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[1]  arXiv:1702.06947 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Mass of the compact object in the Be/gamma-ray binaries LSI+61303 and MWC 148
Comments: 4 pages, submitted
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We estimate the mass of the compact object in the gamma-ray binaries LSI+61303 and MWC 148, using the latest data for the inclination, orbital motion and assuming that the orbital plane coincides with the equatorial plane of the Be star. For LSI+61303 we find the mass of the compact object to be most likely in the range 1.3 M_sun < M_2 < 2.0 M_sun, which means that it is probably a neutron star. For MWC 148, we find the mass of the compact object in a higher range, 2.1 M_sum < M_2 < 7.3 M_sun, which increases the chances for this system to host a black hole companion.

[2]  arXiv:1702.06951 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The effect upon neutrinos of core-collapse supernova accretion phase turbulence
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph); Nuclear Theory (nucl-th)

During the accretion phase of a core-collapse supernovae, large amplitude turbulence is generated by the combination of the standing accretion shock instability and convection driven by neutrino heating. The turbulence directly affects the dynamics of the explosion, but there is also the possibility of an additional, indirect, feedback mechanism due to the effect turbulence can have upon neutrino flavor evolution and thus the neutrino heating. In this paper we consider the effect of turbulence during the accretion phase upon neutrino evolution, both numerically and analytically. Adopting representative supernova profiles taken from the accretion phase of a supernova simulation, we find the numerical calculations exhibit no effect from turbulence. We explain this absence using two analytic descriptions: the Stimulated Transition model and the Distorted Phase Effect model. In the Stimulated Transition model turbulence effects depend upon six different lengthscales, and three criteria must be satisfied between them if one is to observe a change in the flavor evolution due to Stimulated Transition. We further demonstrate that the Distorted Phase Effect depends upon the presence of multiple semi-adiabatic MSW resonances or discontinuities that also can be expressed as a relationship between three of the same lengthscales. When we examine the supernova profiles used in the numerical calculations we find the three Stimulated Transition criteria cannot be satisfied, independent of the form of the turbulence power spectrum, and that the same supernova profiles lack the multiple semi-adiabatic MSW resonances or discontinuities necessary to produce a Distorted Phase Effect. Thus we conclude that even though large amplitude turbulence is present in supernova during the accretion phase, it has no effect upon neutrino flavor evolution.

[3]  arXiv:1702.06952 [pdf, other]
Title: Enforcing causality in nonrelativistic equations of state at finite temperature
Comments: 12 pages, 12 figures
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Nuclear Theory (nucl-th)

We present a thermodynamically consistent method by which equations of state based on nonrelativistic potential models can be modified so that they respect causality at high densities, both at zero and finite temperature (entropy). We illustrate the application of the method using the high density phase parametrization of the well known APR model in its pure neutron matter configuration as an example. We also show that, for models with only contact interactions, the adiabatic speed of sound is independent of the temperature in the limit of very large temperature. This feature is approximately valid for models with finite-range interactions as well, insofar as the temperature dependence they introduce to the Landau effective mass is weak. In addition, our study reveals that in first principle nonrelativistic models of hot and dense matter, contributions from higher than two-body interactions must be screened at high density to preserve causality.

[4]  arXiv:1702.06953 [pdf, other]
Title: UVUDF: UV Luminosity Functions at the cosmic high-noon
Comments: 19 pages, 10 figures, accepted to ApJ
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present the rest-1500\AA\ UV luminosity functions (LF) for star-forming galaxies during the cosmic \textit{high noon} -- the peak of cosmic star formation rate at $1.5<z<3$. We use deep NUV imaging data obtained as part of the \textit{Hubble} Ultra-Violet Ultra Deep Field (UVUDF) program, along with existing deep optical and NIR coverage on the HUDF. We select F225W, F275W and F336W dropout samples using the Lyman break technique, along with samples in the corresponding redshift ranges selected using photometric redshifts and measure the rest-frame UV LF at $z\sim1.7,2.2,3.0$ respectively, using the modified maximum likelihood estimator. We perform simulations to quantify the survey and sample incompleteness for the UVUDF samples to correct the effective volume calculations for the LF. We select galaxies down to $M_{UV}=-15.9,-16.3,-16.8$ and fit a faint-end slope of $\alpha=-1.20^{+0.10}_{-0.13}, -1.32^{+0.10}_{-0.14}, -1.39^{+0.08}_{-0.12}$ at $1.4<z<1.9$, $1.8<z<2.6$, and $2.4<z<3.6$, respectively. We compare the star formation properties of $z\sim2$ galaxies from these UV observations with results from H\alpha\ and UV$+$IR observations. We find a lack of high SFR sources in the UV LF compared to the H\alpha\ and UV$+$IR, likely due to dusty SFGs not being properly accounted for by the generic $IRX-\beta$ relation used to correct for dust. We compute a volume-averaged UV-to-H\alpha\ ratio by \textit{abundance matching} the rest-frame UV LF and H\alpha\ LF. We find an increasing UV-to-H\alpha\ ratio towards low mass galaxies ($M_\star \lesssim 5\times10^9$ M$_\odot$). We conclude that this could be due to a larger contribution from starbursting galaxies compared to the high-mass end.

[5]  arXiv:1702.06956 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Large Decay of X-ray Flux in 2XMM J123103.2+110648: Evidence for a Tidal Disruption Event
Authors: Dacheng Lin (1), Olivier Godet (2), Luis C. Ho (3), Didier Barret (2), Natalie A. Webb (2), Jimmy A. Irwin (4) ((1) University of New Hampshire, (2) IRAP, France, (3) Peking University, China, (4) University of Alabama)
Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS. 8 pages, 5 figures
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

The X-ray source 2XMM J123103.2+110648 was previously found to show pure thermal X-ray spectra and a ~3.8 hr periodicity in three XMM-Newton X-ray observations in 2003-2005, and the optical spectrum of the host galaxy suggested it as a type 2 active galactic nucleus candidate. We have obtained new X-ray observations of the source, with Swift and Chandra in 2013-2016, in order to shed new light on its nature based on its long-term evolution property. We found that the source could be in an X-ray outburst, with the X-ray flux decreasing by an order of magnitude in the Swift and Chandra observations, compared with the XMM-Newton observations ten years ago. There seemed to be significant spectral softening associated with the drop of X-ray flux (disk temperature kT ~ 0.16-0.2 keV in XMM-Newton observations versus kT~0.09+-0.02 keV in the Chandra observation. Therefore the Swift and Chandra follow-up observations support our previous suggestion that the source could be a tidal disruption event (TDE), though it seems to evolve slower than most of the other TDE candidates. The apparent long duration of this event could be due to the presence of a long super-Eddington accretion phase and/or slow circularization.

[6]  arXiv:1702.06957 [pdf, other]
Title: An empirical template library of stellar spectra for a wide range of spectral classes, luminosity classes, and metallicities using SDSS BOSS spectra
Comments: Accepted to ApJS
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present a library of empirical stellar spectra created using spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). The templates cover spectral types O5 through L3, are binned by metallicity from -2.0 dex through +1.0 dex and are separated into main sequence (dwarf) stars and giant stars. With recently developed M dwarf metallicity indicators, we are able to extend the metallicity bins down through the spectral subtype M8, making this the first empirical library with this degree of temperature \emph{and} metallicity coverage. The wavelength coverage for the templates is from 3650 Angstroms through 10200 Angstroms at a resolution better than R~2000. Using the templates, we identify trends in color space with metallicity and surface gravity, which will be useful for analyzing large data sets from upcoming missions like LSST. Along with the templates, we are releasing a code for automatically (and/or visually) identifying the spectral type and metallicity of a star.

[7]  arXiv:1702.06961 [pdf, other]
Title: The cool core state of Planck SZ-selected clusters versus X-ray selected samples: evidence for cool core bias
Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We characterized the population of galaxy clusters detected with the SZ effect with Planck, by measuring the cool core state of the objects in a well-defined subsample of the Planck catalogue. We used as indicator the concentration parameter Santos et al. (2008). The fraction of cool core clusters is $29 \pm 4 \%$ and does not show significant indications of evolution in the redshift range covered by our sample. We compare the distribution of the concentration parameter in the Planck sample with the one of the X-ray selected sample MACS (Mann & Ebeling, 2011): the distributions are significantly different and the cool core fraction in MACS is much higher ($59 \pm 5 \%$). Since X-ray selected samples are known to be biased towards cool cores due to the presence of their prominent surface brightness peak, we simulated the impact of the "cool core bias" following Eckert et al. (2011). We found that it plays a large role in the difference between the fractions of cool cores in the two samples. We examined other selection effects that could in principle bias SZ-surveys against cool cores but we found that their impact is not sufficient to explain the difference between Planck and MACS. The population of X-ray under-luminous objects, which are found in SZ-surveys but missing in X-ray samples (Planck Collaboration 2016), could possibly contribute to the difference, as we found most of them to be non cool cores, but this hypothesis deserves further investigation.

[8]  arXiv:1702.06962 [pdf, other]
Title: Strong lensing analysis of Abell 2744 with MUSE and Hubble Frontier Fields images
Authors: G. Mahler (1), J. Richard (1), B. Clément (1), D. Lagattuta (1), K. Schmidt (2), V. Patrício (1), G. Soucail (3), R. Bacon (1), R. Pello (3), R. Bouwens (4), M. Maseda (4), J. Martinez (1), M. Carollo (5), H. Inami (1), F. Leclercq (1), L. Wisotzki (2) ((1) CRAL (2) AIP (3) IRAP (4) Leiden (5) ETH)
Comments: 32 pages, 18 figures. Submitted to MNRAS. Full high resolution pdf and other data are available at this http URL
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present an analysis of MUSE observations obtained on the massive Frontier Fields cluster Abell 2744. This new dataset covers the entire multiply-imaged region around the cluster core. We measure spectroscopic redshifts for HST-selected continuum sources together with line emitters blindly detected in the datacube. The combined catalog consists of 514 spectroscopic redshifts (with 414 new identifications), including 156 cluster members and 326 magnified background sources. We use this redshift information to perform a strong-lensing analysis of all multiple images previously found in the deep Frontier Field images, and add three new MUSE-detected multiply-imaged systems with no obvious HST counterpart. The combined strong lensing constraints include a total of 60 systems producing 188 images altogether, out of which 29 systems and 83 images are spectroscopically confirmed, making Abell 2744 one of the most well-constrained clusters to date. A parametric mass model including two cluster-scale components in the core and several group-scale substructures at larger radii accurately reproduces all the spectroscopic multiple systems, reaching an rms of 0.67" in the image plane. Overall, the large number of spectroscopic redshifts gives us a robust model and we estimate the systematics on the mass density and magnification within the cluster core to be typically ~9%.

[9]  arXiv:1702.06963 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The GOODS-N Jansky VLA 10 GHz Pilot Survey: Sizes of Star-Forming $μ$Jy Radio Sources
Comments: 18 pages, 13 figures, accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

(Abridged) Our sensitive ($\sigma_{\rm n} = 572\,{\rm nJy\,beam}^{-1}$), high-resolution (FWHM $\theta_{1/2} = 220\,{\rm mas} \approx2\mathrm{\,kpc~at~}z\gtrsim1$) 10$\,$GHz image covering a single Karl G.~Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) primary beam (FWHM $\Theta_{1/2} = 4.25'$) in the GOODS-N field contains 32 sources with $S_{\rm p}\gtrsim2\,\mu{\rm Jy~beam}^{-1}$ and optical and/or near-infrared (OIR) counterparts. Most are about as large as the star-forming regions that power them. Their median FWHM major axis is $\langle\theta_{\rm M} \rangle=167\pm32\,{\rm mas} \approx 1.2\pm0.28\,{\rm kpc}$ with rms scatter 91 was $\approx$ 0.79 kpc. In units of the effective radius $r_{\rm e}$ that encloses half their flux, these radio sizes are $\langle r_{\rm e}\rangle = 69\pm13{\rm mas} \approx \pm114\mathrm{\,pc}$ and have rms scatter $38\mathrm{\,mas}\approx324\mathrm{\,pc}$. These sizes are smaller than those measured at lower radio frequencies, but agree with dust emission sizes measured at mm/sub-mm wavelengths and extinction-corrected H$\alpha$ sizes. We made a low-resolution ($\theta_{1/2}=1.0"$) image with $\approx10\times$ better brightness sensitivity to detect extended sources and measure matched-resolution spectral indices $\alpha_{1.4}^{10}$. It contains 6 new sources with $S_{\rm p}\gtrsim3.9\,\mu{\rm Jy~beam}^{-1}$ and OIR counterparts. The median redshift of all 38 sources is $1.24\pm0.15$. The 19 sources with 1.4$\,$GHz counterparts have median spectral index $-0.74\pm0.10$ with rms scatter $0.35$. Including upper limits on $\alpha$ for sources not detected at 1.4$\,$GHz flattens the median to $\gtrsim-0.61$, suggesting that the $\mu$Jy radio sources at higher redshifts, and hence selected at higher rest-frame frequencies, may have flatter spectra. If the non-thermal spectral index is -0.85, the median thermal fraction at rest-frame frequency 20$\,$GHz is $\gtrsim$48%.

[10]  arXiv:1702.06964 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The nightmare scenario: measuring the stochastic gravitational-wave background from stalling massive black-hole binaries with pulsar-timing arrays
Comments: 11 pages, 4 figures
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc)

Massive black-hole binaries, formed when galaxies merge, are among the primary sources of gravitational waves targeted by ongoing Pulsar Timing Array (PTA) experiments and the upcoming space-based LISA interferometer. However, their formation and merger rates are still highly uncertain. Recent upper limits on the stochastic gravitational-wave background obtained by PTAs are starting being in marginal tension with theoretical models for the pairing and orbital evolution of these systems. This tension can be resolved by assuming that these binaries are more eccentric or interact more strongly with the environment (gas and stars) than expected, or by accounting for possible selection biases in the construction of the theoretical models. However, another (pessimistic) possibility is that these binaries do not merge at all, but stall at large ($\sim$ pc) separations. We explore this extreme scenario by using a galaxy-formation semi-analytic model including massive black holes (isolated and in binaries), and show that future generations of PTAs will detect the stochastic gravitational-wave background from the massive black-hole binary population within $10-15$ years of observations, even in the "nightmare scenario" in which all binaries stall at the hardening radius. Moreover, we argue that this scenario is too pessimistic, because our model predicts the existence of a sub-population of binaries with small mass ratios ($q \lesssim 10^{-3}$) that should merge within a Hubble time simply as a result of gravitational-wave emission. This sub-population will be observable with large signal-to-noise ratios by future PTAs thanks to next-generation radiotelescopes such as SKA or FAST, and possibly by LISA.

[11]  arXiv:1702.06965 [pdf, other]
Title: AGN feedback, quiescence and CGM metal enrichment in early-type galaxies
Comments: 19 pages, 15 figures. Accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations showing the effect of kinetic and radiative AGN feedback on a model galaxy representing a massive quiescent low-redshift early-type galaxy of $M_* = 8.41\times 10^{10} M_\odot$, harbouring a $M_\mathrm{BH} = 4\times 10^8 M_\odot $ black hole surrounded by a cooling gaseous halo. We show that, for a total baryon fraction of $\sim 20\%$ of the cosmological value, feedback from the AGN can keep the galaxy quiescent for about 4.35 Gyr and with properties consistent with black hole mass and X-ray luminosity scaling relations. However, this can only be achieved if the AGN feedback model includes both kinetic and radiative feedback modes. The simulation with only kinetic feedback fails to keep the model galaxy fully quiescent, while one with only radiative feedback leads to excessive black-hole growth. For higher baryon fractions (e.g. 50\% of the cosmological value), the X-ray luminosities exceed observed values by at least one order of magnitude, and rapid cooling results in a star-forming galaxy. The AGN plays a major role in keeping the circumgalactic gas at observed metallicities of $Z/Z_\odot \gtrsim 0.3 $ within the central $\sim 30$ kpc by venting nuclear gas enriched with metals from residual star formation activity. As indicated by previous cosmological simulations, our results are consistent with a model for which the black hole mass and the total baryon fraction are set at higher redshifts $z > 1$ and the AGN alone can keep the model galaxy on observed scaling relations. Models without AGN feedback violate both the quiescence criterion as well as CGM metallicity constraints.

[12]  arXiv:1702.06966 [pdf, other]
Title: Physical properties of the first spectroscopically confirmed red supergiant stars in the Sculptor Group galaxy NGC 55
Comments: Accepted to MNRAS
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We present K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph (KMOS) observations of 18 Red Supergiant (RSG) stars in the Sculptor Group galaxy NGC 55. Radial velocities are calculated and are shown to be in good agreement with previous estimates, confirming the supergiant nature of the targets and providing the first spectroscopically confirmed RSGs in NGC 55. Stellar parameters are estimated for 14 targets using the $J$-band analysis technique, making use of state-of-the-art stellar model atmospheres. The metallicities estimated confirm the low-metallicity nature of NGC 55, in good agreement with previous studies. This study provides an independent estimate of the metallicity gradient of NGC 55, in excellent agreement with recent results published using hot massive stars. In addition, we calculate luminosities of our targets and compare their distribution of effective temperatures and luminosities to other RSGs, in different environments, estimated using the same technique.

[13]  arXiv:1702.06978 [pdf, other]
Title: Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays from tidally-ignited stars
Comments: 5 pages, 1 figure
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) can be accelerated by tidal disruption events of stars by black holes. Encounters between white dwarfs with intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) provide a natural environment for acceleration, as tidal forces can ignite nuclear burn and lead to a supernova explosion. The numbers of IMBHs may be substantially augmented once account is taken of their likely presence in dwarf galaxies. In this Letter we show that this kind of tidal disruption event naturally provides an intermediate/heavy composition for the inferred UHECR composition. We further argue that this mechanism is virtually model-independent, as it does not rely on any specific acceleration model. Finally, we point out a possible link between ultra-luminous x-ray and UHECR sources.

[14]  arXiv:1702.06981 [pdf]
Title: OSIRIS-REx: Sample Return from Asteroid (101955) Bennu
Comments: 89 pages, 39 figures, submitted to Space Science Reviews - OSIRIS-REx special issue
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

In May of 2011, NASA selected the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) asteroid sample return mission as the third mission in the New Frontiers program. The other two New Frontiers missions are New Horizons, which explored Pluto during a flyby in July 2015 and is on its way for a flyby of Kuiper Belt object 2014 MU69 on Jan. 1, 2019, and Juno, an orbiting mission that is studying the origin, evolution, and internal structure of Jupiter. The spacecraft departed for near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu aboard an United Launch Alliance Atlas V 411 evolved expendable launch vehicle at 7:05 p.m. EDT on September 8, 2016, on a seven-year journey to return samples from Bennu. The spacecraft is on an outbound-cruise trajectory that will result in a rendezvous with Bennu in August 2018. The science instruments on the spacecraft will survey Bennu to measure its physical, geological, and chemical properties, and the team will use these data to select a site on the surface to collect at least 60 g of asteroid regolith. The team will also analyze the remote-sensing data to perform a detailed study of the sample site for context, assess Bennus resource potential, refine estimates of its impact probability with Earth, and provide ground-truth data for the extensive astronomical data set collected on this asteroid. The spacecraft will leave Bennu in 2021 and return the sample to the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) on September 24, 2023.

[15]  arXiv:1702.06982 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: An analysis of the V-band light curve of the Be star omega CMa with the viscous decretion disk model
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We analyze the V-band photometry data of the Be star omega CMa, observed during the last four decades. The data is fitted by hydrodynamic models based on the viscous decretion disk (VDD) theory, in which a disk around a fast-spinning Be star is formed by material ejected by the central star and driven to progressively wider orbits by means of viscous torques. For the first time, we apply the model for both the disk build up and the dissipation phases. Our simulations offer a good description of the photometric variability in both phases, which suggests that the VDD model adequately describes the disk structural evolution. Furthermore, our analysis allowed us to determine the viscosity parameter (alpha) of the gas, as well as the net mass loss rate. We find that alpha is variable, ranging from 0.1 to 1.0, and that build up phases have larger values of alpha than the dissipation phases. Additionally, we find that, contrary to what is generally assumed, even during quiescence the outward mass flux is never zero, suggesting that the star alternates between a high mass-loss phase (outburst) and a low mass-loss phase (quiescence).

[16]  arXiv:1702.06984 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The Ages of the Thin Disk, Thick Disk, and the Halo from Nearby White Dwarfs
Comments: ApJ, in press
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present a detailed analysis of the white dwarf luminosity functions derived from the local 40 pc sample and the deep proper motion catalog of Munn et al (2014, 2017). Many of the previous studies ignored the contribution of thick disk white dwarfs to the Galactic disk luminosity function, which results in an erronous age measurement. We demonstrate that the ratio of thick/thin disk white dwarfs is roughly 20\% in the local sample. Simultaneously fitting for both disk components, we derive ages of 6.8-7.0 Gyr for the thin disk and 8.7 $\pm$ 0.1 Gyr for the thick disk from the local 40 pc sample. Similarly, we derive ages of 7.4-8.2 Gyr for the thin disk and 9.5-9.9 Gyr for the thick disk from the deep proper motion catalog, which shows no evidence of a deviation from a constant star formation rate in the past 2.5 Gyr. We constrain the time difference between the onset of star formation in the thin disk and the thick disk to be $1.6^{+0.3}_{-0.4}$ Gyr. The faint end of the luminosity function for the halo white dwarfs is less constrained, resulting in an age estimate of $12.5^{+1.4}_{-3.4}$ Gyr for the Galactic inner halo. This is the first time ages for all three major components of the Galaxy are obtained from a sample of field white dwarfs that is large enough to contain significant numbers of disk and halo objects. The resultant ages agree reasonably well with the age estimates for the oldest open and globular clusters.

[17]  arXiv:1702.06988 [pdf, other]
Title: A Hubble Space Telescope Survey for Novae in M87. III. Novae as Effective Standard Candles
Comments: 11 pages, 4 figures, submitted to the Astrophysical Journal
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

Ten weeks' daily imaging of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 with the Hubble Space Telescope has yielded 41 nova light curves of unprecedented quality for extragalactic cataclysmic variables. We have recently used these light curves to demonstrate that the observational scatter in the so-called Maximum-Magnitude Rate of Decline (MMRD) relation for classical novae is so large as to render the nova-MMRD useless as a standard candle. Here we demonstrate that the Buscombe - de Vaucouleurs hypothesis, that all novae converge to nearly the same absolute magnitude about two weeks after maximum light, is strongly supported by our M87 nova data. For 24 novae in V-band (F606W filter) and I-band (F814W filter) light with daily-sampled light curves and well determined maxima, we find that the times of minimum scatter of nova absolute magnitude are, respectively, 17 and 20 days after maximum light. At those epochs novae display M_{V,17} = -6.06 +/- 0.23 and M_{I,20} = -6.11 +/- 0.34 . The distances of single novae in the Milky Way, sparse or elliptical galaxies, or free-floating in intergalactic space can be reasonably well-determined with the above calibrations.

[18]  arXiv:1702.07004 [pdf, other]
Title: Reconnaissance of the TRAPPIST-1 exoplanet system in the Lyman-$α$ line
Comments: Published in A&A as a Letter to the Editor
Journal-ref: A&A 599, L3 (2017)
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

The TRAPPIST-1 system offers the opportunity to characterize terrestrial, potentially habitable planets orbiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star. We performed a four-orbit reconnaissance with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope to study the stellar emission at Lyman-$\alpha$, to assess the presence of hydrogen exospheres around the two inner planets, and to determine their UV irradiation. We detect the Lyman-$\alpha$ line of TRAPPIST-1, making it the coldest exoplanet host star for which this line has been measured. We reconstruct the intrinsic line profile, showing that it lacks broad wings and is much fainter than expected from the stellar X-ray emission. TRAPPIST-1 has a similar X-ray emission as Proxima Cen but a much lower Ly-$\alpha$ emission. This suggests that TRAPPIST-1 chromosphere is only moderately active compared to its transition region and corona. We estimated the atmospheric mass loss rates for all planets, and found that despite a moderate extreme UV emission the total XUV irradiation could be strong enough to strip the atmospheres of the inner planets in a few billions years. We detect marginal flux decreases at the times of TRAPPIST-1b and c transits, which might originate from stellar activity, but could also hint at the presence of extended hydrogen exospheres. Understanding the origin of these Lyman-$\alpha$ variations will be crucial in assessing the atmospheric stability and potential habitability of the TRAPPIST-1 planets.

[19]  arXiv:1702.07018 [pdf]
Title: Astrophysical sense of the gravitational waves discovery
Authors: V.M. Lipunov
Comments: 11 pages, 6 figures
Journal-ref: Physics Uspekhi, 59, 9, 918 (2016)
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

The discovery of gravitational waves by the international collaboration LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory)/Virgo on the one hand is a triumphant confirmation of the general theory of relativity, and on the other confirms the general fundamental ideas on the nuclear evolution of baryon matter in the Universe concentrated in binary stars. LIGO/Virgo may turn out to be the first experiment in the history of physics to detect two physical entities, gravitational waves and black holes

[20]  arXiv:1702.07020 [pdf, other]
Title: The EBEX Balloon-Borne Experiment - Gondola, Attitude Control, and Control Software
Comments: 37 pages, 16 figures, submitted to ApJ Supp
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

The E and B Experiment (EBEX) was a long-duration balloon-borne instrument designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. EBEX was the first balloon-borne instrument to implement a kilo-pixel array of transition edge sensor (TES) bolometric detectors and the first CMB experiment to use the digital version of the frequency domain multiplexing system for readout of the TES array. The scan strategy relied on 40 s peak-to-peak constant velocity azimuthal scans. We discuss the unique demands on the design and operation of the payload that resulted from these new technologies and the scan strategy. We describe the solutions implemented including the development of a power system designed to provide a total of at least 2.3 kW, a cooling system to dissipate 590 W consumed by the detectors' readout system, software to manage and handle the data of the kilo-pixel array, and specialized attitude reconstruction software. We present flight performance data showing faultless management of the TES array, adequate powering and cooling of the readout electronics, and constraint of attitude reconstruction errors such that the spurious B-modes they induced were less than 10% of CMB B-mode power spectrum with $r=0.05$.

[21]  arXiv:1702.07036 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Radio Follow-up on all Unassociated Gamma-ray Sources from the Third Fermi Large Area Telescope Source Catalog
Comments: 14 pages, 9 figures, 6 tables, 5 machine readable tables, accepted for publication in ApJS
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

The third Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) $\gamma$-ray source catalog (3FGL) contains over 1000 objects for which there is no known counterpart at other wavelengths. The physical origin of the $\gamma$-ray emission of those objects is unknown. Such objects are commonly referred to as unassociated and mostly do not exhibit significant $\gamma$-ray flux variability. We performed a survey of all unassociated $\gamma$-ray sources found in 3FGL using the Australia Telescope Compact Array and Very Large Array in the range of 4.0-10.0 GHz. We found 2097 radio candidates for association with $\gamma$-ray sources. The follow-up with very long baseline interferometry for a subset of those candidates yielded 142 new AGN associations with $\gamma$-ray sources, provided alternative associations for 7 objects, and improved positions for another 144 known associations to the milliarcsecond level of accuracy. In addition, for 245 unassociated $\gamma$-ray sources we did not find a single compact radio source above 2 mJy within 3$\sigma$ of their $\gamma$-ray localization. A significant fraction of these empty fields, 39%, are located away from the galactic plane. We also found 36 extended radio sources that are candidates for association with a corresponding $\gamma$-ray object, 19 of which are most likely supernova remnants or HII regions, whereas 17 could be radio galaxies.

[22]  arXiv:1702.07040 [pdf, other]
Title: Assessing the impact of bulk and shear viscosities on large scale structure formation
Comments: 21 pages, 19 figures
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc); High Energy Physics - Theory (hep-th)

It is analyzed the effects of both bulk and shear viscosities on the perturbations, relevant for structure formation in late time cosmology. It is shown that shear viscosity can be as effective as the bulk viscosity on suppressing the growth of perturbations and delaying the nonlinear regime. A statistical analysis of the shear and bulk viscous effects is performed and some constraints on these viscous effects are given.

[23]  arXiv:1702.07065 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Evolution of linear wave dark matter perturbations in the radiation-dominant era
Comments: 20 pages, 7 figures
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

Linear perturbations of the wave dark matter, or $\psi$ dark matter ($\psi$DM), of particle mass $\sim 10^{-22}$eV in the radiation-dominant era are analyzed, and the matter power spectrum at the photon-matter equality is obtained. We identify four phases of evolution for $\psi$DM perturbations, where the dynamics can be vastly different from the counterparts of cold dark matter (CDM). While in late stages after mass oscillation long-wave $\psi$DM perturbations are almost identical to CDM perturbations, some subtle differences remain, let alone intermediate-to-short waves that bear no resemblance with those of CDM throughout the whole evolutionary history. The dissimilarity is due to quantum mechanical effects which lead to severe mode suppression. We also discuss the axion model with a cosine field potential. The power spectrum of axion models are generally almost identical to those of $\psi$DM, but in the extreme case when the initial axion angle is near the field potential top, this axion model predicts a higher spectral cutoff than $\psi$DM, which is equivalent to having a higher particle mass for $\psi$DM.

[24]  arXiv:1702.07075 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Occultations of astrophysical radio sources as probes of planetary environments: A case study of Jupiter and possible applications to exoplanets
Comments: Published in ApJ on 13 February 2017 - this http URL
Journal-ref: ApJ 836, 114 (2017)
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

Properties of planetary atmospheres, ionospheres, and magnetospheres are difficult to measure from Earth. Radio occultations are a common method for measuring these properties, but they traditionally rely on radio transmissions from a spacecraft near the planet. Here we explore whether occultations of radio emissions from a distant astrophysical radio source can be used to measure magnetic field strength, plasma density, and neutral density around planets. In a theoretical case study of Jupiter, we find that significant changes in polarization angle due to Faraday rotation occur for radio signals that pass within 10 Jupiter radii of the planet and that significant changes in frequency and power occur from radio signals that pass through the neutral atmosphere. There are sufficient candidate radio sources, such as pulsars, active galactic nuclei, and masers, that occultations are likely to occur at least once per year. For pulsars, time delays in the arrival of their emitted pulses can be used to measure plasma density. Exoplanets, whose physical properties are very challenging to observe, may also occult distant astrophysical radio sources, such as their parent stars.

[25]  arXiv:1702.07085 [pdf, other]
Title: Large-Scale Clustering as a Probe of the Origin and the Host Environment of Fast Radio Bursts
Comments: 14 pages, 8 figures, 2 tables, To be submitted to Phys. Rev. D
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We propose to use degree-scale angular clustering of fast radio bursts (FRBs) to identify their origin and the host galaxy population. We study the information content in auto-correlation of the angular positions and dispersion measures (DM) and in cross-correlation with galaxies. We show that the cross-correlation with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies will place stringent constraints on the mean physical quantities associated with FRBs. If ~10,000 FRBs are detected with <deg resolution in the SDSS field, the clustering analysis can constrain the global abundance of free electrons at $z<1$, the bias factor of FRB host galaxies, and the mean near-source dispersion measure, with fractional errors (with a $68\%$ confidence level) of $\sim5 \%, \sim 20 \%$, and $\sim70 \%$, respectively. The delay time distribution of FRB sources can be also determined by combining the clustering and the probability distribution function of dispersion measure. Our approach will be complementary to high-resolution ($\ll {\rm deg}$) event localization using e.g., VLA and VLBI for identifying the origin of FRBs and the source environment. We strongly encourage future observational programs such as CHIME, UTMOST, HIRAX to survey FRBs in the SDSS field.

[26]  arXiv:1702.07087 [pdf, other]
Title: A chemical signature from fast-rotating low-metallicity massive stars: ROA 276 in omega Centauri
Comments: ApJ in press
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present a chemical abundance analysis of a metal-poor star, ROA 276, in the stellar system omega Centauri. We confirm that this star has an unusually high [Sr/Ba] abundance ratio. Additionally, ROA 276 exhibits remarkably high abundance ratios, [X/Fe], for all elements from Cu to Mo along with normal abundance ratios for the elements from Ba to Pb. The chemical abundance pattern of ROA 276, relative to a primordial omega Cen star ROA 46, is best fit by a fast-rotating low-metallicity massive stellar model of 20 Msun, [Fe/H] = -1.8, and an initial rotation 0.4 times the critical value; no other nucleosynthetic source can match the neutron-capture element distribution. ROA 276 arguably offers the most definitive proof to date that fast-rotating massive stars contributed to the production of heavy elements in the early Universe.

[27]  arXiv:1702.07111 [pdf, other]
Title: Performance of a continuously rotating half-wave plate on the POLARBEAR telescope
Comments: 27 pages, 5 figures, 3 tables, to be submitted to JCAP
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); Instrumentation and Detectors (physics.ins-det)

A continuously rotating half-wave plate (CRHWP) is a promising tool to improve the sensitivity to large angular scales in cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization measurements. With a CRHWP, single detectors can measure all three of the Stokes parameters, $I$, $Q$ and $U$, thereby avoiding the set of systematic errors that can be introduced by mismatches in the properties of orthogonal detector pairs. We focus on the implementation of CRHWPs in large aperture telescopes (i.e. the primary mirror is larger than the current maximum half-wave plate diameter of $\sim$0.5 m), where the CRHWP can be placed between the primary mirror and focal plane. In this configuration, one needs to address the intensity to polarization ($I{\rightarrow}P$) leakage of the optics, which becomes a source of 1/f noise and also causes differential gain systematics that arise from CMB temperature fluctuations. In this paper, we present the performance of a CRHWP installed in the POLARBEAR experiment, which employs a Gregorian telescope with a 2.5 m primary illumination pattern. The CRHWP is placed near the prime focus between the primary and secondary mirrors. We find that the $I{\rightarrow}P$ leakage is larger than the expectation from the physical properties of our primary mirror, resulting in a 1/f knee of 100 mHz. The excess leakage could be due to imperfections in the detector system, i.e. detector non-linearity in the responsivity and time-constant. We demonstrate, however, that by subtracting the leakage correlated with the intensity signal, the 1/f noise knee frequency is reduced to 32 mHz ($\ell \sim$39 for our scan strategy), which is sufficient to probe the primordial B-mode signal. We also discuss methods for further noise subtraction in future projects where the precise temperature control of instrumental components and the leakage reduction will play a key role.

[28]  arXiv:1702.07141 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Starspot activity and superflares on solar-type stars
Comments: Accepted for publication in PASJ
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We analyze the correlation between starspots and superflares on solar-type stars using observations from the Kepler mission. The analysis shows that the observed fraction of stars with superflares decreases as the rotation period increases and as the amplitude of photometric variability associated with rotation decreases. We found that the fraction of stars with superflares among the stars showing large-amplitude rotational variations, which are thought to be the signature of the large starspots, also decreases as the rotation period increases. The small fraction of superflare stars among the stars with large starspots in the longer-period regime suggests that some of the stars with large starspots show a much lower flare activity than the superflare stars with the same spot area. Assuming simple relations between spot area and lifetime and between spot temperature and photospheric temperature, we compared the size distribution of large starspot groups on slowly-rotating solar-type stars with that of sunspot groups. The size distribution of starspots shows the power-law distribution and the size distribution of larger sunspots lies on this power-law line. We also found that frequency-energy distributions for flares originating from spots with different sizes are the same for solar-type stars with superflares and the Sun. These results suggest that the magnetic activity we observe on solar-type stars with superflares and that on the Sun is caused by the same physical processes.

[29]  arXiv:1702.07147 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: San Pedro Meeting on Wide Field Variability Surveys: Some Concluding Comments
Authors: Michael W. Feast
Comments: Conference on wide field variability surveys: a 21st-century perspective, 8 pages in press
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

This is a written version of the closing talk at the 22nd Los Alamos Stellar pulsation conference on wide field variability surveys. It comments on some of the issues which arise from the meeting. These include the need for attention to photometric standardization (especially in the infrared) and the somewhat controversial problem of statistical bias in the use of parallaxes (and other methods of distance determination). Some major advances in the use of pulsating variables to study Galactic structure are mentioned. The paper includes a clarification of apparently conflicting results from classical Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars in the inner Galaxy and bulge. The importance of understanding non-periodic phenomena in variable stars,particularly AGB variables and RCB stars is stressed, especially for its relevance to mass-loss, in which pulsation may only play a minor role.

[30]  arXiv:1702.07167 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: On the origin of the flare emission in IRIS' SJI 2832 filter: Balmer continuum or spectral lines?
Comments: Accepted for publication by ApJ
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Continuum ("White-light", WL) emission dominates the energetics of flares. Filter-based observations, such as the IRIS SJI 2832 filter, show WL-like brightenings during flares, but it is unclear whether the emission arises from real continuum emission or enhanced spectral lines, possibly turning into emission. The difficulty in filter-based observations, contrary to spectral observations, is to determine which processes contribute to the observed brightening during flares. Here we determine the contribution of the Balmer continuum and the spectral line emission to IRIS' SJI 2832 emission by analyzing the appropriate passband in simultaneous IRIS NUV spectra. We find that spectral line emission can contribute up to 100% to the observed SJI emission, that the relative contributions usually temporally vary, and that the highest SJI enhancements that are observed are most likely because of the Balmer continuum. We conclude that care should be taken when calling SJI 2832 a continuum filter during flares, because the influence of the lines on the emission can be significant.

[31]  arXiv:1702.07204 [pdf, other]
Title: Asteroseismic inversions in the Kepler era: application to the Kepler Legacy sample
Comments: To appear in the proceedings of the Kasc 9 Tasc 2 workshop
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

In the past few years, the CoRoT and Kepler missions have carried out what is now called the space photometry revolution. This revolution is still ongoing thanks to K2 and will be continued by the Tess and Plato2.0 missions. However, the photometry revolution must also be followed by progress in stellar modelling, in order to lead to more precise and accurate determinations of fundamental stellar parameters such as masses, radii and ages. In this context, the long-lasting problems related to mixing processes in stellar interior is the main obstacle to further improvements of stellar modelling. In this contribution, we will apply structural asteroseismic inversion techniques to targets from the Kepler Legacy sample and analyse how these can help us constrain the fundamental parameters and mixing processes in these stars. Our approach is based on previous studies using the SOLA inversion technique to determine integrated quantities such as the mean density, the acoustic radius, and core conditions indicators, and has already been successfully applied to the 16Cyg binary system. We will show how this technique can be applied to the Kepler Legacy sample and how new indicators can help us to further constrain the chemical composition profiles of stars as well as provide stringent constraints on stellar ages.

[32]  arXiv:1702.07208 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Linear approximation of seismic inversions: new kernels and structural effects
Comments: To appear in the proceedings of the Astrofluid 2016 Conference
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Thanks to the space-based photometry missions CoRoT and Kepler, we now benefit from a wealth of seismic data for stars other than the sun. In the future, K2, Tess and Plato will provide further observations. The quality of this data may allow kernel-based linear structural inversion techniques to be used for stars other than the sun. To understand the limitations of this approach, we analyse the validity of the linear assumption used in these inversion techniques. We inspect various structural pairs and see how they are affected by structural changes. We show that uncertainties in radius strongly affect structural pairs of nondimensional variables, and that various other effects might come into play. Amongst these, the importance of micro-physics give the most striking example of how uncertainties in stellar models impact the verification of the linear relations. We also point out that including seismic constraints in the forward modelling fit helps with satisfying the linear relations.

[33]  arXiv:1702.07209 [pdf, other]
Title: Measurement of Anisotropy and Search for UHECR Sources
Authors: O. Deligny (1), K. Kawata (2), P. Tinyakov (3) ((1) Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay, (2) ICRR, University of Tokyo, (3) Universite Libre de Bruxelles)
Comments: 29 pages, 14 figures, accepted for publication in Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph)

Ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are particles, likely protons and/or nuclei, with energies up to $10^{20}$ eV that are observed through the giant air showers they produce in the atmosphere. These particles carry the information on the most extreme phenomena in the Universe. At these energies, even charged particles could be magnetically rigid enough to keep track of, or even point directly to, the original positions of their sources on the sky. The discovery of anisotropy of UHECRs would thus signify opening of an entirely new window onto the Universe. With the construction and operation of the new generation of cosmic ray experiments -- the Pierre Auger Observatory in the Southern hemisphere and the Telescope Array in the Northern one -- the study of these particles, the most energetic ever detected, has experienced a jump in statistics as well as in the data quality, allowing for a much better sensitivity in searching for their sources. In this review, we summarize the searches for anisotropies and the efforts to identify the sources of UHECRs which have been carried out using these new data.

[34]  arXiv:1702.07210 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Periodic optical variability of AGN
Comments: 5 pages, 2 figures, in press
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

Here we present the evidence for periodicity of an optical emission detected in several AGN. Significant periodicity is found in light curves and radial velocity curves. We discuss possible mechanisms that could produce such periodic variability and their implications. The results are consistent with possible detection of the orbital motion in proximity of the AGN central supermassive black holes.

[35]  arXiv:1702.07270 [pdf, other]
Title: Supernova Driving. IV. The Star Formation Rate of Molecular Clouds
Comments: submitted to ApJ
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We compute the star formation rate (SFR) in molecular clouds (MCs) that originate {\it ab initio} in a new, higher-resolution simulation of supernova-driven turbulence. Because of the large number of well-resolved clouds with self-consistent boundary and initial conditions, we obtain a large range of cloud physical parameters with realistic statistical distributions, an unprecedented sample of star-forming regions to test SFR models and to interpret observational surveys. We confirm the dependence of the SFR per free-fall time, $SFR_{\rm ff}$, on the virial parameter, $\alpha_{\rm vir}$, found in previous simulations, and compare a revised version of our turbulent fragmentation model with the numerical results. The dependences on Mach number, ${\cal M}$, gas to magnetic pressure ratio, $\beta$, and compressive to solenoidal power ratio, $\chi$ at fixed $\alpha_{\rm vir}$ are not well constrained, because of random scatter due to time and cloud-to-cloud variations in $SFR_{\rm ff}$. We find that $SFR_{\rm ff}$ in MCs can take any value in the range $0 \le SFR_{\rm ff} \lesssim 0.2$, and its probability distribution peaks at a value $SFR_{\rm ff}\approx 0.025$, consistent with observations. The values of $SFR_{\rm ff}$ and the scatter in the $SFR_{\rm ff}$--$\alpha_{\rm vir}$ relation of the clouds from the simulation are consistent with recent measurements in nearby MCs and in clouds near the Galactic center. Although not explicitly modeled by the theory, the scatter is consistent with the physical assumptions of our revised model and may also result in part from a lack of statistical equilibrium of the turbulence, due to the transient nature of MCs.

[36]  arXiv:1702.07271 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Visco-rotational shear instability of Keplerian granular flows
Comments: 5 pages, 3 figures. Comments welcome
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP); Soft Condensed Matter (cond-mat.soft); Fluid Dynamics (physics.flu-dyn)

We present the linear rheological instability triggered by the interplay of the shear rheology and Keplerian differential rotation of incompressible dense granular fluids. Instability sets in granular fluids, where the viscosity parameter grows faster than the square of the local shear rate (strain rate) at constant pressure. Found instability can play a crucial role in the formation of observed structures in planetary rings, as well as promote structure formation in protoplanetary disks dense granular material.

[37]  arXiv:1702.07282 [pdf, other]
Title: Detection of an Optical Counterpart to the ALFALFA Ultra-compact High Velocity Cloud AGC 249525
Comments: 9 pages, 4 figures; accepted to ApJL
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We report on the detection at $>$98% confidence of an optical counterpart to AGC 249525, an Ultra-Compact High Velocity Cloud (UCHVC) discovered by the ALFALFA blind neutral hydrogen survey. UCHVCs are compact, isolated HI clouds with properties consistent with their being nearby low-mass galaxies, but without identified counterparts in extant optical surveys. Analysis of the resolved stellar sources in deep $g$- and $i$-band imaging from the WIYN pODI camera reveals a clustering of possible Red Giant Branch stars associated with AGC 249525 at a distance of 1.64$\pm$0.45 Mpc. Matching our optical detection with the HI synthesis map of AGC 249525 from Adams et al. (2016) shows that the stellar overdensity is exactly coincident with the highest-density HI contour from that study. Combining our optical photometry and the HI properties of this object yields an absolute magnitude of $-7.1 \leq M_V \leq -4.5$, a stellar mass between $2.2\pm0.6\times10^4 M_{\odot}$ and $3.6\pm1.0\times10^5 M_{\odot}$, and an HI to stellar mass ratio between 9 and 144. This object has stellar properties within the observed range of gas-poor Ultra-Faint Dwarfs in the Local Group, but is gas-dominated.

[38]  arXiv:1702.07287 [pdf, other]
Title: Unraveling the escape dynamics and the nature of the normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds in tidally limited star clusters
Comments: Published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) journal
Journal-ref: MNRAS, vol. 465, 525-546 (2017)
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Chaotic Dynamics (nlin.CD)

The escape mechanism of orbits in a star cluster rotating around its parent galaxy in a circular orbit is investigated. A three degrees of freedom model is used for describing the dynamical properties of the Hamiltonian system. The gravitational field of the star cluster is represented by a smooth and spherically symmetric Plummer potential. We distinguish between ordered and chaotic orbits as well as between trapped and escaping orbits, considering only unbounded motion for several energy levels. The Smaller Alignment Index (SALI) method is used for determining the regular or chaotic nature of the orbits. The basins of escape are located and they are also correlated with the corresponding escape time of the orbits. Areas of bounded regular or chaotic motion and basins of escape were found to coexist in the $(x,z)$ plane. The properties of the normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds (NHIMs), located in the vicinity of the index-1 Lagrange points $L_1$ and $L_2$, are also explored. These manifolds are of paramount importance as they control the flow of stars over the saddle points, while they also trigger the formation of tidal tails observed in star clusters. Bifurcation diagrams of the Lyapunov periodic orbits as well as restrictions of the Poincar\'e map to the NHIMs are deployed for elucidating the dynamics in the neighbourhood of the saddle points. The extended tidal tails, or tidal arms, formed by stars with low velocity which escape through the Lagrange points are monitored. The numerical results of this work are also compared with previous related work.

[39]  arXiv:1702.07303 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: What can distant galaxies teach us about massive stars?
Authors: Elizabeth R. Stanway (Warwick, UK)
Comments: 8 pages. To appear in the Proceedings of IAU Symposium 329: "The Lives and Death Throws of Massive Stars"
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Observations of star-forming galaxies in the distant Universe (z > 2) are starting to confirm the importance of massive stars in shaping galaxy emission and evolution. Inevitably, these distant stellar populations are unresolved, and the limited data available must be interpreted in the context of stellar population synthesis models. With the imminent launch of JWST and the prospect of spectral observations of galaxies within a gigayear of the Big Bang, the uncertainties in modelling of massive stars are becoming increasingly important to our interpretation of the high redshift Universe. In turn, these observations of distant stellar populations will provide ever stronger tests against which to gauge the success of, and flaws in, current massive star models.

[40]  arXiv:1702.07314 [pdf, other]
Title: The Equilibrium Temperature of Planets in Elliptical Orbits
Comments: 13 pages, 3 figures, 2 tables. ApJL, 837, L1
Journal-ref: ApJL, 837, L1 (2017)
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

There exists a positive correlation between orbital eccentricity and the average stellar flux that planets receive from their parent star. Often, though, it is assumed that the average equilibrium temperature would correspondingly increase with eccentricity. Here we test this assumption by calculating and comparing analytic solutions for both the spatial and temporal averages of orbital distance, stellar flux, and equilibrium temperature. Our solutions show that the average equilibrium temperature of a planet, with a constant albedo, slowly decreases with eccentricity until converging to a value 90% that of a circular orbit. This might be the case for many types of planets (e.g., hot-jupiters); however, the actual equilibrium and surface temperature of planets also depend on orbital variations of albedo and greenhouse. Our results also have implications in understanding the climate, habitability and the occurrence of potential Earth-like planets. For instance, it helps explain why the limits of the habitable zone for planets in highly elliptical orbits are wider than expected from the mean flux approximation, as shown by climate models.

[41]  arXiv:1702.07322 [pdf, other]
Title: Effects of Inner Alfvén Surface Location on Black Hole Energy Extraction in the Limit of a Force-Free Magnetosphere
Comments: 23 Pages, 9 Figures
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

An energy extracting black hole magnetosphere can be defined by the location of its inner Alfv\'{e}n surface, which determines the rate of black hole energy extraction along a given magnetic field line. We study how the location of the inner Alfv\'{e}n surface can modify the structure of energy extracting black hole magnetospheres in the force-free limit. Hundreds of magnetospheres are numerically computed via a general relativistic extension of the Newtonian magnetofrictional method for a full range of black hole spins and flow parameters. We find that jet-like structures naturally form very close to the horizon for Alfv\'{e}n surfaces near the boundary of the ergosphere and that energy is extracted towards the equatorial plane for Alfv\'{e}n surfaces close to the horizon. This suggests that two broad classes of energy extracting black hole magnetospheres might exist; those that transmit extracted energy directly to distant observers, and those that transmit extracted energy to nearby accreting matter. Applied to transient high energy phenomena, we find that they might also differ in timescale by a factor of 20 or more.

[42]  arXiv:1702.07327 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Triaxial Deformation and Asynchronous Rotation of Rocky Planets in the Habitable Zone of Low-Mass Stars
Comments: 7 pages, 3 figures, submitted to MNRAS
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

Rocky planets orbiting M-dwarf stars in the habitable zone tend to be driven to synchronous rotation by tidal dissipation, potentially causing difficulties for maintaining a habitable climate on the planet. However, the planet may be captured into asynchronous spin-orbit resonances if it has sufficiently large intrinsic triaxial deformation. We derive the analytic expression for the maximum triaxiality of a rocky planet, with and without a liquid envelope, as a function of the planet's radius, density, rigidity and critical strain of fracture. The derived maximum triaxiality is consistent with the observed triaxialities for terrestrial planets in the solar system, and indicates that rocky planets in the habitable zone of M-dwarfs can in principle be in a state of asynchronous spin-orbit resonances.

[43]  arXiv:1702.07337 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Outflow-Driven Transients from the Birth of Binary Black Holes
Comments: 11 pages, 3 figures
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We consider the electromagnetic radiation from newborn binary black holes (BBHs) formed by the evolution of isolated massive stellar binaries. Before the formation of a BBH, the binary consists of a primary black hole (BH) and a secondary Wolf-Rayet star. We investigate two types of transients from the birth of a secondary BH: one powered by the Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion onto the primary BH, and the other induced by accretion onto the secondary BH. In the former scenario, when the secondary collapses to a BH, it may eject a fraction of its outer material, which forms a disk around the primary BH and induces an ultrafast outflow. This companion-induced outflow can lead to week-scale optical transients with a kinetic energy of $\sim10^{47}$ -- $3\times10^{48}$~erg, ejecta velocity of $10^8$ -- $10^9\rm~cm~s^{-1}$, and absolute magnitude ranging from about $-10$ to $-12$. In the latter scenario, assuming that the tidal torque synchronizes the spin period of the secondary to the orbital period of the primary, the accretion of the stellar material is expected to form a disk around a newborn BH, following its core-collapse. This disk may produce an energetic outflow with a kinetic energy of $\sim10^{52}$~erg and the outflow velocity of $\sim10^{10}\rm~cm~s^{-1}$, resulting in an optical transient of absolute magnitude from $\sim -13$ to $\sim-14$ with a duration of a few days. While dimmer than ordinary supernovae, their light curves and late-time spectra are distinctive, and dedicated optical transient surveys could detect these two types of transients, the second type also leading to detectable radio signals.

[44]  arXiv:1702.07338 [pdf, other]
Title: Investigating the Magnetic Imprints of Major Solar Eruptions with SDO/HMI High-Cadence Vector Magnetograms
Comments: Submitted to ApJ; Reference for HMI high-cadence vector magnetograms
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

The solar active region photospheric magnetic field evolves rapidly during major eruptive events, suggesting appreciable feedback from the corona. The new high-cadence (90 s or 135 s) vector magnetogram dataset from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) is suited for investigating these "magnetic imprints". Observations of an archetypical event, SOL2011-02-15T01:56, show the following trends. Firstly, the horizontal magnetic field component ($B_h$) exhibits permanent, step-like changes with a time scale of several minutes, whereas the radial component ($B_r$) varies less. Secondly, $B_h$ near the main polarity inversion line increases significantly during the earlier phase of the associated flare, whereas $B_h$ in the periphery decreases at later times with smaller magnitudes. Thirdly, transient artifacts coincide with enhanced flare emission, where the Stokes profiles are no longer adequately modeled under standard settings, and the inferred magnetic field becomes unreliable. Our results corroborate previous findings, remove certain ambiguities that arise from line-of-sight only or lower-cadence vector observations, and provide insights on the momentum processes during solar eruption. The dataset may also be useful to the study of sunquakes and data-driven modeling of the solar corona.

[45]  arXiv:1702.07341 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: FUSE Spectroscopy of the Accreting Hot Components in Symbiotic Variables
Comments: Accepted for publication in the Astronomical Journal. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1511.07352
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We have conducted a spectroscopic analysis of the far ultraviolet archival spectra of four symbiotic variables, EG And, AE Ara, CQ Dra and RW Hya. RW Hya and EG And have never had a recorded outburst while CQ Dra and AE Ara have outburst histories. We analyze these systems while they are in quiescence in order to help reveal the physical properties of their hot components via comparisons of the observations with optically thick accretion disk models and NLTE model white dwarf photospheres. We have extended the wavelength coverage down to the Lyman Limit with FUSE spectra. We find that the hot component in RW Hya is a low mass white dwarf with a surface temperature of 160,000K. We re-examine whether or not the symbiotic system CQ Dra is a triple system with a red giant transferring matter to a hot component made up of a cataclysmic variable in which the white dwarf has a surface temperature as low as $\sim$20,000K. The very small size of the hot component contributing to the shortest wavelengths of the FUSE spectrum of CQ Dra agrees with an optically thick and geometrically thin ($\sim$4\% of the WD surface) hot ($\sim 120,000$K) boundary layer. Our analysis of EG And reveals that its hot component is a hot, bare, low mass white dwarf with a surface temperature of 80-95,000K, with a surface gravity $\log(g)= 7.5$. For AE Ara, we also find that a low gravity ($\log(g) \sim 6$) hot ($T \sim 130,000$K) WD accounts for the hot component.