup and characterization of their extremely numerous discoveries. The deployment of robotic laser adaptive optics on mid-sized telescopes will be crucial for the sensitive and rapid characterization of these survey targets.

arXiv:1907.07068v1 [pdf, other]
3D MHD simulations and synthetic radio emission from an oblique rotating magnetic massive star
Comments: 19 pages, 14 figures

We have performed 3D isothermal MHD simulation of a magnetic rotating massive star with a non-zero dipole obliquity and predicted the radio/sub-mm observable lightcurves and continuum spectra for a frequency range compatible with ALMA. From these results we also compare the model input mass-loss to that calculated from the synthetic thermal emission. Spherical and cylindrical symmetry is broken due to the obliquity of the stellar magnetic dipole resulting in an inclination and phase dependence of both the spectral flux and inferred mass-loss rate, providing testable predictions of variability for oblique rotator. Both quantities vary by factors between 2 and 3 over a full rotational period of the star, demonstrating that the role of rotation as critical in understanding the emission. This illustrates the divergence from a symmetric wind, resulting in a two armed spiral structure indicative of a oblique magnetic rotator. We show that a constant spectral index, $\alpha$, model agrees well with our numerical prediction for a spherical wind for $\nu~<~10^{3} \ \mathrm{GHz}$, however it is unable to capture the behavior of emission at $\nu~>~10^{3} \ \mathrm{GHz}$. As such we caution the use of such constant $\alpha$ models for predicting emission from non-spherical winds such as those which form around magnetic massive stars.

arXiv:1907.07076v1 [pdf, other]
Warped diffusive radio halo around the quiescent spiral edge-on galaxy NGC 4565
Comments: 5 pages, 4 figures, 2 tables; A\&A Letters accepted; appendix with cosmic-ray transport models

Cosmic rays play a pivotal role in launching galactic winds, particularly in quiescently star-forming galaxies where the hot gas alone is not sufficient to drive a wind. Except for the Milky Way, not much is known about the transport of cosmic rays in galaxies. In this Letter, we present low-frequency observations of the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 4565 using the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR). With our deep 144-MHz observations, we obtain a clean estimate of the emission originating from old cosmic-ray electrons (CRe), which is almost free from contamination by thermal emission. We measured vertical profiles of the non-thermal radio continuum emission that we fitted with Gaussian and exponential functions. The different profile shapes correspond to 1D cosmic-ray transport models of pure diffusion and advection, respectively. We detect a warp in the radio continuum that is reminiscent of the previously known HI warp. Because the warp is not seen at GHz-frequencies in the radio continuum, its minimum age must be about 100 Myr. The warp also explains the slight flaring of the thick radio disc that can otherwise be well described by a Gaussian profile with an FWHM of 65 arcsec (3.7 kpc). The diffusive radio halo together with the extra-planar X-ray emission may be remnants of enhanced star-forming activity in the past where the galaxy had a galactic wind, as GHz-observations indicate only a weak outflow in the last 40 Myr. NGC 4565 could be in transition from an outflow- to an inflow-dominated phase.

arXiv:1907.07114v1 [pdf, other]
Contribution of magnetism to the Saturn rings origin
Comments: 12 pages, 1 figure, 20 pages

The magnetization relationships for magnetically uniform spherical particles of the Saturn rings are derived. The problem of a solitary magnetized sphere and spherical particle among identical particles scattered in a disk-like structure is solved. The differential equations of motion of particles in the gravitational and magnetic field are derived. Special cases of these equations are solved exactly, and their solutions suggest that the superposition of the gravitational attraction and repulsion by a magnetic field of the iced particles which possess diamagnetism can account for the stability of Saturn rings.

arXiv:1907.07117v1 [pdf, other]
ALMA Detection of Vibrationally Excited ($v\mathrm{_t} = 1,2$) Acetic Acid toward NGC 6334I
Comments: 15 pages, 5 figures

Vibrationally excited states of detected interstellar molecules have been shown to account for a large portion of unidentified spectral lines in observed interstellar spectra toward chemically rich sources. Here, we present the first interstellar detection of the first and second vibrationally excited torsional states of acetic acid ($v_\mathrm{t} = 1, 2$) toward the high-mass star-forming region NGC 6334I. The observations presented were taken with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array in bands 4, 6, and 7 covering a frequency range of 130 - 352 GHz. By comparing a single excitation temperature model to the observations, the best-fit excitation temperature and column density are obtained to be 142(25) K and $1.12(7) \times 10^{17} \mathrm{cm^{-2}}$ respectively. Based on the intensity maps of the vibrationally excited CH$_3$COOH transitions, we found that the CH$_3$COOH emissions are compact and concentrated toward the MM1 and MM2 regions with a source size smaller than 2 arcsec. After locating the emission from different CH$_3$COOH transitions, which cover a large range of excitation energies, we are able to explain the variation of the CH$_3$COOH emission peak within the MM2 core by invoking continuum absorption or outflows.

arXiv:1907.07118v1 [pdf, other]
Primarily Undergraduate Institutions and the Astronomy Community
Comments: 10 pages (plus cover, author, and reference pages), 3 Figures. Submitted as APC White Paper for Astro2020 Decadal Survey

This White Paper highlights the role Primarily Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) play within the astronomy profession, addressing issues related to employment, resources and support, research opportunities and productivity, and educational and societal impacts, among others. Astronomers working at PUIs are passionate about teaching and mentoring undergraduate students through substantive astronomy experiences, all while working to continue research programs that contribute to the advancement of the professional field of astronomy. PUIs are where the majority of undergraduate students pursue post-secondary education, and as such, understanding the unique challenges and opportunities associated with PUIs is critical to fostering an inclusive astronomy community throughout the next decade. We provide a view of the profession as lived and experienced by faculty and students of PUIs, while highlighting the unique opportunities, challenges, and obstacles routinely faced. A variety of recommendations are outlined to provide the supporting structures and resources needed for astronomy to thrive at PUIs over the next decade and beyond - a critical step for a profession focused on fostering and maintaining an inclusive, supportive, and diverse community.

arXiv:1907.07130v1 [pdf, other]
Effect of the Solar dark matter wake on planets
Comments: 6 pages, 2 figures, 1 table. Accepted for publication in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society in this form

The Galaxy is conventionally thought to be surrounded by a massive dark matter (DM) halo. As the Sun goes through this halo, it excites a DM wake behind it. This local asymmetry in the DM distribution would gravitationally affect the motions of Solar System planets, potentially allowing the DM wake to be detected or ruled out. Hernandez (2019) recently calculated that the DM-induced perturbation to Saturn's position is 252 metres net of the effect on the Sun. No such anomaly is seen in Saturn's motion despite very accurate tracking of the Cassini spacecraft, which orbited Saturn for >13 years. Here, we revisit the calculation of how much Saturn would deviate from Keplerian motion if we fix its position and velocity at some particular time. The DM wake induces a nearly resonant perturbation whose amplitude grows almost linearly with time. We show that the Hernandez (2019) result applies only for an observing duration comparable to the ${\approx 250}$ million year period of the Sun's orbit around the Galaxy. Over a 100 year period, the perturbation to Saturn's orbit amounts to <1 cm, which is quite consistent with existing observations. Even smaller perturbations are expected for the terrestrial planets.

arXiv:1907.07140v1 [pdf, other]
The HST Key Project galaxies NGC 1326A, NGC 1425 and NGC 4548: New variable stars and massive star population
Comments: 28 pages, 11 figures, Astronomy & Astrophysics, accepted. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1807.11493

Studies on the massive star population in galaxies beyond the Local Group are the key to understand the link between their numbers and modes of star formation in different environments. We present the analysis of the massive star population of the galaxies NGC 1326A, NGC 1425 and NGC 4548 using archival Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images in the F555W and F814W filters. Through high precision point spread function fitting photometry for all sources in the three fields we identified 7640 candidate blue supergiants, 2314 candidate yellow supergiants, and 4270 candidate red supergiants. We provide an estimation the ratio of blue to red supergiants for each field as a function of galactocentric radius. Using Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) at solar metallicity, we defined the luminosity function and estimated the star formation history of each galaxy. We carried out a variability search in the V and I filters using three variability indexes: the median absolute deviation, the interquartile range, and the inverse von-Neumann ratio. This analysis yielded 243 new variable candidates with absolute magnitudes ranging from Mv= -4 to -10 mag. We classified the variable stars based on their absolute magnitude and their position on the color-magnitude diagram using the MESA evolutionary tracks at solar metallicity. Our analysis yielded 8 candidate variable blue supergiants, 12 candidate variable yellow supergiants, 21 candidate variable red supergiants, and 4 candidate periodic variables.

arXiv:1907.07176v1 [pdf, other]
Discovery of a very hot phase of the Milky Way CGM with non-solar abundance ratios
Comments: 9 pages, 3 figures, submitted to ApJL

We present the discovery of a very hot gas phase of the Milky Way circumgalactic medium (CGM) at T $\approx 10^7$ K, using deep XMM-Newton RGS observations of 1ES 1553+113. The hot gas, coexisting with a warm-hot phase at T $\approx 10^6$ K is $\alpha-$enhanced, with [O/Fe] = 0.9$^{+0.7}_{-0.3}$, indicating core-collapse supernovae enrichment. Additionally we find [Ne/O] and [N/O] = $0.7^{+1.6}_{-0.2}$, such that N/Ne is consistent with solar. Along with the enrichment by AGB stars and core-collapse supernovae, this indicates that some Oxygen has depleted onto dust and/or transited to cooler gas phase(s). These results may affect previous baryonic and metallic mass estimations of the warm-hot and hot CGM from the observations of Oxygen emission and absorption. Our results provide insights on the heating, mixing and chemical enrichment of the Milky Way CGM, and provide inputs to theoretical models of galaxy evolution.