62 articles on Monday, May 20


arXiv:1905.07407v1 [pdf, other]
Neural Network Astronomy as a New Tool for Observing Bright and Compact Objects
Comments: 15 pages, 6 figures

We propose a new method for solving an important problem of astronomy that arises in observations with ultrahigh-angular-resolution interferometers. This method is based on the application of the theory of artificial neural networks. We propose and compute a multiparameter model for a celestial object like Sgr A*. For this model we have numerically constructed a number of probable images for neural network training. After neural network training on these images, the quality of its operation has been tested on another series of images from the same model. We have proven that a neural network can recognize and classify celestial objects (also obtained from interferometers) virtually no worse than can be done by a human.


arXiv:1905.07410v1 [pdf, other]
Cosmic Inference: Constraining Parameters With Observations and Highly Limited Number of Simulations
Comments: 23 pages, 17 figures, submitted to ApJ

Cosmological probes pose an inverse problem where the measurement result is obtained through observations, and the objective is to infer values of model parameters which characterize the underlying physical system -- our Universe. Modern cosmological probes increasingly rely on measurements of the small-scale structure, and the only way to accurately model physical behavior on those scales, roughly 65 Mpc/h or smaller, is via expensive numerical simulations. In this paper, we provide a detailed description of a novel statistical framework for obtaining accurate parameter constraints by combining observations with a very limited number of cosmological simulations. The proposed framework utilizes multi-output Gaussian process emulators that are adaptively constructed using Bayesian optimization methods. We compare several approaches for constructing multi-output emulators that enable us to take possible inter-output correlations into account while maintaining the efficiency needed for inference. Using Lyman alpha forest flux power spectrum, we demonstrate that our adaptive approach requires considerably fewer --- by a factor of a few in Lyman alpha P(k) case considered here --- simulations compared to the emulation based on Latin hypercube sampling, and that the method is more robust in reconstructing parameters and their Bayesian credible intervals.


arXiv:1905.07414v1 [pdf, other]
On the Spectrum of Electrons Accelerated in Supernova Remnants
Comments: 6 pages, 4 figures, submitted to PRL

Using a semi-analytic model of non-linear diffusive shock acceleration, we model the spectrum of cosmic ray (CR) electrons accelerated by supernova remnants (SNRs). Because electrons experience synchrotron losses in the amplified magnetic fields characteristic of SNRs, they exhibit substantially steeper spectra than protons. In particular, we find that the difference between the electron and proton spectral index (power law slope) ranges from 0.1 to 0.4. Our findings must be reckoned with theories of Galactic CR transport, which often assume that electrons and protons are injected with the same slope, and may especially have implications for the observed ''positron excess."


arXiv:1905.07422v1 [pdf, other]
Supernova Photometric Classification Pipelines Trained on Spectroscopically Classified Supernovae from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium-Deep Survey
Comments: 20 pages; 14 figures; submitted to ApJ; comments welcome!

Photometric classification of supernovae (SNe) is imperative as recent and upcoming optical time-domain surveys, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), overwhelm the available resources for spectrosopic follow-up. Here we develop a range of light curve classification pipelines, trained on 518 spectroscopically-classified SNe from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium-Deep Survey (PS1-MDS): 357 Type Ia, 93 Type II, 25 Type IIn, 21 Type Ibc, and 17 Type I SLSNe. We present a new parametric analytical model that can accommodate a broad range of SN light curve morphologies, including those with a plateau, and fit this model to data in four PS1 filters (griz). We test a number of feature extraction methods, data augmentation strategies, and machine learning algorithms to predict the class of each SN. Our best pipelines result in 90% average accuracy, 70% average purity, and 80% average completeness for all SN classes, with the highest success rates for Type Ia SNe and SLSNe and the lowest for Type Ibc SNe. Despite the greater complexity of our classification scheme, the purity of our Type Ia SN classification, 95%, is on par with methods developed specifically for Type Ia versus non-Type Ia binary classification. As the first of its kind, this study serves as a guide to developing and training classification algorithms for a wide range of SN types with a purely empirical training set, particularly one that is similar in its characteristics to the expected LSST main survey strategy. Future work will implement this classification pipeline on ~3000 PS1/MDS light curves that lack spectroscopic classification.


arXiv:1905.07424v1 [pdf, other]
Galaxy Zoo: Probabilistic Morphology through Bayesian CNNs and Active Learning
Comments: Submitted to MNRAS

We use Bayesian convolutional neural networks and a novel generative model of Galaxy Zoo volunteer responses to infer posteriors for the visual morphology of galaxies. Bayesian CNN can learn from galaxy images with uncertain labels and then, for previously unlabelled galaxies, predict the probability of each possible label. Our posteriors are well-calibrated (e.g. for predicting bars, we achieve coverage errors of 10.6% within 5 responses and 2.9% within 10 responses) and hence are reliable for practical use. Further, using our posteriors, we apply the active learning strategy BALD to request volunteer responses for the subset of galaxies which, if labelled, would be most informative for training our network. We show that training our Bayesian CNNs using active learning requires up to 35-60% fewer labelled galaxies, depending on the morphological feature being classified. By combining human and machine intelligence, Galaxy Zoo will be able to classify surveys of any conceivable scale on a timescale of weeks, providing massive and detailed morphology catalogues to support research into galaxy evolution.


arXiv:1905.07467v1 [pdf, other]
Cloud-cloud collision in the DR 21 cloud as a trigger of massive star formation
Comments: To appear in the Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan (PASJ)

We report on a possible cloud-cloud collision in the DR 21 region, which we found through molecular observations with the Nobeyama 45-m telescope. We mapped an area of 8'x12' around the region with twenty molecular lines including the 12CO(J=1-0) and 13CO(J=1-0) emission lines, and sixteen of them were significantly detected. Based on the 12CO and 13CO data, we found five distinct velocity components in the observed region, and we call molecular gas associated with these components -42, -22, -3, 9, and 17 km/s clouds taking after their typical radial velocities. The -3 km/s cloud is the main filamentary cloud (31,000 Mo) associated with young massive stars such as DR21 and DR21(OH), and the 9 km/s cloud is a smaller cloud (3,400 Mo) which may be an extension of the W75 region in the north. The other clouds are much smaller. We found a clear anticorrelation in the distributions of the -3 and 9 km/s clouds, and detected faint 12CO emission having intermediate velocities bridging the two clouds at their intersection. These facts strongly indicate that the two clouds are colliding against each other. In addition, we found that DR21 and DR21(OH) are located in the periphery of the densest part of the 9 km/s cloud, which is consistent with results of recent numerical simulations of cloud-cloud collisions. We therefore suggest that the -3 and 9 km/s clouds are colliding, and that the collision induced the massive star formation in the DR21 cloud. The interaction of the -3 and 9 km/s clouds was previously suggested by Dickel et al. (1978), and our results strongly support their hypothesis of the interaction.


arXiv:1905.07472v1 [pdf, other]
An Informational Approach to Cosmological Parameter Estimation
Comments: 5 pages, 3 figures

We introduce a new approach for cosmological parameter estimation based on the information-theoretical Jensen-Shannon Divergence (JSD), calculating it for models in the restricted parameter space {H0, w0, wa}, where H0 is the value of the Hubble constant today, and w0 and wa are dark energy parameters, with the other parameters held fixed at their best-fit values from the Planck 2018 data. As an application, we investigate the H0 tension between the Planck data and the local astronomical data by comparing the Lambda-CDM model with the wCDM and the w0waCDM dynamic dark energy models. We find agreement with other works using the standard Bayesian inference for parameter estimation, but, in addition, show that while the JSD is equally minimized for both values of H0 along the (w0,wa) plane, the lines of degeneracy are different for each value of H0. This allows for distinguishing between the two, once the value of either w0 or wa is known.


arXiv:1905.07477v1 [pdf, other]
Full Transport Model of GW170817-Like Disk Produces a Blue Kilonova
Comments: No comment found

The 2017 detection of the inspiral and merger of two neutron stars in gravitational waves and gamma rays was accompanied by a quickly-reddening transient. Such a transient was predicted to occur following a rapid neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis event, which synthesizes neutron-rich, radioactive nuclei and can take place in both dynamical ejecta and in the wind driven off the accretion torus formed after a neutron star merger. We present the first three-dimensional general relativistic, full transport neutrino radiation magnetohydrodynamics (GRRMHD) simulations of the black hole-accretion disk-wind system produced by the GW170817 merger. We show that the small but non-negligible optical depths lead to neutrino transport globally coupling the disk electron fraction, which we capture by solving the transport equation with a Monte Carlo method. The resulting absorption drives up the electron fraction in a structured, continuous outflow, with electron fraction as high as $Y_e\sim 0.4$ in the extreme polar region. We show via nuclear reaction network and radiative transfer calculations that nucleosynthesis in the disk wind will produce a blue kilonova.


arXiv:1905.07539v1 [pdf, other]
Forecasts for warm dark matter from weakly lensed Type Ia supernovae
Comments: 6 pages, 4 figures

We investigate the possibility to have a constraint on the mass of thermal warm dark matter (WDM) particle from the expected data of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) survey if all the dark matter is warm. For this purpose we consider the lensing effect of large scale structure based on the warm dark matter scenario on the apparent magnitude of SNe Ia. We use HALOFIT as non-linear matter power spectrum and the variance of PDF. We preform a Fisher matrix analysis and obtain the lower bound of $m_{\rm WDM}>0.167$keV.


arXiv:1905.07541v1 [pdf, other]
Rejuvenation in $z\sim0.8$ quiescent galaxies in LEGA-C
Comments: 14 pages, 8 figures, accepted by ApJ

We use reconstructed star-formation histories (SFHs) of quiescent galaxies at $z=0.6-1$ in the LEGA-C survey to identify secondary star-formation episodes that, after an initial period of quiescence, moved the galaxies back to the star-forming main sequence (blue cloud). $16\pm3$\% of the $z\sim0.8$ quiescent population has experienced such rejuvenation events in the redshift range $0.7<z<1.5$ after reaching quiescence at some earlier time. On average, these galaxies first became quiescent at $z=1.2$, and those that rejuvenated, remained quiescent for $\sim1$Gyr before their secondary SF episode which lasted $\sim0.7$Gyr. The stellar mass attributed to rejuvenation is on average 10\% of the galaxy stellar mass, with rare instances of an increase of more than a factor 2. Overall, rejuvenation events only contribute $\sim2$\% of the total stellar mass in $z\sim0.8$ quiescent galaxies and we conclude that rejuvenation is not an important evolutionary channel when considering the growth of the red sequence. However, our results complicate the interpretation of galaxy demographics in color space: the galaxies with rejuvenation events tend to lie in the so-called 'green valley', yet their progenitors were quiescent at $z\sim2$.


arXiv:1905.07556v1 [pdf, other]
High Definition Astrometry
Comments: No comment found

High Definition Astrometry (0.1 - 1.0 micro-arcseconds) will open a new window into neighboring planetary systems. For the first time, the realm of temperate terrestrial worlds will be explored. This includes Earth Analogs, thereby allowing the value of eta-Earth to be directly determined, without resort to extrapolation. High Definition Astrometry will provide a means to confirm the existence of Radial Velocity (RV) planets while, at the same time, measuring true mass, along with orbit inclination and radius, i.e., system architecture. Planetary systems not amenable to RV search, such as those in a "face-on" orientation, will be surveyed for the first time. Extreme Precision Astrometry is not only useful, but is essential to the future of exoplanet research.


arXiv:1905.07557v1 [pdf, other]
Testing halo assembly bias using galaxy clusters
Comments: 13 pages, 11 figures

We critically examine the methodology behind the claimed observational detection of halo assembly bias using optically selected galaxy clusters by Miyatake et al. (2016) and More et al. (2016). We mimic the optical cluster detection algorithm and apply it to two different mock catalogs generated from the Millennium simulation galaxy catalog, one in which halo assembly bias signal is present, while the other in which the assembly bias signal has been expressly erased. We split each of these cluster samples into two using the average cluster-centric distance of the member galaxies to measure the difference in the clustering strength of the subsamples with respect to each other. We observe that the subsamples split by cluster-centric radii show differences in clustering strength, even in the catalog where the true assembly bias signal was erased. We show that this is a result of contamination of the member galaxy sample from interlopers along the line-of-sight. This undoubtedly shows that the particular methodology adopted in the previous studies cannot be used to claim a detection of the assembly bias signal. We figure out the tell-tale signatures of such contamination, and show that the observational data also shows similar signatures. Furthermore, we also show that projection effects in optical galaxy clusters can bias the inference of the 3-dimensional edges of galaxy clusters (splashback radius), so appropriate care should be taken while interpreting the splashback radius of optical clusters.


arXiv:1905.07560v1 [pdf, other]
On the visible continuum and lines in the Interstellar Extinction Curve
Comments: No comment found

This work purports to help understand the InterStellar Extinction Curve in and near the visible range. In this range, crystalline materials are known to be transparent, so amorphous dust is needed. Molecular modeling experiments are used to compute the electronic spectra of various, relatively large, carbon and silicate structures. Hardly any transition shows up beyond 0.4 mum when the structure is in its ground state (the lowest, most stable state, usually crystalline). This is no longer the case as soon as the structure is distorted in any way. Examples of simulated distortions (or ''defects'') are: angular or linear bond alteration, insertion of free radicals near the main structure, dangling bonds; their cumulative effects lead to the amorphous state. It is shown that, in this state, a structure bears a majority of weak transitions and a minority of strong ones. As the structure grows in size, the former ultimately form a weak continuum already detected experimentally, in the visible, on amorphous carbons and silicates. The stronger transitions will manage to emerge above the continuum, especially when they bunch together by chance near the same wavelength. Parallels are drawn between several properties of the computed continua and transitions and the observed continuum and Diffuse Interstellar Bands.


arXiv:1905.07571v1 [pdf, other]
Probing maximum energy of cosmic rays in SNR through gamma rays and neutrinos from the molecular clouds around SNR W28
Comments: 18 pages, 4 figures

The galactic cosmic rays are generally believed to be originated in supernova remnants (SNRs), produced in diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) process in supernova blast waves driven by expanding SNRs. One of the key unsettled issue in SNR origin of cosmic ray model is the maximum attainable energy by a cosmic ray particle in the supernova shock. Recently it has been suggested that an amplification of effective magnetic field strength at the shock may take place in young SNRs due to growth of magnetic waves induced by accelerated cosmic rays and as a result the maximum energy achieved by cosmic rays in SNR may reach the knee energy instead of $\sim 200$ TeV as predicted earlier under normal magnetic field situation. In the present work we investigate the implication of such maximum energy scenarios on TeV gamma rays and neutrino fluxes from the molecular clouds interacting with the SNR W28. The authors compute the gamma-ray and neutrino flux assuming two different values for the maximum energy reached by cosmic rays in the SNR, from CR interaction in nearby molecular clouds. Both protons and nuclei are considered as accelerated particles and as target material. Our findings suggest that the issue of the maximum energy of cosmic rays in SNRs can be observationally settled by the upcoming gamma-ray experiment the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO). The estimated neutrino fluxes from the molecular clouds are , however, out of reach of the present/near future generation of neutrino telescopes.


arXiv:1905.07614v1 [pdf, other]
Kinematics and Velocity Ellipsoid of Halo Red Giants
Comments: 15 pages, 3 figures

In the present paper, we aim to determine the kinematical properties, velocity ellipsoid, and Oort constants using a sample of halo red giants. The study is based mainly on the space and radial velocities of about 1583 red giant stars collected from the SEGUE-1 and SEGUE-2 surveys. We divided the sample into three subsamples, the inner halo, the outer halo and the stars near the galactic plane. The fitting of the radial velocity equation gives a the mean of Oort constants, A = 15.6 +- 1.6 km s-1 kpc-1 and B= -13.9 +- 1.8 km s-1 kpc-1, the angular velocity |A-B|= 29.5 +- 0.2 km s-1 kpc-1 implying a rotational velocity of 221.25 +- 26.66 km s-1 if we take the distance to the Galactic center as 7.5 kpc.


arXiv:1905.07636v1 [pdf, other]
The interaction between shear and fingering (thermohaline) convection
Comments: Submitted to ApJ

Fingering convection is a turbulent mixing process that can occur in stellar radiative regions whenever the mean molecular weight increases with radius. In some cases, it can have a significant observable impact on stellar structure and evolution. The efficiency of mixing by fingering convection as a standalone process has been studied by Brown et al. (2013), but other processes such as rotation, magnetic fields and shear can affect it. In this paper, we present a first study of the effect of shear on fingering (thermohaline) convection in astrophysics. Using Direct Numerical Simulations we find that a moderate amount of shear (that is not intrinsically shear-unstable) always decreases the mixing efficiency of fingering convection, as a result of the tilt it imparts to the fingering structures. We propose a simple analytical extension of the Brown et al. (2013) model in the presence of shear that satisfactorily explains the numerically-derived turbulent compositional mixing coefficient for moderate shearing rates, and can trivially be implemented in stellar evolution codes. We also measure from the numerical simulations a turbulent viscosity, and find that the latter is strongly tied to the turbulent compositional mixing coefficient. Observational implications and caveats of the model are discussed.


arXiv:1905.07646v1 [pdf, other]
Free motion around black holes with discs or rings: between integrability and chaos -- V
Comments: 23 pages, 13 figures

Complete integrability of geodesic motion, the well known feature of the fields of isolated stationary black holes, can easily be "spoilt" by the presence of some additional source (even if highly symmetric). In previous papers, we used various methods to show how free time-like motion becomes chaotic if the gravitational field of the Schwarzschild black hole is perturbed by that of a circular disc or ring, considering specifically the inverted first disc of the Morgan-Morgan counter-rotating family and the Bach-Weyl ring as the additional sources. The present paper focuses on two new points. First, since the Bach-Weyl thin ring is physically quite unsatisfactory, we now repeat some of the analysis for a different, Majumdar-Papapetrou--type (extremally charged) ring around an extreme Reissner-Nordstr\"om black hole, and compare the results with those obtained before. We also argue that such a system is in fact more relevant astrophysically than it may seem. Second, we check numerically, for the latter system as well as for the Schwarzschild black hole encircled by the inverted Morgan-Morgan disc, how indicative is the geometric (curvature) criterion for chaos suggested by Sota, Suzuki & Maeda (1996). We also add a review of the literature where the relevance of geometric criteria in general relativity (as well as elsewhere) has been discussed for decades.


arXiv:1905.07661v1 [pdf, other]
Characterising Jupiter's dynamo radius using its magnetic energy spectrum
Comments: No comment found

Jupiter's magnetic field is generated by the convection of liquid metallic hydrogen in its interior. The transition from molecular hydrogen to metallic hydrogen as temperature and pressure increase is believed to be a smooth one. As a result, the electrical conductivity in Jupiter varies continuously from being negligible at the surface to a large value in the deeper region. Thus, unlike the Earth where the upper boundary of the dynamo---the dynamo radius---is definitively located at the core-mantle boundary, it is not clear at what depth dynamo action becomes significant in Jupiter. In this paper, using a numerical model of the Jovian dynamo, we examine the magnetic energy spectrum at different depth and identify a dynamo radius below which (and away from the deep inner core) the shape of the magnetic energy spectrum becomes invariant. We find that this shift in the behaviour of the magnetic energy spectrum signifies a change in the dynamics of the system as electric current becomes important. Traditionally, a characteristic radius derived from the Lowes--Mauersberger spectrum---the Lowes radius---gives a good estimate to the Earth's core-mantle boundary. We argue that in our model, the Lowes radius provides a lower bound to the dynamo radius. We also compare the Lowes--Mauersberger spectrum in our model to that obtained from recent Juno observations. The Lowes radius derived from the Juno data is significantly lower than that obtained from our models. The existence of a stably stratified region in the neighbourhood of the transition zone might provide an explanation of this result.


arXiv:1905.07668v1 [pdf, other]
Finite size effects of slowly-rotating neutron stars light curves
Comments: No comment found

An important question when studying the light curves produced by hot spots on the surface of rotating neutron stars is, how might the shape of the light curve be affected by relaxing some of the simplifying assumptions that one would adopt on a first treatment of the problem, such as that of a point-like spot. In this work we explore the dependence of light curves on the size and shape of a single hot spot on the surface of slowly-rotating neutron stars. More specifically, we consider two different shapes for the hot spots (circular and annular) and examine the resulting light curves as functions of the opening angle of the hot spot (for both) and width (for the latter). We find that the point-like approximation can describe light curves reasonably well, if the opening angle of the hot spot is less than $\sim 5^\circ$. Furthermore, we find that light curves from annular spots are almost the same as those of the full circular spot if the opening angle is less than $\sim 35^\circ$ independently of the hot spot's width.


arXiv:1905.07725v1 [pdf, other]
Scintillator Surface Detector simulations for AugerPrime
Comments: 5 pages, 6 figures, presented at the UHECR 2018 (Paris, October 2018)

Knowledge of the mass composition of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays is understood to be a salient component in answering the open questions in the field. The AugerPrime upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory aims to enhance its surface detector with the hardware necessary to reconstruct primary mass for individual events. This involves placing a scintillation-based detector with an active area of $3.8 \,\mathrm{m}^2$ on top of each existing water-Cherenkov detector in its surface detector array. Here, we present the methods for simulating this Scintillator Surface Detector. These simulations have and will continue to aid in the interpretation of measurements with AugerPrime as well as the development and improvement of event reconstruction algorithms including primary mass.


arXiv:1905.07781v1 [pdf, other]
Variability in the Atmosphere of the Hot Jupiter Kepler-76b
Comments: 27 pages, 10 figures; In press with ApJ

Phase curves and secondary eclipses of gaseous exoplanets are diagnostic of atmospheric composition and meteorology, and the long observational baseline and high photometric precision from the Kepler Mission make its dataset well-suited for exploring phase curve variability, which provides additional insights into atmospheric dynamics. Observations of the hot Jupiter Kepler-76b span more than 1,000 days, providing an ideal dataset to search for atmospheric variability. In this study, we find that Kepler-76b's secondary eclipse, with a depth of $87 \pm 6$ parts-per-million (ppm), corresponds to an effective temperature of 2,830$^{+50}_{-30}$ K. Our results also show clear indications of variability in Kepler-76b's atmospheric emission and reflectivity, with the phase curve amplitude typically $50.5 \pm 1.3$ ppm but varying between 35 and 70 ppm over tens of days. As is common for hot Jupiters, Kepler-76b's phase curve shows a discernible offset of $\left( 9 \pm 1.3 \right)^\circ$ eastward of the sub-stellar point and varying in concert with the amplitude. These variations may arise from the advance and retreat of thermal structures and cloud formations in Kepler-76b's atmosphere; the resulting thermal perturbations may couple with the super-rotation expected to transport aerosols, giving rise to a feedback loop. Looking forward, the TESS Mission can provide new insight into planetary atmospheres, with good prospects to observe both secondary eclipses and phase curves among targets from the mission. TESS's increased sensitivity in red wavelengths as compared to Kepler means that it will probably probe different aspects of planetary atmospheres.


arXiv:1905.07800v1 [pdf, other]
Plasma injection into a solar coronal loop
Comments: 26 pages, 11 figures, Accepted for publication in A&A

Context. The details of the spectral profiles of extreme UV emission lines from solar active regions contain key information to investigate the structure, dynamics, and energetics of the solar upper atmosphere. Aims. We characterize the line profiles not only through the Doppler shift and intensity of the bulk part of the profile. More importantly, we investigate the excess emission and asymmetries in the line wings to study twisting motions and helicity. Methods. WeusearasterscanoftheInterfaceRegionImagingSpectrograph(IRIS)inanactive region. We concentrate on the Si iv line at 1394 {\AA} that forms just below 0.1 MK and follow the plasma in a cool loop moving from one footpoint to the other. We apply single-Gaussian fits to the line core, determine the excess emission in the red and blue wings, and derive the red-blue line asymmetry. Results. The blue wing excess at one footpoint shows injection of plasma into the loop that is then flowing to the other side. At the same footpoint, redshifts of the line core indicate that energy is deposited at around 0.1 MK. The enhanced pressure would then push down the cool plasma and inject some plasma into the loop. In the middle part of the loop, the spectral tilts of the line profiles indicate the presence of a helical structure of the magnetic field, and the line wings are symmetrically enhanced. This is an indication that the loop is driven through the injection of helicity at the loop feet. Conclusions. Iftheloopisdriventobehelical,thenonecanexpectthatthemagneticfieldwill be in a turbulent state, as it has been shown by existing MHD models. The turbulent motions could provide an explanation of the (symmetric) line wing enhancements which have been seen also in loops at coronal temperatures, but have not been understood so far.


arXiv:1905.07801v1 [pdf, other]
Formation of interstellar propanal and 1-propanol ice: a pathway involving solid-state CO hydrogenation
Comments: Accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics

1-propanol (CH3CH2CH2OH) is a three carbon-bearing representative of primary linear alcohols that may have its origin in the cold dark cores in interstellar space. To test this, we investigated in the laboratory whether 1-propanol ice can be formed along pathways possibly relevant to the prestellar core phase. We aim to show in a two-step approach that 1-propanol can be formed through reaction steps that are expected to take place during the heavy CO freeze-out stage by adding C2H2 into the CO + H hydrogenation network via the formation of propanal (CH3CH2CHO) as an intermediate and its subsequent hydrogenation. Temperature programmed desorption-quadrupole mass spectrometry (TPD-QMS) is used to identify the newly formed propanal and 1-propanol. Reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) is used as a complementary diagnostic tool. The mechanisms that can contribute to the formation of solid-state propanal and 1-propanol, as well as other organic compounds, during the heavy CO freeze-out stage are constrained by both laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. Here it is shown that recombination of HCO radicals, formed upon CO hydrogenation, with radicals formed upon C2H2 processing - H2CCH and H3CCH2 - offers possible reaction pathways to solid-state propanal and 1-propanol formation. This extends the already important role of the CO hydrogenation chain in the formation of larger COMs (complex organic molecules). The results are used to compare with ALMA observations. The resulting 1-propanol:propanal ratio concludes an upper limit of < 0:35-0:55, which is complemented by computationally-derived activation barriers in addition to the experimental results.


arXiv:1905.07803v1 [pdf, other]
The matter fluctuation amplitude inferred from the weak lensing power spectrum and correlation function in CFHTLenS data
Comments: submitted to MNRAS

Based on the cosmic shear data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS), Kilbinger et al. (2013) obtained a constraint on the amplitude of matter fluctuations of $\sigma_8({\Omega_\mathrm{m}}/0.27)^{0.6}=0.79\pm0.03$ from the two-point correlation function (2PCF). This is $\approx3\sigma$ lower than the value $0.89\pm0.01$ derived from Planck data on cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. On the other hand, based on the same CFHTLenS data, but using the power spectrum, and performing a different analysis, Liu et al. (2015) obtained the higher value of $\sigma_8({\Omega_\mathrm{m}}/0.27)^{0.64}=0.87^{+0.05}_{-0.06}$. We here investigate the origin of this difference, by performing a fair side-by-side comparison of the 2PCF and power spectrum analyses on CFHTLenS data. We find that these two statistics indeed deliver different results, even when applied to the same data in an otherwise identical procedure. We identify excess power in the data on small scales ($\ell>5,000$) driving the larger values inferred from the power spectrum. We speculate on the possible origin of this excess small-scale power.


arXiv:1905.07806v1 [pdf, other]
All-Sky-ASTROGAM: The MeV Gamma-Ray Companion to Multimessenger Astronomy
Comments: 6 pages, 5 figures, proceedings of the 12th INTEGRAL conference "INTEGRAL looks AHEAD to Multimessenger astronomy" in Geneva (Switzerland) on 11-15 February 2019

All-Sky-ASTROGAM is a gamma-ray observatory operating in a broad energy range, 100 keV to a few hundred MeV, recently proposed as the "Fast" (F) mission of the European Space Agency for a launch in 2028 to an L2 orbit. The scientific payload is composed of a unique gamma-ray imaging monitor for astrophysical transients, with very large field of view (almost 4$\pi$ sr) and optimal sensitivity to detect bright and intermediate flux sources (gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, X-ray binaries, supernovae and novae) at different timescales ranging from seconds to months. The mission will operate in a maturing gravitational wave and multi-messenger epoch, opening up new and exciting synergies.


arXiv:1905.07823v1 [pdf, other]
Global distribution of far-ultraviolet emissions from highly ionized gas in the Milky Way
Comments: 20 pages, 16 figures, Accepted to the Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series

We present all-sky maps of two major FUV cooling lines, C IV and O VI, of highly ionized gas to investigate the nature of the transition-temperature gas. From the extinction-corrected line intensities of C IV and O VI, we calculated the gas temperature and the emission measure of the transition-temperature gas assuming isothermal plasma in the collisional ionization equilibrium. The gas temperature was found to be more or less uniform throughout the Galaxy with a value of (1.89 $\pm$ 0.06) $\times$ $10^5$ K. The emission measure of the transition-temperature gas is described well by a disk-like model in which the scale height of the electron density is $z_0=6_{-2}^{+3}$ kpc. The total mass of the transition-temperature gas is estimated to be approximately $6.4_{-2.8}^{+5.2}\times10^9 M_{\bigodot}$. We also calculated the volume-filling fraction of the transition-temperature gas, which was estimated to be $f=0.26\pm0.09$, and varies from $f\sim0.37$ in the inner Galaxy to $f\sim0.18$ in the outer Galaxy. The spatial distribution of C IV and O VI cannot be explained by a simple supernova remnant model or a three-phase model. The combined effects of supernova remnants and turbulent mixing layers can explain the intensity ratio of C IV and O VI. Thermal conduction front models and high-velocity cloud models are also consistent with our observation.


arXiv:1905.07828v1 [pdf, other]
Galactic Chemical Evolution of Radioactive Isotopes
Comments: 23 pages, 9 figures, 3 tables, accepted in ApJ

The presence of short-lived ($\sim$\,Myr) radioactive isotopes in meteoritic inclusions at the time of their formation represents a unique opportunity to study the circumstances that led to the formation of the Solar System. To interpret these observations we need to calculate the evolution of radioactive-to-stable isotopic ratios in the Galaxy. We present an extension of the open-source galactic chemical evolution codes NuPyCEE and JINAPyCEE that enables to track the decay of radioactive isotopes in the interstellar medium. We show how the evolution of isotopic ratio depends on the star formation history and efficiency, star-to-gas mass ratio, and galactic outflows. Given the uncertainties in the observations used to calibrate our model, our predictions for isotopic ratios at the time of formation of the Sun are uncertain by a factor of 3.6. At that time, to recover the actual radioactive-to-stable isotopic ratios predicted by our model, one can multiply the steady-state solution (see Equation~1) by $2.3^{+3.4}_{-0.7}$. However, in the cases where the radioactive isotope has a half-life longer than $\sim$\,200\,Myr, or the target radioactive or stable isotopes have mass- and/or metallicity-depended production rates, or they originate from different sources with different delay-time distributions, or the reference isotope is radioactive, our codes should be used for more accurate solutions. Our preliminary calculations confirm the dichotomy between radioactive nuclei in the early Solar System with $r$- and $s$-process origin, and that $^{55}$Mn and $^{60}$Fe can be explained by galactic chemical evolution, while $^{26}$Al cannot.


arXiv:1905.07871v1 [pdf, other]
X-ray spectra of the Fe-L complex
Comments: Accepted for publication in A&A

The Hitomi results on the Perseus cluster lead to improvements in our knowledge of atomic physics which are crucial for the precise diagnostic of hot astrophysical plasma observed with high-resolution X-ray spectrometers. However, modeling uncertainties remain, both within but especially beyond Hitomi's spectral window. A major challenge in spectral modeling is the Fe-L spectrum, which is basically a complex assembly of n>2 to n=2 transitions of Fe ions in different ionization states, affected by a range of atomic processes such as collisional excitation, resonant excitation, radiative recombination, dielectronic recombination, and innershell ionization. In this paper we perform a large-scale theoretical calculation on each of the processes with the flexible atomic code (FAC), focusing on ions of Fe XVII to Fe XXIV that form the main body of the Fe-L complex. The new data are found to be consistent within 20% with the recent individual R-matrix calculations for the main Fe-L lines. By further testing the new FAC calculations with the high-quality RGS data from 15 elliptical galaxies and galaxy clusters, we note that the new model gives systematically better fits than the current SPEX v3.04 code, and the mean Fe abundance decreases by 12%, while the O/Fe ratio increases by 16% compared with the results from the current code. Comparing the FAC fit results to those with the R-matrix calculations, we find a temperature-dependent discrepancy of up to ~10% on the Fe abundance between the two theoretical models. Further dedicated tests with both observed spectra and targeted laboratory measurements are needed to resolve the discrepancies, and ultimately, to get the atomic data ready for the next high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy mission.


arXiv:1905.07879v1 [pdf, other]
Origin and Status of Low-Mass Candidate Hypervelocity Stars
Comments: 13 pages, 7 figures, accepted for publication in JKAS

We present an analysis of the chemical abundances and kinematics of six low-mass dwarf stars, previously claimed to be candidate hypervelocity stars (HVSs). We obtained moderate-resolution ($R\sim$ 6000) spectra of these stars to estimate their abundances of several chemical elements (Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, and Ni), and derived their space velocity components and orbital parameters using proper motions from \gaia\ Data Release 2. All six stars are shown to be bound to the Milky Way, and in fact are not even considered high-velocity stars with respect to the Galactic rest frame. Nevertheless, we attempt to characterize their parent Galactic stellar components by simultaneously comparing their abundance patterns and orbital parameters with those expected from various Galactic stellar components. We find that two of our program stars are typical disk stars. For four of the program stars, even though their kinematic probabilistic membership assignment suggests membership in the Galactic disk, based on their distinct orbital properties and chemical characteristics, we cannot rule out the exotic origins of these objects, as follows. Two stars appear to be runaway stars from the Galactic disk. One program star has possibly been accreted from a disrupted dwarf galaxy or dynamically heated from a birthplace in the Galactic bulge. The last object may be either a runaway disk star or has been dynamically heated. Spectroscopic follow-up observations with higher resolution for these curious objects will provide a better understanding of their origin.


arXiv:1905.07891v1 [pdf, other]
Discovery of an au-scale excess in millimeter emission of TW Hya
Comments: 9pages, 5 figures, Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal Letters

We report the detection of an excess in dust continuum emission at 233~GHz (1.3~mm in wavelength) in the protoplanetary disk around TW~Hya revealed through high-sensitivity observations at $\sim$3~au resolution with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The sensitivity of the 233~GHz image has been improved by a factor of 3 with regard to that of our previous cycle 3 observations. The overall structure is mostly axisymmetric, and there are apparent gaps at 25 and 41 au as previously reported. The most remarkable new finding is a few au-scale excess emission in the south-west part of the protoplanetary disk. The excess emission is located at 52 au from the disk center and is 1.5 times brighter than the surrounding protoplanetary disk at a significance of 12$\sigma$. We performed a visibility fitting to the extracted emission after subtracting the axisymmetric protoplanetary disk emission and found that the inferred size and the total flux density of the excess emission are 4.4$\times$1.0~au and 250~$\mu$Jy, respectively. The dust mass of the excess emission corresponds to 0.03~$M_\oplus$ if a dust temperature of 18~K is assumed. Since the excess emission can also be marginally identified in the Band 7 image at almost the same position, the feature is unlikely to be a background source. The excess emission can be explained by a dust clump accumulated in a small elongated vortex or a massive circumplanetary disk around a Neptune mass forming-planet.


arXiv:1905.07895v1 [pdf, other]
Pseudo Evolution of Galaxy-Cluster Masses and Its Impact on Mass Density Profile
Comments: 13 pages, 7 figures, 2 tables. Comments welcome

A mass of galaxy cluster is commonly defined by a spherical over-density (SO) mass with respect to a reference density, whereas the time evolution of SO mass can be affected by redshift evolution of the reference density, as well as physical mass accretion around galaxy clusters. In this paper, we directly measure the amount of pseudo evolution of a SO mass of cluster-sized dark matter halo by the change of reference density from time series of $N$-body simulation for the first time. We find that $48\pm14\%$ of difference in virial SO mass between $z=0$ and $1$ is accounted by the pseudo evolution for clusters with virial mass of $10^{14}\, h^{-1}M_{\odot}$ at $z=0$. The amount of pseudo evolution of SO mass is found to be correlated with the age and the density environment of galaxy cluster. Stacked mass density profile of cluster-sized halos with a larger amount of pseudo evolution of SO mass shows higher concentration ${\it and}$ larger linear bias parameter, that is a counter-example of known secondary halo bias due to concentration on cluster scales. We discuss how more concentrated clusters can have a larger clustering amplitude than less concentrated counterparts and argue the presence of rich filamentary structures plays a critical role in determining the linear halo bias of galaxy clusters.


arXiv:1905.07921v1 [pdf, other]
The Mass-Activity relationships in M and K dwarfs. I. Stellar parameters of our sample of M and K dwarfs
Comments: Accepted by the Astronomical Journal

Empirical correlations between stellar parameters such as rotation or radius and magnetic activity diagnostics require estimates of the effective temperatures and the stellar radii. The aim of this study is to propose simple methods that can be applied to large samples of stars in order to derive estimates of the stellar parameters. Good empirical correlations between Red/Infra-Red colours (e.g. (R-I)$_C$) and effective temperatures have been well established for a long time (e.g. Veeder 1974, Bessell 1979, Leggett 1992). The more recent (R-I)$_C$ colour-$T_{eff}$ correlation using the data of Mann et al. (2015: hereafter M15) and Boyajian et al. (2012: hereafter B12) shows that this colour can be applied as a temperature estimate for large samples of stars. We find that the mean scatter in $T_{eff}$ relative to the (R-I)$_C$-$T_{eff}$ relationship of B12 and M15 data is only $\pm 3\sigma =$44.6~K for K dwarfs and $\pm 3\sigma =$39.4~K for M dwarfs. These figures are small and show that the (R-I)$_C$ colour can be used as a first guess effective temperature estimator for K and M dwarfs. We derive effective temperatures for about 1910 K and M dwarfs using the calibration of (R-I)$_C$ colour-$T_{eff}$ from B12 and M15 data. We also compiled $T_{eff}$ and metallicity measurements available in the literature using the VizieR database. We determine $T_{eff}$ for 441 stars with previously unknown effective temperatures. We also identified 21 new spectroscopic binaries and 1 triple system from our high resolution spectra.


arXiv:1905.07929v1 [pdf, other]
Statistical Study of Gamma-Ray Bursts with a Plateau Phase in the X-ray Afterglow
Comments: 35 pages, 8 figures, 3 tables, submitted to ApJS

A plateau phase in the X-ray afterglow is observed in a significant fraction of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Previously, it has been found that there exists a correlation among three key parameters concerning the plateau phase, i.e., the end time of the plateau phase in the GRB rest frame ($T_{a}$), the corresponding X-ray luminosity at the end time ($L_{X}$) and the isotropic energy of the prompt GRB ($E_{\gamma,\rm{iso}}$). In this study, we systematically search through all the \emph{Swift} GRBs with a plateau phase that occurred between 2005 May and 2018 August. We collect 174 GRBs, with redshifts available for all of them. For the whole sample, the correlation between $L_{X}$, $T_{a}$ and $E_{\gamma,\rm{iso}}$ is confirmed, with the best fit relation being $L_{X}\propto T_{a}^{-0.92}E_{\gamma,\rm{iso}}^{0.83}$. Such an updated three-parameter correlation still supports that the central leftover after GRBs is probably a millisecond magnetar. It is interesting to note that short GRBs with duration less than 2 s in our sample also follow the same correlation, which hints that the merger production of two neutron stars could be a high mass magnetar, but not necessarily a black hole. Moreover, GRBs having an ''internal'' plateau (i.e., with a following decay index being generally smaller than -3) also obey this correlation. It further strengthens the idea that the internal plateau is due to the delayed collapse of a high mass neutron star into a black hole. The updated three-parameter correlation indicates that GRBs with a plateau phase may act as a standard candle for cosmology study.


arXiv:1905.07943v1 [pdf, other]
Suppressing the thermal SZ-induced variance in CMB-cluster lensing estimators
Comments: 9 pages, 4 figures

Accurate galaxy cluster mass measurements from the gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background temperature maps depend on mitigating potential biases from the cluster's own thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect signal. Quadratic lensing estimators use a pair of maps to extract the lensing signal: a large scale gradient map and a small scale lensing map. The SZ bias can be eliminated by using an SZ-free map in the pair, with the gradient map being favored for signal-to-noise reasons. However, while this approach eliminates the bias, the SZ power in small scale lensing map adds extra variance that can become significant for high mass clusters and low noise surveys. In this work, we propose projecting out an SZ template to reduce the SZ variance. Any residual SZ signal after template fitting is uncorrelated with the SZ-free gradient map, and thus does not bias the mass measurements. For massive clusters above $4\times 10^{14}$\,\msolar{} observed by the upcoming CMB-S4 or Simons Observatory experiments, we find that the template fitting approach would increase the cluster lensing signal-to-noise by a factor of 1.4.


arXiv:1905.07950v1 [pdf, other]
A survey of molecular cores in M17 SWex
Comments: 12 figures, accepted for publication in PASJ (Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan)

A survey of molecular cores covering the infrared dark cloud known as the M17 southwest extension (M17 SWex) has been carried out with the 45 m Nobeyama Radio Telescope. Based on the N2H+ (J= 1-0) data obtained, we have identified 46 individual cores whose masses are in the range 43 to 3026 Mo. We examined the relationship between the physical parameters of the cores and those of young stellar objects (YSOs) associated with the cores found in the literature. The comparison of the virial mass and the core mass indicates that most of the cores can be gravitationally stable if we assume a large external pressure. Among the 46 cores, we found four massive cores with YSOs. They have large mass of >~ 1000Mo and line width of >~ 2.5 km s^-1 which are similar to those of clumps forming high mass stars. However, previous studies have shown that there is no active massive star formation in this region. Recent measurements of near-infrared polarization infer that the magnetic field around M17 SWex is likely to be strong enough to support the cores against self-gravity. We therefore suggest that the magnetic field may prevent the cores from collapsing, causing the low-level of massive star formation in M17 SWex.


arXiv:1905.07958v1 [pdf, other]
Synthesis of complex organic molecules in soft x-ray irradiated ices
Comments: No comment found

We study the chemical evolution of H2O:CO:NH3 ice mixtures irradiated with soft X-rays, in the range 250-1250 eV. We identify many nitrogen-bearing molecules such as e.g., OCN-, NH4+ , HNCO, CH3CN, HCONH2, and NH2COCONH2. Several infrared features are compatible with glycine or its isomers. During the irradiation, we detected through mass spectroscopy many species desorbing the ice. Such findings support either the infrared identifications and reveal less abundant species with not clear infrared features. Among them, m/z = 57 has been ascribed to methyl isocyanate (CH3NCO), a molecule of prebiotic relevance, recently detected in protostellar environments. During the warm up after the irradiation, several infrared features including 2168 cm-1 band of OCN-, 1690 cm-1 band of formamide, and the 1590 cm-1 band associated to three different species, HCOO-, CH3NH2 and NH3+CH2COO survive up to room temperature. Interestingly, many high masses have been also detected. Possible candidates are methyl-formate, (m/z = 60, HCOOCH3), ethanediamide (m/z = 88, NH2COCONH2), and N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid (m=z = 175). This latter species is compatible with the presence of the m/z = 43, 70 and 80 fragments. Photo-desorption of organics is relevant for the detection of such species in the gas-phase of cold environments, where organic synthesis in ice mantles should dominate. We estimate the gas-phase enrichment of some selected species in the light of a protoplanetary disc model around young solar-type stars.


arXiv:1905.07969v1 [pdf, other]
Photometric analysis and evolutionary stages of the contact binary V2790 Ori
Comments: 13 pages, 6 figures and 5 tables

A photometric analysis and evolutionary stages of the contact binary V2790~Ori is presented. The $BVR_\mathrm{C}$ observations were carried out at the Thai National Observatory. The photometric light curves were fitted to provide fundamental parameters, required to use in the analysis of evolutionary stages of the binary. The results show that V2790~Ori is a W-type contact system with a mass ratio of $q$~=~2.932. The orbital period increase is found at a rate of $\mathrm{d}P\slash \mathrm{d}t~=~$1.03$\times10^{-7}~$d~yr$^{-1}$. It implies that a rate of mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one is $\mathrm{d}m_2\slash \mathrm{d}t~=~$6.31$\times10^{-8}~M_{\odot}$~yr$^{-1}$. Furthermore, we find that from the detached phase to the contact phase, mass of the evolved secondary component has been lost 1.188$\pm$0.110~$\mathrm{M}_{\odot}$, i.e., mass lost by the system of 0.789$\pm$0.073~$\mathrm{M}_{\odot}$ and mass transfer to the primary of 0.399$\pm$0.037~$\mathrm{M}_{\odot}$. Since the time of the first overflow, the angular momentum loss is found to be 72.2~$\%$ of $J_\mathrm{FOF}$, causing the orbit and Roche surface to shrink until the present time.


arXiv:1905.07972v1 [pdf, other]
Extension of the King-Hele orbit contraction method for accurate, semi-analytical propagation of non-circular orbits
Comments: Post-print version of 13 February 2019

Numerical integration of orbit trajectories for a large number of initial conditions and for long time spans is computationally expensive. Semi-analytical methods were developed to reduce the computational burden. An elegant and widely used method of semi-analytically integrating trajectories of objects subject to atmospheric drag was proposed by King-Hele (KH). However, the analytical KH contraction method relies on the assumption that the atmosphere density decays strictly exponentially with altitude. If the actual density profile does not satisfy the assumption of a fixed scale height, as is the case for Earth's atmosphere, the KH method introduces potentially large errors for non-circular orbit configurations. In this work, the KH method is extended to account for such errors by using a newly introduced atmosphere model derivative. By superimposing exponentially decaying partial atmospheres, the superimposed KH method can be applied accurately while considering more complex density profiles. The KH method is further refined by deriving higher order terms during the series expansion. A variable boundary condition to choose the appropriate eccentricity regime, based on the series truncation errors, is introduced. The accuracy of the extended analytical contraction method is shown to be comparable to numerical Gauss-Legendre quadrature. Propagation using the proposed method compares well against non-averaged integration of the dynamics, while the computational load remains very low.


arXiv:1905.07975v1 [pdf, other]
H.E.S.S. and Suzaku observations of the Vela X pulsar wind nebula
Comments: Accepted for publication in A&A

Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe) represent the most prominent population of Galactic very-high-energy gamma-ray sources and are thought to be an efficient source of leptonic cosmic rays. Vela X is a nearby middle-aged PWN, which shows bright X-ray and TeV gamma-ray emission toward an elongated structure called the cocoon. Since TeV emission is likely inverse-Compton emission of electrons while X-ray emission is synchrotron radiation of the same electrons, we aim to derive the properties of the relativistic particles and of magnetic fields with minimal modelling. We use data from the Suzaku XIS to derive the spectra from three compact regions in Vela X covering distances from 0.3 pc to 4 pc from the pulsar along the cocoon. We obtain gamma-ray spectra of the same regions from H.E.S.S. observations and fit a radiative model to the multi-wavelength spectra. The TeV electron spectra and magnetic field strengths are consistent within the uncertainties for the three regions, with energy densities of the order $10^{-12}\rm\,erg\,cm^{-3}$. The data indicate the presence of a cutoff in the electron spectrum at energies of $\sim$100 TeV and a magnetic field strength of $\sim$$6\,\rm\mu G$. Constraints on the presence of turbulent magnetic fields are weak. The pressure of TeV electrons and magnetic fields in the cocoon is dynamically negligible, requiring the presence of another dominant pressure component. Sub-TeV electrons cannot account completely for the missing pressure, that may be provided either by relativistic ions or from mixing of the ejecta with the pulsar wind. The electron spectra are consistent with expectations from transport scenarios dominated either by advection via the reverse shock or by diffusion. Constraints on turbulent magnetic fields and the shape of the electron cutoff can be improved by spectral measurements in the energy range $\gtrsim 10\rm\,keV$. (abridged)


arXiv:1905.07994v1 [pdf, other]
Investigating an angular correlation between nearby starburst galaxies and UHECRs with the Telescope Array experiment
Comments: 3 pages, 4 figures; presented at the UHECR2018 conference, 8-12 October 2018, Paris, France

The arrival directions of cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory (Auger) with energies above 39~EeV were recently reported to correlate with the positions of 23 nearby starburst galaxies (SBGs): in their best-fit model, 9.7\% of the cosmic-ray flux originates from these objects and undergoes angular diffusion on a $12.9^\circ$~scale. On the other hand, some of the SBGs on their list, including the brightest one (M82), are at northern declinations outside the Auger field of view. Data from detectors in the northern hemisphere would be needed to look for cosmic-ray excesses near these objects. In this work, we tested the Auger best-fit model against data collected by the Telescope Array (TA) in a 9-year period, without trying to re-optimize the model parameters for our dataset in order not to introduce statistical penalties. The resulting test statistic (double log-likelihood ratio) was $-1.00$, corresponding to $1.1\sigma$ significance among isotropically generated random datasets, and to $-1.4\sigma$ significance among ones generated assuming the Auger best-fit model. In other words, our data is still insufficient to conclusively rule out either hypothesis. The ongoing fourfold expansion of TA will collect northern hemisphere data with much more statistics, improving our ability to discriminate between different flux models.


arXiv:1905.08017v1 [pdf, other]
Occurrence of Great Magnetic Storms on 6-8 March 1582
Comments: Accepted for publication in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society; main text 10 pages, reference 5 pages, appendix 4 pages, 2 tables, and 6 figures

Although knowing the occurrence frequency of severe space weather events is important for a modern society, it is insufficiently known due to the lack of magnetic or sunspot observations, before the Carrington event in 1859 known as one of the largest events during the last two centuries. Here, we show that a severe magnetic storm occurred on 8 March 1582 based on auroral records in East Asia. The equatorward boundary of auroral visibility reached 28.8{\deg} magnetic latitude. The equatorward boundary of the auroral oval is estimated to be 33.0{\deg} invariant latitude (ILAT), which is comparable to the storms on 25/26 September 1909 (~31.6{\deg} ILAT, minimum Dst of -595 nT), 28/29 August 1859 (~36.5{\deg} ILAT), and 13/14 March 1989 (~40{\deg} ILAT, minimum Dst of -589 nT). Assuming that the equatorward boundary is a proxy for the scale of magnetic storms, we presume that the storm on March 1582 was severe. We also found that the storm on March 1582 lasted, at least, for three days by combining European records. The auroral oval stayed at mid-latitude for the first two days and moved to low-latitude (in East Asia) for the last day. It is plausible that the storm was caused by a series of ICMEs (interplanetary coronal mass ejections). We can reasonably speculate that a first ICME could have cleaned up interplanetary space to make the following ICMEs more geo-effective, as probably occurred in the Carrington and Halloween storms.


arXiv:1905.08030v1 [pdf, other]
The effects of ionization feedback on star formation: A case study of the M16 H II region
Comments: 18 pages, 12 figures, accepted for publication in A&A

We aim to investigate the impact of the ionized radiation from the M16 HII region on the surrounding molecular cloud and on its hosted star formation. To present comprehensive multi-wavelength observations towards the M16 HII region, we used new CO data and existing infrared, optical, and submillimeter data. The 12CO J=1-0, 13CO J=1-0, and C18O J=1-0 data were obtained with the Purple Mountain Observatory (PMO) 13.7m radio telescope. To trace massive clumps and extract young stellar objects (YSOs) associated with the M16 HII region, we used the ATLASGAL and GLIMPSE I catalogs, respectively. From CO data, we discern a large-scale filament with three velocity components. Because these three components overlap with each other in both velocity and space, the filament may be made of three layers. The M16 ionized gas interacts with the large-scale filament and has reshaped its structure. In the large-scale filament, we find 51 compact cores from the ATLASGAL catalog, 20 of them being quiescent. The mean excitation temperature of these cores is 22.5 K, while this is 22.2 K for the quiescent cores. This high temperature observed for the quiescent cores suggests that the cores may be heated by M16 and do not experience internal heating from sources in the cores. Through the relationship between the mass and radius of these cores, we obtain that 45% of all the cores are massive enough to potentially form massive stars. Compared with the thermal motion, the turbulence created by the nonthermal motion is responsible for the core formation. For the pillars observed towards M16, the H II region may give rise to the strong turbulence.


arXiv:1905.08071v1 [pdf, other]
An Origin for the Angular Momentum of Molecular Cloud Cores: a Prediction from Filament Fragmentation
Comments: 20 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal

The angular momentum of a molecular cloud core plays a key role in star formation, since it is directly related to the outflow and the jet emanating from the new-born star and it eventually results in the formation of the protoplanetary disk. However, the origin of the core rotation and its time evolution are not well understood. Recent observations reveal that molecular clouds exhibit a ubiquity of filamentary structures and that star forming cores are associated with the densest filaments. Since these results suggest that dense cores form primarily in filaments, the mechanism of core formation from filament fragmentation should explain the distribution of the angular momentum of these cores. In this paper we analyze the relation between velocity fluctuations along the filament close to equilibrium and the angular momentum of the cores formed along its crest. We first find that an isotropic velocity fluctuation that follows the three-dimensional Kolmogorov spectrum does not reproduce the observed angular momentum of molecular cloud cores. We then identify the need for a large power at small scales and study the effect of three power spectrum models. We show that the one-dimensional Kolmogorov power spectrum with a slope -5/3 and an anisotropic model with reasonable parameters are compatible with the observations. Our results stress the importance of more detailed and systematic observations of both the velocity structure along filaments and the angular momentum distribution of molecular cloud cores to determine the validity of the mechanism of core formation from filamentary molecular clouds.


arXiv:1905.08072v1 [pdf, other]
Long term variability of Swift J1753.5-0127]{Long term variability of Swift J1753.5-0127: X-ray spectral-temporal correlations during state transitions
Comments: 29 pages, 8 figures, accepted by MNRAS

We studied the long-term evolution of the spectral-temporal correlated properties of the black hole candidate Swift J1753.5-0127 from the onset of its outburst until 2011 with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The source stayed most of its lifetime during hard state, with occasionally transitioned to the hard intermediate state. Similar to typical black hole transients, Swift J1753.5-0127 traces a clear hard line in absolute rms - intensity diagram during the low hard state, with expected highest absolute rms, while shows a clear turn during the hard intermediate state, accompanied by lower absolute rms. Different from Cyg X-1, we found that frequency-dependent time lag increased significantly in the 0.02 -- 3.2 Hz band during state transition in this source. The X-ray time lags in 0.02 -- 3.2 Hz can therefore be used as indicators of state transition in this source. Type-C QPO frequency is positively related with its fractional rms and X-ray photon index, suggesting a moving inwards disk/corona scenario. We discussed the physical interpretation of our results in our paper.


arXiv:1905.08086v1 [pdf, other]
Cosmological test using the high-redshift detection rate of FSRQs with the Square Kilometer Array
Comments: 8 pages, 5 figures, 3 tables. Accepted for publication in MNRAS

We present a phenomenological method for predicting the number of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) that should be detected by upcoming Square Kilometer Array (SKA) SKA1-MID Wide Band 1 and Medium-Deep band 2 surveys. We use the Fermi Blazar Sequence and mass estimates of Fermi FSRQs, and gamma-ray emitting Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies, to model the radio emission of FSRQs as a function of mass alone, assuming a near-Eddington accretion rate, which is suggested by current quasar surveys at z > 6. This is used to determine the smallest visible black hole mass as a function of redshift in two competing cosmologies we compare in this paper: the standard LCDM model and the R_h=ct universe. We then apply lockstep growth to the observed black-hole mass function at $z=6$ in order to devolve that population to higher redshifts and determine the number of FSRQs detectable by the SKA surveys as a function of z. We find that at the redshifts for which this method is most valid, LCDM predicts ~30 times more FSRQs than R_h=ct for the Wide survey, and ~100 times more in the Medium-Deep survey. These stark differences will allow the SKA surveys to strongly differentiate between these two models, possibly rejecting one in comparison with the other at a high level of confidence.


arXiv:1905.08103v1 [pdf, other]
Updated matter power spectrum constraints from the Ly$α$ forest and other probes
Comments: Submitted to MNRAS

We present a new compilation of inferences of the linear 3D matter power spectrum at redshift $z\,{=}\,0$ from a variety of probes spanning several orders of magnitude in physical scale and in cosmic history. We develop a new lower-noise method for performing this inference from the latest Ly$\alpha$ forest 1D power spectrum data. We also include cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization power spectra and lensing reconstruction data, the cosmic shear two-point correlation function, and the clustering of luminous red galaxies. We provide a Dockerized Jupyter notebook housing the fairly complex dependencies for producing the plot of these data, with the hope that groups in the future can help add to it. Overall, we find qualitative agreement between the independent measurements considered here and the standard $\Lambda$CDM cosmological model fit to the Planck data.


arXiv:1905.08107v1 [pdf, other]
Constraining the nature of the accreting binary in CXOGBS J174623.5-310550
Comments: (9 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS)

We report optical and infrared observations of the X-ray source CXOGBS J174623.5-310550. This Galactic object was identified as a potential quiescent low-mass X-ray binary accreting from an M-type donor on the basis of optical spectroscopy and the broad Halpha emission line. The analysis of X-shooter spectroscopy covering 3 consecutive nights supports an M2/3-type spectral classification. Neither radial velocity variations nor rotational broadening is detected in the photospheric lines. No periodic variability is found in I- and r'-band light curves. We derive r' = 20.8, I = 19.2 and Ks = 16.6 for the optical and infrared counterparts with the M-type star contributing 90% to the I-band light. We estimate its distance to be 1.3-1.8 kpc. The lack of radial velocity variations implies that the M-type star is not the donor star in the X-ray binary. This could be an interloper or the outer body in a hierarchical triple. We constrain the accreting binary to be a < 2.2 hr orbital period eclipsing cataclysmic variable or a low-mass X-ray binary lying in the foreground of the Galactic Bulge.


arXiv:1905.08132v1 [pdf, other]
Exoplanetary Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer with Correlated-k I. Benchmarking Transit and Emission Observables
Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS

Current observational data of exoplanets are providing increasing detail of their 3D atmospheric structures. As characterisation efforts expand in scope, the need to develop consistent 3D radiative-transfer methods becomes more pertinent as the complex atmospheric properties of exoplanets are required to be modelled together consistently. We aim to compare the transmission and emission spectra results of a 3D Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer (MCRT) model to contemporary radiative-transfer suites. We perform several benchmarking tests of a MCRT code, Cloudy Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer (CMCRT), to transmission and emission spectra model output. We add flexibility to the model through the use of k-distribution tables as input opacities. We present a hybrid MCRT and ray tracing methodology for the calculation of transmission spectra with a multiple scattering component. CMCRT compares well to the transmission spectra benchmarks at the 10s of ppm level. Emission spectra benchmarks are consistent to within 10% of the 1D models. We suggest that differences in the benchmark results are likely caused by geometric effects between plane-parallel and spherical models. In a practical application, we post-process a cloudy 3DHD 189733b GCM model and compare to available observational data. Our results suggest the core methodology and algorithms of CMCRT produce consistent results to contemporary radiative transfer suites. 3D MCRT methods are highly suitable for detailed post-processing of cloudy and non-cloudy 1D and 3D exoplanet atmosphere simulations in instances where atmospheric inhomogeneities, significant limb effects/geometry or multiple scattering components are important considerations.


arXiv:1905.08133v1 [pdf, other]
The spiral pattern rotation speed of the Galaxy and the corotation radius with GAIA DR2
Comments: 13 pages, accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of The Royal Astronomical Society,

In this work we revisit the issue of the rotation speed of the spiral arms and the location of the corotation radius of our Galaxy. This research was performed using homogeneous data set of young open clusters (age < 50 Myr) determined from Gaia DR2 data. The stellar astrometric membership were determined using proper motions and parallaxes, taking into account the full covariance matrix. The distance, age, reddening and metallicity of the clusters were determined by our non subjective multidimensional global optimization tool to fit theoretical isochrones to Gaia DR2 photometric data. The rotation speed of the arms is obtained from the relation between age and angular distance of the birthplace of the clusters to the present-day position of the arms. Using the clusters belonging to the Sagittarius-Carina, Local and Perseus arms, and adopting the Galactic parameters $R_0$ = 8.3 kpc and $V_0$ = 240 km\,s$^{-1}$, we determine a pattern speed of $28.2 \pm 2.1$ km\,s$^{-1}$\,kpc$^{-1}$, with no difference between the arms. This implies that the corotation radius is $R_c = 8.51 \pm 0.64$ kpc, close to the solar Galactic orbit ($R_c/R_0 = 1.02\pm0.07$).


arXiv:1905.08137v1 [pdf, other]
Derivation of the core mass -- halo mass relation of fermionic and bosonic dark matter halos from an effective thermodynamical model
Comments: No comment found

We consider the possibility that dark matter halos are made of quantum particles such as fermions or bosons in the form of Bose-Einstein condensates. In that case, they generically have a ''core-halo'' structure with a quantum core that depends on the type of particle considered and a halo that is relatively independent of the dark matter particle and that is similar to the NFW profile of cold dark matter. We model the halo by an isothermal gas with an effective temperature $T$. We then derive the core mass -- halo mass relation $M_c(M_v)$ of dark matter halos from an effective thermodynamical model by extremizing the free energy $F(M_c)$ with respect to the core mass $M_c$. We obtain a general relation that is equivalent to the ''velocity dispersion tracing'' relation according to which the velocity dispersion in the core $v_c^2\sim GM_c/R_c$ is of the same order as the velocity dispersion in the halo $v_v^2\sim GM_v/r_v$. We provide therefore a justification of this relation from thermodynamical arguments. In the case of fermions, we obtain a relation $M_c\propto M_v^{1/2}$ that agrees with the relation found numerically by Ruffini {\it et al.}. In the case of noninteracting bosons, we obtain a relation $M_c\propto M_v^{1/3}$ that agrees with the relation found numerically by Schive {\it et al.}. In the case of bosons with a repulsive self-interaction in the Thomas-Fermi limit, we predict a relation $M_c\propto M_v^{2/3}$ that still has to be confirmed numerically. We also obtain a general approximate core mass -- halo mass relation that is valid for bosons with arbitrary repulsive or attractive self-interaction. For an attractive self-interaction, we determine the maximum halo mass that can harbor a stable quantum core (dilute axion ''star'').


arXiv:1905.08141v1 [pdf, other]
The s-process enriched star HD 55496: origin from a globular cluster or from the tidal disruption of a dwarf galaxy?
Comments: No comment found

We present a new abundance analysis of HD 55496, previously known as a metal-poor barium star. We found that HD 55496 has a metallicity [Fe/H] $=-1.55$ and is s-process enriched. We find that HD 55496 presents four chemical peculiarities: (i) a Na-O abundance anti-correlation; (ii) it is aluminum rich; (iii) it is carbon poor for a s-process enriched star and (iv) the heavy 2$^{nd}$ s-process peak elements, such as Ba, La, Ce, and Nd, present smaller abundances than the lighter s-process elements, such as Sr, Y and Zr, which is not usually observed among the chemically-peculiar binary stars at this metallicity. The heavy-element abundance pattern suggests that the main source of the neutrons is the $^{22}$Ne($\alpha$,n)$^{25}$Mg reaction. Taken all these abundance evidence together into consideration, this strongly suggests that HD 55496 is a "second generation of globular cluster star" formed from gas already strongly enriched in s-process elements and now is a field halo object. Our dynamical analysis, however, indicates that the past encounter probabilities with the known globular clusters is very small ($\leq 6\%$). This evidence, together with the fact of having a retrograde motion, points to a halo intruder possibly originated from the tidal disruption of a dwarf galaxy.


arXiv:1905.08148v1 [pdf, other]
OGLE-2018-BLG-0532Lb: Cold Neptune With Possible Jovian Sibling
Comments: 48 pages, 9 figures, 7 tables

We report the discovery of the planet OGLE-2018-BLG-0532Lb, with very obvious signatures in the light curve that lead to an estimate of the planet-host mass ratio $q=M_{\rm planet}/M_{\rm host}\simeq 1\times10^{-4}$. Although there are no obvious systematic residuals to this double-lens/single-source (2L1S) fit, we find that $\chi^2$ can be significantly improved by adding either a third lens (3L1S, $\Delta\chi^2=81$) or second source (2L2S, $\Delta\chi^2=65$) to the lens-source geometry. After thorough investigation, we conclude that we cannot decisively distinguish between these two scenarios and therefore focus on the robustly-detected planet. However, given the possible presence of a second planet, we investigate to what degree and with what probability such additional planets may affect seemingly single-planet light curves. Our best estimates for the properties of the lens star and the secure planet are: a host mass $M\sim 0.25\,M_\odot$, system distance $D_L\sim 1\,$kpc and planet mass $m_{p,1}= 8\,M_\oplus$ with projected separation $a_{1,\perp}=1.4\,$au. However, there is a relatively bright $I=18.6$ (and also relatively blue) star projected within $<50\,$mas of the lens, and if future high-resolution images show that this is coincident with the lens, then it is possible that it is the lens, in which case, the lens would be both more massive and more distant than the best-estimated values above.


arXiv:1905.08180v1 [pdf, other]
The Largest Crab Glitch and the Vortex Creep Model
Comments: 7 pages, 1 figure, submitted to MNRAS

The Crab pulsar displayed its largest glitch on 2017 November. An extended initial spin-up phase of this largest glitch was resolved, for the first time with high cadence of observations both in radio and X-rays on a time-scale of 2 days. A combination of crustquake and vortex unpinning models is invoked to account for the extended spin-up, magnitude and post-glitch relaxation characteristics of this glitch. We evaluate the extended spin-up followed by the familiar spin-down as due to the creep response to the initial induced inward motion of some vortex lines pinned to broken crustal plates moving inward towards the rotation axis, together with the common and familiar post-glitch creep response to the sudden outward motion of vortices unpinned at the glitch. Our analysis confirms that the number of unpinned vortices participating in glitches are similar in all Crab glitches, and within an order of magnitude in all glitches from all pulsars. This typical number of unpinned vortices is related to the broken plate size in quakes as triggers for vortex unpinning avalanches. The physical determinant of this universal broken plate size is in turn the critical strain angle in the neutron star crust. Occurrence of this largest Crab glitch after a relatively long inactive period is consistent with accumulation of the pinned vorticity to be tapped.


arXiv:1905.08193v1 [pdf, other]
Exploring helical dynamos with machine learning
Comments: 17 pages, 6 figures, 3 tables, comments welcome, data + IPython notebooks: https://github.com/fnauman/ML_alpha2

We use ensemble machine learning algorithms to study the evolution of magnetic fields in forced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence that is helically forced. Using mean field formalism, we model the electromotive force (EMF) both as a linear and non-linear function of the mean magnetic field and current density. The form of the EMF is determined using regularized linear regression and random forests. We also compare various analytical models to the data using Bayesian inference with Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling. Our results demonstrate that linear regression is largely successful at predicting the EMF and the use of more sophisticated algorithms (random forests, MCMC) do not lead to significant improvement in the fits. We conclude that the data we are looking at is effectively low dimensional and essentially linear. Finally, to encourage further exploration by the community, we provide all of our simulation data and analysis scripts as open source \textsc{IPython} notebooks.


arXiv:1905.08194v1 [pdf, other]
Exploring the damping of Alfvén waves along a long off-limb coronal loop, up to 1.4 R$_\odot$
Comments: Submitted to A&A. Comments are welcome

The Alfv\'en wave energy flux in the corona can be explored using the electron density and velocity amplitude of the waves. The velocity amplitude of Alfv\'en waves can be obtained from the non-thermal velocity of the spectral line profiles. Previous calculations of the Alfv\'en wave energy flux with height in active regions and polar coronal holes have provided evidence for the damping of Alfv\'en waves with height. We present off-limb Hinode EUV imaging spectrometer (EIS) observations of a long coronal loop up to 1.4~R$_\odot$. We have obtained the electron density along the loop and found the loop to be almost in hydrostatic equilibrium. We obtained the temperature using the EM-loci method and found the loop to be isothermal across, as well as along, the loop with a temperature of about 1.37 MK. We significantly improve the estimate of non-thermal velocities over previous studies by using the estimated ion (equal to electron) temperature. Estimates of electron densities are improved using the significant updates of the CHIANTI v.8 atomic data. More accurate measurements of propagating Alfv\'en wave energy along the coronal loop and its damping are presented up to distances of 1.4 R$_\odot$, further than have been previously explored. The Alfv\'en wave energy flux obtained could contribute to a significant part of the coronal losses due to radiation along the loop.


arXiv:1905.08198v1 [pdf, other]
[OIII] Emission Line Properties in a New Sample of Heavily Reddened Quasars at $z>2$
Comments: 12 pages, 7 figures, plus Appendices. Accepted for publication in MNRAS

We present VLT-SINFONI near infra-red spectra of 26 new heavily reddened quasar candidates selected from the UKIDSS-LAS, VISTA VHS and VIKING imaging surveys. This new sample extends our reddened quasar search to both brighter and fainter luminosities. 25 of the 26 candidates are confirmed to be broad line quasars with redshifts $0.7<z<2.6$ and dust extinctions $0.5<E(B-V)<3.0$. Combining with previously identified samples, we study the H$\alpha$, H$\beta$ and [OIII] emission line properties in 22 heavily reddened quasars with $L_{bol}\approx 10^{47}$ erg/s and $z>2$. We present the first comparison of the [OIII] line properties in high luminosity obscured quasars to a large sample of 111 unobscured quasars in the same luminosity and redshift range. Broad wings extending to velocities of 2500 km/s are seen in the [OIII] emission line profiles of our reddened quasars, suggesting that strong outflows are affecting the ionised gas kinematics. However, we find no significant difference between the kinematics of the [OIII] emission in reddened and unobscured quasars when the two samples are matched in luminosity and redshift. Our results are consistent with a model where quasar-driven outflows persist for some time after the obscuring dust has been cleared from along the line of sight. Assuming the amount of ionised gas in obscured and unobscured quasars is similar, we use the equivalent width distribution of the [OIII] emission to constrain the location of the obscuring dust in our reddened quasars. We find that the dust is most likely to be located on galactic scales, outside the [OIII] emitting region.


arXiv:1905.08200v1 [pdf, other]
Principal component analysis of the primordial tensor power spectrum
Comments: 32 pages, 16 figures, submitted to JCAP

We study how the shape of the spectrum of primordial gravitational waves can be constrained by future experiments looking at the B-mode of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization. We implement a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) including the effects of diffuse foreground residuals, following component separation, in the uncertainty of CMB angular power spectra, and taking into account the gravitational lensing by Large Scale Structure. We perform our study by considering the capabilities of future B-mode CMB experiments such as LiteBIRD, the Simons Observatory (SO) and Stage-IV (CMB-S4), in particular in detecting deviations of the primordial tensor spectrum from the scale-invariant behavior. We find that diffuse foreground residuals impact substantially both the derivation of the PCA basis and the corresponding constraining power, in all cases. In particular, depending on which experimental specifications and which value $r$ of tensor-to-scalar ratio for cosmological perturbations are considered, adding foregrounds residuals can determine an increase as large as a factor $\sim 4$ both on the uncertainty on $r$ and on the recovery of the PCA modes. We study the limitations of the methodology, including the effect of physicality priors on the PCA, which we quantify via a Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC) analysis of the combined cosmological and PCA power spectrum parameter space.


arXiv:1905.08201v1 [pdf, other]
On the Emergence of Thousands of Absorption Lines in the Quasar PG1411+442: A Clumpy High-Column Density Outflow from the Broad Emission-Line Region?
Comments: 21 pages, submitted to MNRAS

Quasar outflows are fundamental components of quasar environments that might play an important role in feedback to galaxy evolution. We report on the emergence of a remarkable new outflow absorption-line system in the quasar PG1411+442 (redshift ~0.089) detected in the UV and visible with the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph, respectively. This new "transient'' system contains thousands of lines, including FeII and FeII* from excited states up to 3.89 eV, HI* Balmer lines, NaI D 5890,5896, and the first detection of HeI* 5876 in a quasar. The transient absorber is spatially inhomogeneous and compact, with sizes ~<0.003 pc, based on covering fractions on the quasar continuum source ranging from ~0.45 in strong UV lines to ~0.04 in NaI D. Cloudy photoionization simulations show that large total column densities log N_H(cm^-2) >~ 23.4 and an intense radiation field ~<0.4~pc from the quasar are needed to produce the observed lines in thick zones of both fully-ionised and partially-ionised gas. The densities are conservatively log n_H(cm-3) >~ 7 based on FeII*, HI*, and HeI* but they might reach log n_H(cm^-3) >~ 10 based on NaI D. The transient lines appear at roughly the same velocity shift, v ~ -1900 km/s, as a "mini-BAL'' outflow detected previously, but with narrower Doppler widths, b ~ 100 km/s, and larger column densities in more compact outflow structures. We propose that the transient lines identify a clumpy outflow from the broad emission-line region that, at its current speed and location, is still gravitationally bound to the central black hole.


arXiv:1905.08206v1 [pdf, other]
On the possibility of nonlinear de Broglie relations for very-high-energy photons
Comments: No comment found

While quantum field theory is at the heart of our understanding of a large variety of phenomena, there remains some discrepancies between theoretically predicted and observed quantities in the very-high-energy (VHE) domain. In this work, starting from commutation relations between phase-space operators (in ''first quantization'') we define averaged creation and annihilation operators and show that they satisfy a simple, deformed commutation relation. By extending this relation to the quantized electromagnetic field, we are led to non-linear de Broglie relations for photons, which appreciably differ from $E=\hbar \omega$ and $\mathbf{p}=\hbar \mathbf{k}$ only in the VHE regime. The nonlinear Compton scattering that follows from these assumptions is discussed. We suggest that this hypothesis may be a way to deal with the pair-production anomaly and show that it may lead to an attenuation in the cosmological-constant problem of several orders of magnitude.


arXiv:1905.08223v1 [pdf, other]
Vacuum ultraviolet photodesorption and photofragmentation of formaldehyde-containing ices
Comments: ACS Earth and Space Chemistry; Complex Organic Molecules (COMs) in Star-Forming Regions special issue

Non-thermal desorption from icy grains containing H$_2$CO has been invoked to explain the observed H$_2$CO gas phase abundances in ProtoPlanetary Disks (PPDs) and Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs). Photodesorption is thought to play a key role, however no absolute measurement of the photodesorption from H$_2$CO ices were performed up to now, so that a default value is used in the current astrophysical models. As photodesorption yields differ from one molecule to the other, it is crucial to experimentally investigate photodesorption from H$_2$CO ices. We measured absolute wavelength-resolved photodesorption yields from pure H$_2$CO ices, H$_2$CO on top of a CO ice (H$_2$CO/CO), and H$_2$CO mixed with CO ice (H$_2$CO:CO) irradiated in the Vacuum UltraViolet (VUV) range (7-13.6~eV). Photodesorption from a pure H$_2$CO ice releases H$_2$CO in the gas phase, but also fragments, such as CO and H$_2$. Energy-resolved photodesorption spectra, coupled with InfraRed (IR) and Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) diagnostics, showed the important role played by photodissociation and allowed to discuss photodesorption mechanisms. For the release of H$_2$CO in the gas phase, they include Desorption Induced by Electronic Transitions (DIET), indirect DIET through CO-induced desorption of H$_2$CO and photochemical desorption. We found that H$_2$CO photodesorbs with an average efficiency of $\sim 4-10 \times 10^{-4}$ molecule/photon, in various astrophysical environments. H$_2$CO and CO photodesorption yields and photodesorption mechanisms, involving photofragmentation of H$_2$CO, can be implemented in astrochemical codes. The effects of photodesorption on gas/solid abundances of H$_2$CO and all linked species from CO to Complex Organic Molecules (COMs), and on the H$_2$CO snowline location, are now on the verge of being unravelled.


arXiv:1905.08226v1 [pdf, other]
MHD simulation of prominence-cavity system
Comments: 18 pages, 12 figures, published in Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences

We present magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the evolution from quasi-equilibrium to onset of eruption of a twisted, prominence-forming coronal magnetic flux rope underlying a corona streamer. The flux rope is built up by an imposed flux emergence at the lower boundary. During the quasi-static phase of the evolution, we find the formation of a prominence-cavity system with qualitative features resembling observations, as shown by the synthetic SDO/AIA EUV images with the flux rope observed above the limb viewed nearly along its axis. The cavity contains substructures including ''U''-shaped or horn-liked features extending from the prominence enclosing a central ''cavity'' on top of the prominence. The prominence condensations form in the dips of the highly twisted field lines due to runaway radiative cooling and the cavity is formed by the density depleted portions of the prominence-carrying field lines extending up from the dips. The prominence ''horns'' are threaded by twisted field lines containing shallow dips, where the prominence condensations have evaporated to coronal temperatures. The central ''cavity'' enclosed by the horns is found to correspond to a central hot and dense core containing twisted field lines that do not have dips. The flux rope eventually erupts as its central part rises quasi-statically to a critical height consistent with the onset of the torus instability. The erupting flux rope accelerates to a fast speed of nearly 900 km/s and the associated prominence eruption shows significant rotational motion and a kinked morphology.


arXiv:1905.08228v1 [pdf, other]
A frame dependent dark energy action can produce a Hubble constant tension
Comments: Latex, 8 pages

In earlier papers we showed that a frame dependent effective action motivated by the postulates of three-space general coordinate invariance and Weyl scaling invariance exactly mimics a cosmological constant in Robertson-Walker (RW) spacetimes, but alters the linearized equations governing scalar perturbations around a spatially flat RW background metric. Here we show that a frame dependent dark energy can give rise to a Hubble constant tension, by making the effective Hubble constant measured through redshifts a function of cosmic time.