48 articles on Monday, August 20


arXiv:1808.05217v1 [pdf, other]
The Planck Cold Clump G108.37-01.06: A Site of Complex Interplay between H II Regions, Young Clusters and Filaments
Comments: 22 pages, 17 figures, Accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal

The {\it Planck} Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCCs) are the possible representations of the initial conditions and the very early stages of star formation. With an objective to understand better the star and star cluster formation, we probe the molecular cloud associated with PGCC G108.37-01.06 (hereafter, PG108.3), which can be traced in a velocity range $-$57 to $-$51 km s$^{-1}$. The IPHAS images reveal H$\alpha$ emission at various locations around PG108.3, and optical spectroscopy of the bright sources in those zones of H$\alpha$ emission disclose two massive ionizing sources with spectral type O8-O9V and B1V. Using the radio continuum, we estimate ionizing gas parameters and find the dynamical ages of \hii regions associated with the massive stars in the range 0.5$-$0.75 Myr. Based on the stellar surface density map constructed from the deep near-infrared CHFT observations, we find two prominent star clusters in PG108.3; of which, the cluster associated with \hii region S148 is moderately massive ($\sim$ 240 M$\sun$). A careful inspection of JCMT $^{13}$CO(3$-$2) molecular data exhibits that the massive cluster is associated with a number of filamentary structures. Several embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) are also identified in the PG108.3 along the length and junction of filaments. We find the evidence of velocity gradient along the length of the filaments. Along with kinematics of the filaments and the distribution of ionized, molecular gas and YSOs, we suggest that the cluster formation is most likely due to the longitudinal collapse of the most massive filament in PG108.3.


arXiv:1808.05218v1 [pdf, other]
Development of the Fabry-Perot interferometers for the HIRMES spectrometer on SOFIA
Comments: 13 pages, 10 figures, 2018 SPIE Conference Proceedings Paper

HIRMES is a far-infrared spectrometer that was chosen as the third generation instrument for NASA's SOFIA airborne observatory. HIRMES promises background limited performance in four modes that cover the wavelength range between 25 and 122 $\mu$m. The high-spectral resolution ($R \approx 10^5$) mode is matched to achieve maximum sensitivity on velocity-resolved lines to study the evolution of protoplanetary disks. The mid-resolution ($R \approx 12, 000$) mode is suitable for high sensitivity imaging of galactic star formation regions in, for example, the several far-infrared fine structure lines. The low-resolution ($R \approx 2000$) imaging mode is optimized for spectroscopic mapping of far-infrared fine structure lines from nearby galaxies, while the low resolution ($R \approx 600$) grating spectrometer mode is optimized for detecting dust and ice features in protostellar and protoplanetary disks. Several Transition Edge Sensed (TES) bolometer arrays will provide background limited sensitivity in each of these modes. To optimize performance in the various instrument modes, HIRMES employs eight unique fully-tunable cryogenic Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs) and a grating spectrometer. Here we present the design requirements and the mechanical and optical characteristics and performance of these tunable FPI as well as the control electronics that sets the mirror separation and allows scanning of the FPIs.


arXiv:1808.05222v1 [pdf, other]
The SILCC project - V. The impact of magnetic fields on the chemistry and the formation of molecular clouds
Comments: 31 pages, 26 figures, MNRAS accepted

Magnetic fields are ubiquitously observed in the interstellar medium (ISM) of present-day star-forming galaxies with dynamically relevant energy densities. Using three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the supernova (SN) driven ISM in the flux-freezing approximation (ideal MHD) we investigate the impact of the magnetic field on the chemical and dynamical evolution of the gas, fragmentation and the formation of molecular clouds. We follow the chemistry with a network of six species (H$^{+}$, H, H$_2$, C$^+$, CO, free electrons) including local shielding effects. We find that magnetic fields thicken the disc by a factor of a few to a scale height of $\sim100\,\mathrm{pc}$, delay the formation of dense (and molecular) gas by $\sim25\,\mathrm{Myr}$ and result in differently shaped gas structures. The magnetised gas fragments into fewer clumps, which are initially at subcritical mass-to-flux ratios, $M/\Phi\approx0.3(M/\Phi)_\mathrm{crit}$, and accrete gas preferentially parallel to the magnetic field lines until supercritial mass-to-flux ratios of up to order 10 are reached. The accretion rates onto molecular clouds scale with $\dot{M}\propto M^{1.5}$. The median of the inter-cloud velocity dispersion is $\sim2-5\,\mathrm{km\,s}^{-1}$ and lower than the internal velocity dispersion in the clouds ($\sim3-7\,\mathrm{km\,s}^{-1}$). However, individual cloud-cloud collisions occur at speeds of a few $10\,\mathrm{km\,s}^{-1}$.


arXiv:1808.05223v1 [pdf, other]
Galaxy Ellipticity Measurements in the Near-Infrared for Weak Lensing
Comments: 11 pages, 6 figures, and 1 table; Submitted to ApJ

We investigate the value of the near-infrared imaging from upcoming surveys for constraining the ellipticities of galaxies. We select galaxies between 0.5 < z < 3 that are brighter than expected Euclid sensitivity limits from the GOODS-S and N fields in CANDELS. The co-added CANDELS/HST V+I and J+H images are degraded in resolution and sensitivity to simulate Euclid-quality optical and near-infrared (NIR) images. We then run GALFIT on these simulated images and find that optical and NIR provide similar performance in measuring galaxy ellipticities at redshifts 0.5 < z < 3. At z > 1.0, the NIR-selected source density is higher by a factor of 1.4 and therefore the scatter in NIR-derived ellipticities is about 30% smaller, implying a more precise ellipticity measurement. The good performance of the NIR is mainly because galaxies have an intrinsically smoother light distribution in the NIR bands than in the optical, the latter tracing the clumpy star-forming regions. In addition, the NIR bands have a higher surface brightness per pixel than the optical images, while being less affected by dust attenuation. Despite the worse spatial sampling and resolution of Euclid NIR compared to optical, the NIR approach yields equivalent or more precise galaxy ellipticity measurements. If systematics that affect shape such as dithering strategy and point spread function undersampling can be mitigated, inclusion of the NIR can improve galaxy ellipticity measurements over all redshifts. This is particularly important for upcoming weak lensing surveys, such as with Euclid and WFIRST.


arXiv:1808.05224v1 [pdf, other]
Data driven foreground clustering approach to component separation in multifrequency CMB experiments: A new Planck CMB map
Comments: CMB maps, masks and foreground measure map can be downloaded from http://theory.tifr.res.in/~khatri/CMB

We present a new approach to component separation in multifrequency CMB experiments by formulating the problem as that of partitioning the sky into pixel clusters such that within each pixel cluster the foregrounds have similar spectrum, using only the information available in the data. Only spectral information is used for partitioning, allowing spatially far away pixels to belong to the same cluster if their foreground properties are close. We then apply a modified internal linear combination method to each pixel cluster. Since the foregrounds have similar spectrum within each cluster, the number of components required to describe the foregrounds is smaller compared to all data taken together and simple pixel based ILC algorithm works extremely well. We test our algorithm in the full focal plane simulations provided by the Planck collaboration. We apply our algorithm to the Planck full mission data and compare our CMB maps with the CMB maps released by the Planck collaboration. We show that our CMB maps are clean and unbiased on a larger fraction of the sky, especially at the low Galactic latitudes, compared to publicly available maps released by the Planck collaboration. This is important for constraining beyond the simplest $\Lambda$CDM cosmological models and study of anomalies. Our cleaned CMB maps are made publicly available for use by the cosmology community.


arXiv:1808.05230v1 [pdf, other]
On the hunt for self-similar core collapse
Comments: 12 pages, 5 tables, 14 figures Accepted for publication in A&A

Core collapse is a prominent evolutionary stage of self-gravitating systems. In an idealised collisionless approximation, the region around the cluster core evolves in a self-similar way prior to the core collapse. Thus, its radial density profile outside the core can be described by a power-law $\rho \propto r^{-\alpha}$. We aim to find the characteristics of core collapse in $N$-body models. In such systems, a complete collapse is prevented by transferring the binding energy of the cluster to binary stars. The contraction is, therefore, more difficult to identify. We developed a method which identifies the core collapse in $N$-body models of star clusters based on the assumption of their homologous evolution. We analysed different models (equal- and multi-mass), most of which exhibit patterns of homologous evolution, yet with significantly different values of $\alpha$ --- the equal-mass models have $\alpha \approx 2.3$, which agrees with theoretical expectations, the multi-mass models have $\alpha \approx 1.5$ (yet with larger uncertainty). Furthermore, most models usually show sequences of separated homologous collapses with similar properties. Finally, we investigated a correlation between the time of core collapse and the time of formation of the first hard binary star. The binding energy of such a binary usually depends on the depth of the collapse in which it forms, e.g.\ from $100\,kT$ to $10^4\,kT$ in the smallest equal- to the largest multi-mass model, respectively. However, not all major hardenings of binaries happened during the core collapse. In the multi-mass models, we see large transfers of binding energy of $\sim 10^4\,kT$ to binaries that occur on the crossing time scale and out of periods of the homologous collapses.


arXiv:1808.05231v1 [pdf, other]
A 1-dimensional hydrodynamic model for the cooling and heating of gas in dark matter halos from $z=6$ to $z=0$
Comments: 17 pages, 13 figures, 3 tables. Submitted to MNRAS. Comments are welcome

We study an idealized 1D model for the evolution of hot gas in dark matter halos for redshifts $z=[0,6]$. We introduce a numerical setup incorporating cosmological accretion of gas, along with the growth of the halo, based on the Van den Bosch model for the average growth of halos as a function of cosmic time. We evolve one-dimensional Lagrangian shells with radiative cooling of the gas and heating due to feedback from the gas cooling and moving in toward the center. A simple Bondi accretion model on to a central black hole is used to include feedback. The setup captures some of the key characteristics of spherically symmetric accretion onto the halos: formation of virial shocks slightly outside $r_{200}$ and long-term thermal balance in the form of cooling and heating cycles. The gas density outside our initial halos at $z=6$ is constrained by requiring that the baryon fraction within the virial radius for adiabatic conditions be equal to the universal value at almost all times. The total mass in the cold phase ($\sim 10^4$ K) within $40$ kpc is tracked as a function of the halo mass and redshift. We compare the evolution of the cold gas mass to the observed stellar-mass versus halo mass relations, following which, we can constrain the feedback energy required for different halo masses and redshifts. We also compare and match the hot gas density and temperature profiles for the most massive halo in our model to those observed recently for redshifts upto $2$. Our model is thus an improvement over the semi-analytic models in which isothermal condition and $\rho \propto r^{-2}$ are assumed.


arXiv:1808.05235v1 [pdf, other]
Swift Monitoring Observations of Mrk 231: Detection of Ultraviolet Variability
Comments: 8 pages, 4 figures, accepted by MNRAS

We analyze 168 Swift monitoring observations of the nearest broad absorption line quasar Mrk 231 in the UV and X-ray bands, where we detect significant variability in the UV ($\sim$2246\AA) light curve with a null probability of $4.3\times10^{-10}$ for a constant model. Separately, from an archival sample of Swift observed active galactic nuclei (AGN), we measure the relation between UV excess variance and luminosity, finding that the normalized UV excess variance decreases with luminosity. Comparing to this mean relation, the normalized UV excess variance of Mrk 231 is smaller, however within the scatter characterising the full population. The upper limit of the X-ray excess variance is consistent with other AGN. The power spectrum density of the UV light curve can be well fit by a power law model with a slope of $1.82\pm0.14$ between $10^{-7.5}$ and $10^{-6}$ Hz, consistent with those for typical AGN, with no obvious quasi-periodical oscillation peaks. The UV variability and its power spectrum suggest that a significant amount of the UV emission of Mrk 231 is from the accretion disk. The consistencies in the normalized UV variability and the shape of the power spectrum density between Mrk 231 and other normal AGN suggest that the origin of UV variability of broad absorption line quasars is similar to other AGN, and dust scattering at large scales such as the torus is not a dominating process for the UV emission of Mrk 231. Significant scattering, if present, is constrained to smaller than $\sim$10 light days. We perform lagged correlation analysis between the UV and X-ray light curves and find the correlation insignificant within the present data.


arXiv:1808.05247v1 [pdf, other]
The Evolution of the HeII-Ionizing Background at Redshifts 2.3<z<3.8 Inferred from a Statistical Sample of 24 HST/COS HeII Ly$α$ Absorption Spectra
Comments: Submitted to ApJ; 28 pages, 12 figures, abstract abridged

We present new measurements of the large-scale effective optical depth of HeII Ly$\alpha$ absorption, $\tau_{\rm eff}$, at $2.54<z<3.86$ toward 16 HeII-transparent quasars observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, to characterize the ionization state of helium in the intergalactic medium. We provide the first statistically meaningful sample of $\tau_{\rm eff}$ measurements in six science-grade (signal-to-noise ratio $\gtrsim 3$) HeII sightlines at $z>3.5$, and combine them with our previous results at lower redshifts to study the redshift evolution of $\tau_{\rm eff}$ in 24 HeII sightlines. We confirm that the median $\tau_{\rm eff}$ increases from $\simeq 2$ at $z=2.7$ to a limit $\tau_{\rm eff}\gtrsim 5$ at $z>3$, and that the scatter in $\tau_{\rm eff}$ increases with redshift. At $z>3.5$ we observe predominantly saturated HeII absorption, but several isolated narrow transmission spikes indicate patches of fully reionized helium at these early epochs. We statistically compare our measurements to predictions for a range of UV background models applied to outputs of a large-volume hydrodynamical simulation by forward-modeling the quality and size of our sample. At $z>2.74$ the variance in the observed $\tau_{\rm eff}$ significantly exceeds expectations for a spatially uniform HeII-ionizing background, but is in good agreement with a fluctuating radiation field. We develop a method to infer the approximate median HeII photoionization rate $\Gamma_{\rm HeII}$ of a fluctuating UV background from the median $\tau_{\rm eff}$, finding it to monotonically decrease by a factor $\simeq 5$ from $z\simeq 2.6$ to $z\simeq 3.1$. At $z\simeq 3.1$ our inferred $\Gamma_{\rm HeII}$ corresponds to a median HeII fraction of $\simeq 2.5$\%, indicating that our observations probe the tail end of HeII reionization when UV background fluctuations gradually diminished.


arXiv:1808.05252v1 [pdf, other]
The COS CGM Compendium (CCC). I: Survey Design and Initial Results
Comments: Accepted for publication in the ApJ

We present a neutral hydrogen-selected absorption-line survey of gas with HI column densities 15<log N(HI)<19 at z<1 using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. Our main aim is to determine the metallicity distribution of these absorbers. Our sample consists of 224 absorbers selected on the basis of their HI absorption strength. Here we discuss the properties of our survey and the immediate empirical results. We find singly and doubly ionized metal species and HI typically have similar velocity profiles, implying they probe gas in the same or similar environments. The column density ionic ratios (e.g., CII/CIII, OI/CII) indicate the gas in these absorbers is largely ionized, and the ionization conditions are quite comparable across the sampled N(HI) range. The Doppler parameters of the HI imply T<50,000 K on average, consistent with the gas being photoionized. The MgII column densities span >2 orders of magnitude at any given N(HI), indicating a wide range of metallicities (from solar to <1/100 solar). In the range 16.2<log N(HI)<17, there is a gap in the N(MgII) distribution corresponding to gas with ~10% solar metallicity, consistent with the gap seen in the previously identified bimodal metallicity distribution in this column density regime. Less than 3% of the absorbers in our sample show no detectable metal absorption, implying truly-pristine gas at z<1 is uncommon. We find [FeII/MgII] = -0.4+/-0.3, and since alpha-enhancement can affect this ratio, dust depletion is extremely mild.


arXiv:1808.05265v1 [pdf, other]
Gravitational Radiation From Pulsar Creation
Comments: 7 pages,2 fi

We estimate the gravitational wave amplitude as a function of frequency produced during the creation of pulsars from the gravitational collapse of a massive star. The three main quantities needed are the magnitude of the magnetic field producing pulsar kicks, the temperature which determines the velocity of the pulsar and the duration time for the gravitational radiation.res


arXiv:1808.05269v1 [pdf, other]
The Minimum Energy Principle Applied to Parker's Coronal Braiding and Nanoflaring Scenario
Comments: 16 pages, 6 figures

Parker's coronal braiding and nanoflaring scenario predicts the development of tangential discontinuities and highly misaligned magnetic field lines, as a consequence of random buffeting of their footpoints due to the action of sub-photospheric convection. The increased stressing of magnetic field lines is thought to become unstable above some critical misalignment angle and to result into local magnetic reconnection events, which is generally referred to as Parker's 'nanoflaring scenario'. In this study we show that the {\sl minimum (magnetic) energy principle} leads to a bifurcation of force-free field solutions for helical twist angles at $|\varphi(t)| = \pi$, which prevents the build-up of arbitrary large free energies and misalignment angles. The minimum energy principle predicts that neighbored magnetic field lines are almost parallel (with misalignment angles of $\Delta \mu \approx 1.6^\circ-1.8^\circ$), and do not reach a critical misalignment angle prone to nanoflaring. Consequently, no nanoflares are expected in the divergence-free and force-free parts of the solar corona, while they are more likely to occur in the chromosphere and transition region.


arXiv:1808.05271v1 [pdf, other]
The GeMS/GSAOI Galactic Globular Cluster Survey (G4CS) I: A Pilot Study of the stellar populations in NGC 2298 and NGC 3201
Comments: Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal

We present the first results from the GeMS/GSAOI Galactic Globular Cluster Survey (G4CS) of the Milky-Way globular clusters (GCs) NGC 3201 and NGC 2298. Using the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI), in tandem with the Gemini Multi-conjugate adaptive optics System (GeMS) on the 8.1-meter Gemini-South telescope, we collected deep near-IR observations of both clusters, resolving their constituent stellar populations down to $K_s\simeq21$ Vega mag. Point spread function (PSF) photometry was performed on the data using spatially-variable PSFs to generate $JHK_{s}$ photometric catalogues for both clusters. These catalogues were combined with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to augment the photometric wavelength coverage, yielding catalogues that span the near-ultraviolet (UV) to near-infrared (near-IR). We then applied 0.14 mas/year accurate proper-motion cleaning, differential-reddening corrections and chose to anchor our isochrones using the lower main-sequence knee (MSK) and the main-sequence turn-off (MSTO) prior to age determination. As a result of the data quality, we found that the $K_{s}$ vs. F606W$-K_{s}$ and F336W vs. F336W$-K_{s}$ color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) were the most diagnostically powerful. We used these two color combinations to derive the stellar-population ages, distances and reddening values for both clusters. Following isochrone-fitting using three different isochrone sets, we derived best-fit absolute ages of $12.2\pm0.5$ Gyr and $13.2\pm0.4$ Gyr for NGC 3201 and NGC 2298, respectively. This was done using a weighted average over the two aforementioned color combinations, following a pseudo-$\chi^2$ determination of the best-fit isochrone set. Our derived parameters are in good agreement with recent age determinations of the two clusters, with our constraints on the ages being or ranking among the most statistically robust.


arXiv:1808.05277v1 [pdf, other]
FRB Energetics and detectability from high redshifts
Comments: 7 pages

We estimate the upper limit redshifts of known FRBs using the dispersion measure (DM) - redshift ($z$) relation and derive the upper limit peak luminosity $L_p$ and energy $E$ of FRBs within the observational band. The average $z$ upper limits range from 0.17 to 3.10, the average $L_p$ upper limits range from $1.24 \times 10^{42} \rm erg \ s^{-1}$ to $7.80 \times 10^{44} \rm erg \ s^{-1}$, and the average $E$ upper limits range from $6.91 \times 10^{39}$ erg to $1.94 \times 10^{42}$ erg. FRB 160102 with DM $=2596.1 \pm 0.3 \ {\rm pc \ cm^{-3}}$ likely has a redshift greater than 3. Assuming an intrinsic DM contributions from the host and FRB source ${\rm DM_{host}+DM_{scr}}\sim 100 \ {\rm pc \ cm^{-3}}$, such an FRB can be detected up to $z \sim 3.61$ by Parkes with an observed DM $\sim 2947 \ {\rm pc \ cm^{-3}}$, and by FAST under ideal conditions up to $z \sim 10.4$ with an observed DM $\sim 6500 \ {\rm pc \ cm^{-3}}$. Assuming that there exist FRBs detectable at $z\sim 15$ by sensitive telescopes such as FAST, the upper limit DM for FRB searches may be set to $\sim 9000 \ {\rm pc \ cm^{-3}}$. Large aperture telescopes tend to detect more FRBs if the FRB luminosity function index $\alpha_{\rm L}$ is steeper than 2, and vice versa. In any case, they tend to detect more low-luminosity FRBs at regular redshifts (say, $z<3$), with a small chance of detecting high-$z$ FRBs not reachable by smaller telescopes.


arXiv:1808.05287v1 [pdf, other]
Exploding neutron stars in close binaries
Comments: LaTeX, 7 pages

The discovery of GW signal from merging neutron stars by LIGO on 17th August 2017 was followed by a short GRB170817A discovered by FERMI and INTEGRAL 1.7 seconds after the loss of the GW signal when it just reached its maximum. Here we present a reproduction of the first paper (published by us in 1984) predicting a short GRB after GW signal of merging neutron stars. Our paper followed the scenario by Clark and Eardley (1977) who predicted a catastrophic disruption of a neutron star in a binary 1.7 seconds after the peak of GW signal. Our next paper in 1990 predicted all the main properties of the short GRB with quite a reasonable accuracy. Typos in English translation are corrected and a few comments are added in the current publication as numbered footnotes (the only footnote from the original paper is marked by an asterisk).


arXiv:1808.05297v1 [pdf, other]
Characterizing the performance of the NIRC2 vortex coronagraph at W.M. Keck Observatory
Comments: Accepted to AJ

The NIRC2 vortex coronagraph is an instrument on Keck II designed to directly image exoplanets and circumstellar disks at mid-infrared bands $L^\prime$ (3.4-4.1 $\mu$m) and $M_s$ (4.55-4.8 $\mu$m). We analyze imaging data and corresponding adaptive optics telemetry, observing conditions, and other metadata over a three year time period to characterize the performance of the instrument and predict the detection limits of future observations. We systematically process images from 359 observations of 304 unique stars to subtract residual starlight (i.e., the coronagraphic point spread function) of the target star using two methods: angular differential imaging (ADI) and reference star differential imaging (RDI). We find that for the typical parallactic angle (PA) rotation of our dataset ($\sim$10$^{\circ}$), RDI provides gains over ADI for angular separations smaller than 0.25$^{\prime\prime}$. Furthermore, we find a power-law relation between the angular separation from the host star and the minimum PA rotation required for ADI to outperform RDI, with a power-law index of -1.18$\pm$0.08. Finally, we use random forest models to estimate ADI and RDI post-processed detection limits a priori. These models, which we provide publicly on a website, explain 70%-80% of the variance in ADI detection limits and 30%-50% of the variance in RDI detection limits. Averaged over a range of angular separations, our models predict both ADI and RDI contrast to within a factor of 2. These results illuminate important factors in high-contrast imaging observations with the NIRC2 vortex coronagraph, help improve observing strategies, and inform future upgrades to the hardware.


arXiv:1808.05318v1 [pdf, other]
Insight-HXMT observations of the New Black Hole Candidate MAXI J1535-571: timing analysis
Comments: 12 pages, 11 figures, Sumbitted to ApJ

We present the X-ray timing results of the new black hole candidate (BHC) MAXI J1535-571 during its 2017 outburst from Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (\emph{Insight}-HXMT) observations taken from 2017 September 6 to 23. Following the definitions given by \citet{Belloni2010}, we find that the source exhibits state transitions from Low/Hard state (LHS) to Hard Intermediate state (HIMS) and eventually to Soft Intermediate state (SIMS). Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are found in the intermediate states, which suggest different types of QPOs. With the large effective area of \emph{Insight}-HXMT at high energies, we are able to present the energy dependence of the QPO amplitude and centroid frequency up to 100 keV which is rarely explored by previous satellites. We also find that the phase lag at the type-C QPOs centroid frequency is negative (soft lags) and strongly correlated with the centroid frequency. By assuming a geometrical origin of type-C QPOs, the source is consistent with being a high inclination system.


arXiv:1808.05327v1 [pdf, other]
Distortion of Magnetic Fields in a Starless Core IV: Magnetic Field Scaling on Density and Mass-to-flux Ratio Distribution in FeSt 1-457
Comments: Accepted to the Astrophysical Journal (ApJ)

In the present study, the magnetic field scaling on density, $|B| \propto \rho^{\kappa}$, was revealed in a single starless core for the first time. The $\kappa$ index of $0.78 \pm 0.10$ was obtained toward the starless dense core FeSt 1-457 based on the analysis of the radial distribution of the polarization angle dispersion of background stars measured at the near-infrared wavelengths. The result prefers $\kappa = 2/3$ for the case of isotropic contraction, and the difference of the observed value from $\kappa = 1/2$ is 2.8 sigma. The distribution of the ratio of mass to magnetic flux was evaluated. FeSt 1-457 was found to be magnetically supercritical near the center ($\lambda \approx 2$), whereas nearly critical or slightly subcritical at the core boundary ($\lambda \approx 0.98$). Ambipolar-diffusion-regulated star formation models for the case of moderate magnetic field strength may explain the physical status of FeSt 1-457. The mass-to-flux ratio distribution for typical dense cores (critical Bonnor--Ebert sphere with central $\lambda=2$ and $\kappa=1/2$--$2/3$) was calculated and found to be magnetically critical/subcritical at the core edge, which indicates that typical dense cores are embedded in and evolve from magnetically critical/subcritical diffuse surrounding medium.


arXiv:1808.05332v1 [pdf, other]
Does nonaxisymmetric dynamo operate in the Sun?
Comments: 14 pages, 10 figures

We explore effects of random non-axisymmetric perturbations of kinetic helicity (the $\alpha$ effect) and diffusive decay of bipolar magnetic regions on generation and evolution of large-scale non-axisymmetric magnetic fields on the Sun. Using a reduced 2D nonlinear mean-field dynamo model and assuming that bipolar regions emerge due to magnetic buoyancy in situ of the large-scale dynamo action, we show that fluctuations of the $\alpha$ effect can maintain the non-axisymmetric magnetic fields through a solar-type $\alpha^{2}\Omega$ dynamo process. It is found that diffusive decay of bipolar active regions is likely to be the primary source of the non-axisymmetric magnetic fields observed on the Sun. Our results show that the non-axisymmetric dynamo model with stochastic perturbations of the $\alpha$ effect can explain periods of extremely high activity ('super-cycle' events) as well as periods of deep decline of magnetic activity. We compare the models with synoptic observations of solar magnetic fields for the last four activity cycles, and discuss implications of our results for interpretation of observations of stellar magnetic activity.


arXiv:1808.05345v1 [pdf, other]
A New Set of Parameters of High-Mass X-ray Binaries Found with their Cyclotron Lines
Comments: 8 pages, 4 figures, submitted

We have derived new physical quantities for several High-Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs) with supergiant (SG) companions through their cyclotron lines. The parameters are: the terminal velocity of the wind, the mass loss rate of the donor, the effective temperature and the magnetic fields. These parameters influence significantly the improvement of the model of accretion. In spite of the variety of their observational properties, the corresponding magnetic field is around B ~ 10^12 G. This result can be constrained by the effects on stellar evolution. In addition, we have performed a segmentation in the parameter space of donors intended for several SG-HMXB listed in our sample set. The parameter space can be categorized into five regimes depending on the possibility of disk formation associated with accretion from the stellar wind. This can give a quantitative clarification of the observed variability and the properties of these objects. We show that, when these systems come into the direct accretion region, systems with corresponding parameters can emit X-rays.


arXiv:1808.05356v1 [pdf, other]
Dynamo Action in the Steeply Decaying Conductivity Region of Jupiter-like Dynamo Models
Comments: 39 pages, 19 figures, submitted to JGR planets

The Juno mission is delivering spectacular data of Jupiter's magnetic field, while the gravity measurements finally allow constraining the depth of the winds observed at cloud level. However, to which degree the zonal winds contribute to the planet's dynamo action remains an open question. Here we explore numerical dynamo simulations that include an Jupiter-like electrical conductivity profile and successfully model the planet's large scale field. We concentrate on analyzing the dynamo action in the Steeply Decaying Conductivity Region (SDCR) where the high conductivity in the metallic Hydrogen region drops to the much lower values caused by ionization effects in the very outer envelope of the planet. Our simulations show that the dynamo action in the SDCR is strongly ruled by diffusive effects and therefore quasi stationary. The locally induced magnetic field is dominated by the horizontal toroidal field, while the locally induced currents flow mainly in the latitudinal direction. The simple dynamics can be exploited to yield estimates of surprisingly high quality for both the induced field and the electric currents in the SDCR. These could be potentially be exploited to predict the dynamo action of the zonal winds in Jupiter's SDCR but also in other planets.


arXiv:1808.05363v1 [pdf, other]
Observational Viability of an Inflation Model with E-Model non-Minimal Derivative Coupling
Comments: 18 pages, 8 figures, 4 tables, Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal

By starting with a two-fields model in which the fields and their derivatives are nonminimally coupled to gravity, and then by using a conformal gauge, we obtain a model in which the derivatives of the canonically normalized field are nonminimally coupled to gravity. By adopting some appropriate functions, we study two cases with constant and E-model nonminimal derivative coupling, while the potential in both cases is chosen to be E-model one. We show that in contrary to the single field $\alpha$-attractor model that there is an attractor \textit{point} in the large $N$ and small $\alpha$ limits, in our setup and for both mentioned cases there is an attractor \emph{line} in these limits that the $r-n_{s}$ trajectories tend to. By studying the linear and nonlinear perturbations in this setup and comparing the numerical results with Planck2015 observational data, we obtain some constraints on the free parameter $\alpha$. We show that by considering the E-model potential and coupling function, the model is observationally viable for all values of $M$ (mass scale of the model). We use the observational constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the consistency relation to obtain some constraints on the sound speed of the perturbations in this model. As a result, we show that in a nonminimal derivative $\alpha$-attractor model, it is possible to have small sound speed and therefore large non-Gaussianity.


arXiv:1808.05365v1 [pdf, other]
Global-mean Vertical Tracer Mixing in Planetary Atmospheres II: Tidally Locked Planets
Comments: Accepted at ApJ, 16 pages, 12 figures. This is the part II. Part I is "Global-mean Vertical Tracer Mixing in Planetary Atmospheres I: Theory and Fast-rotating Planets"

In Zhang $\&$ Showman (2018, hereafter Paper I), we developed an analytical theory of 1D eddy diffusivity $K_{zz}$ for global-mean vertical tracer transport in a 3D atmosphere. We also presented 2D numerical simulations on fast-rotating planets to validate our theory. On a slowly rotating planet such as Venus or a tidally locked planet (not necessarily a slow-rotator) such as a hot Jupiter, the tracer distribution could exhibit significant longitudinal inhomogeneity and tracer transport is intrinsically 3D. Here we study the global-mean vertical tracer transport on tidally locked planets using 3D tracer-transport simulations. We find that our analytical $K_{zz}$ theory in Paper I is validated on tidally locked planets over a wide parameter space. $K_{zz}$ strongly depends on the large-scale circulation strength, horizontal mixing due to eddies and waves and local tracer sources and sinks due to chemistry and microphysics. As our analytical theory predicted, $K_{zz}$ on tidally locked planets also exhibit three regimes In Regime I where the chemical and microphysical processes are uniformly distributed across the globe, different chemical species should be transported via different eddy diffusivity. In Regime II where the chemical and microphysical processes are non-uniform---for example, photochemistry or cloud formation that exhibits strong day-night contrast---the global-mean vertical tracer mixing does not always behave diffusively. In the third regime where the tracer is long-lived, non-diffusive effects are significant. Using species-dependent eddy diffusivity, we provide a new analytical theory of the dynamical quench points for disequilibrium tracers on tidally locked planets from first principles.


arXiv:1808.05384v1 [pdf, other]
Science prospects for SPHiNX - a small satellite GRB polarimetry mission
Comments: Accepted for publication in Astroparticle Physics

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are exceptionally bright electromagnetic events occurring daily on the sky. The prompt emission is dominated by X-/$\gamma$-rays. Since their discovery over 50 years ago, GRBs are primarily studied through spectral and temporal measurements. The properties of the emission jets and underlying processes are not well understood. A promising way forward is the development of missions capable of characterising the linear polarisation of the high-energy emission. For this reason, the SPHiNX mission has been developed for a small-satellite platform. The polarisation properties of incident high-energy radiation (50-600 keV) are determined by reconstructing Compton scattering interactions in a segmented array of plastic and Gd$_3$Al$_2$Ga$_3$O$_{12}$(Ce) (GAGG(Ce)) scintillators. During a two-year mission, $\sim$200 GRBs will be observed, with $\sim$50 yielding measurements where the polarisation fraction is determined with a relative error $\leq$10%. This is a significant improvement compared to contemporary missions. This performance, combined with the ability to reconstruct GRB localisation and spectral properties, will allow discrimination between leading classes of emission models.


arXiv:1808.05386v1 [pdf, other]
On the radial metallicity gradient and radial migration effect of the Galactic disk
Comments: Published in ApJ, including 8 pages, 8 figures

We study the radial metallicity gradient $\Delta[M/H]/\Delta R_g$ as a function of [Mg/Fe] and $|Z|$ with the help of a guiding radius based on the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment and Gaia and then analyze the radial migration effect on the radial metallicity gradient and metallicity-rotation gradient between the Galactic thin and thick disks. The derived trend of gradient $\Delta[M/H]/\Delta R_g$ versus [Mg/Fe] shows a transition at [Mg/Fe] $\sim 0.18$ dex, below which the gradient is negative and varies a little as [Mg/Fe] increases; however, it changes sharply in [Mg/Fe] ranges of 0.16-0.18, above which the gradient increases linearly with increasing [Mg/Fe], being a positive value at [Mg/Fe]$\gtrsim 0.22$ dex. These positive gradients in the high-[Mg/Fe] populations are found at $|Z| < 0.8$ kpc, and there are nearly no gradients toward higher $|Z|$. By comparing the metallicity distributions, the radial metallicity gradients $\Delta[M/H]/\Delta R$ and the metallicity-rotation gradients between the total sample and $|R-R_g|<2$ kpc subsample (or $|R-R_g|>2$ kpc subsample), we find that, for the thick disk, blurring flattens the gradient $\Delta[M/H]/\Delta R$ and favors metal-poor high-eccentricity stars. These stars are responsible for the measured positive metallicity-rotation gradient of the thick disk.


arXiv:1808.05421v1 [pdf, other]
[OII] as a proxy for star formation in AGN host galaxies: beware of extended emission line regions
Comments: 8 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS

The [OII] 3726+3728\AA\ emission line doublet is often used to estimate star formation rates within the host galaxies of active galactic nuclei (AGN), as it is known to be strongly excited by star formation, but is only weakly excited in the broad and narrow line regions of AGN. However, within AGN host galaxies, [OII] can also be excited in low-density gas located at appreciable distances from the nucleus, but still ionized by the AGN. These AGN extended emission line regions (EELRs) can contribute significant flux to integrated spectra, even in the presence of luminous AGN. Here, we identify EELRs by the presence of the [NeV] 3426\AA\ emission line, which, like [OII], is not strongly excited in the inner regions of AGN, but is a prominent emission line in the lower density EELRs. Critically, unlike [OII], [NeV] is not excited by star formation. Therefore, when strong [NeV] is present in an AGN spectrum, the flux from the EELR is not negligible, implying the [OII] flux is contaminated by emission from the EELR, and is not a good measure of star formation. After removing objects with EELRs identified by [NeV], the [OII] flux in the host galaxies of radio-loud AGN is found to be higher than that within radio-quiet AGN, which could either indicate higher star-formation rates, or the presence of moderate-velocity shocks. Being mindful of EELRs for upcoming large-area spectroscopic surveys, particularly those tied to radio continuum surveys, will be important for determining star formation rates in AGN host galaxies.


arXiv:1808.05422v1 [pdf, other]
Accurate prediction of H$_3$O$^+$ and D$_3$O$^+$ sensitivity coefficients to probe a variable proton-to-electron mass ratio
Comments: No comment found

The mass sensitivity of the vibration-rotation-inversion transitions of H$_3{}^{16}$O$^+$, H$_3{}^{18}$O$^+$, and D$_3{}^{16}$O$^+$ is investigated variationally using the nuclear motion program TROVE~\citep{TROVE:2007}. The calculations utilize new high-level \textit{ab initio} potential energy and dipole moment surfaces. Along with the mass dependence, frequency data and Einstein A coefficients are computed for all transitions probed. Particular attention is paid to the $\Delta|k|=3$ and $\Delta|k-l|=3$ transitions comprising the accidentally coinciding $|J,K\!=\!0,v_2\!=\!0^+\rangle$ and $|J,K\!=\!3,v_2\!=\!0^-\rangle$ rotation-inversion energy levels. The newly computed probes exhibit sensitivities comparable to their ammonia and methanol counterparts, thus demonstrating their potential for testing the cosmological stability of the proton-to-electron mass ratio. The theoretical TROVE results are in close agreement with sensitivities obtained using the nonrigid and rigid inverter approximate models, confirming that the \textit{ab initio} theory used in the present study is adequate.


arXiv:1808.05424v1 [pdf, other]
Single-pulse classifier for the LOFAR Tied-Array All-sky Survey
Comments: Accepted in MNRAS

Searches for millisecond-duration, dispersed single pulses have become a standard tool used during radio pulsar surveys in the last decade. They have enabled the discovery of two new classes of sources: rotating radio transients and fast radio bursts. However, we are now in a regime where the sensitivity to single pulses in radio surveys is often limited more by the strong background of radio frequency interference (RFI, which can greatly increase the false-positive rate) than by the sensitivity of the telescope itself. To mitigate this problem, we introduce the Single-pulse Searcher (SpS). This is a new machine-learning classifier designed to identify astrophysical signals in a strong RFI environment, and optimized to process the large data volumes produced by the new generation of aperture array telescopes. It has been specifically developed for the LOFAR Tied-Array All-Sky Survey (LOTAAS), an ongoing survey for pulsars and fast radio transients in the northern hemisphere. During its development, SpS discovered 7 new pulsars and blindly identified ~80 known sources. The modular design of the software offers the possibility to easily adapt it to other studies with different instruments and characteristics. Indeed, SpS has already been used in other projects, e.g. to identify pulses from the fast radio burst source FRB 121102. The software development is complete and SpS is now being used to re-process all LOTAAS data collected to date.


arXiv:1808.05427v1 [pdf, other]
Anomalous phosphine sensitivity coefficients as probes for a possible variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio
Comments: No comment found

A robust variational approach is used to investigate the sensitivity of the rotation-vibration spectrum of phosphine (PH$_3$) to a possible cosmological variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio, $\mu$. Whilst the majority of computed sensitivity coefficients, $T$, involving the low-lying vibrational states acquire the expected values of $T\approx-1$ and $T\approx-1/2$ for rotational and ro-vibrational transitions, respectively, anomalous sensitivities are uncovered for the $A_1\!-\!A_2$ splittings in the $\nu_2/\nu_4$, $\nu_1/\nu_3$ and $2\nu_4^{\ell=0}/2\nu_4^{\ell=2}$ manifolds of PH$_3$. A pronounced Coriolis interaction between these states in conjunction with accidentally degenerate $A_1$ and $A_2$ energy levels produces a series of enhanced sensitivity coefficients. Phosphine is expected to occur in a number of different astrophysical environments and has potential for investigating a drifting constant. Furthermore, the displayed behaviour hints at a wider trend in molecules of ${\bf C}_{3\mathrm{v}}\mathrm{(M)}$ symmetry, thus demonstrating that the splittings induced by higher-order ro-vibrational interactions are well suited for probing $\mu$ in other symmetric top molecules in space, since these low-frequency transitions can be straightforwardly detected by radio telescopes.


arXiv:1808.05438v1 [pdf, other]
First Results of an ALMA Band 10 Spectral Line Survey of NGC 6334I: Detections of Glycolaldehyde (HC(O)CH$_2$OH) and a New Compact Bipolar Outflow in HDO and CS
Comments: Accepted in ApJ Letters

We present the first results of a pilot program to conduct an ALMA Band 10 spectral line survey of the high-mass star-forming region NGC 6334I. The observations were taken in exceptional weather conditions (0.19 mm precipitable water) with typical system temperatures $T_{\rm{sys}}$ $<$950 K at $\sim$890 GHz. A bright, bipolar north-south outflow is seen in HDO and CS emission, driven by the embedded massive protostar MM1B. This has allowed, for the first time, a direct comparison of the thermal water in this outflow to the location of water maser emission from prior 22 GHz VLA observations. The maser locations are shown to correspond to the sites along the outflow cavity walls where high velocity gas impacts the surrounding material. We also compare our new observations to prior Herschel HIFI spectral line survey data of this field, detecting an order of magnitude more spectral lines (695 vs 65) in the ALMA data. We focus on the strong detections of the complex organic molecule glycolaldehyde (HC(O)CH$_2$OH) in the ALMA data that is not detected in the heavily beam-diluted HIFI spectra. Finally, we stress the need for dedicated THz laboratory spectroscopy to support and exploit future high-frequency molecular line observations with ALMA.


arXiv:1808.05446v1 [pdf, other]
Jsolated Stars of Low Metallicity
Comments: This article belongs to the Special Issue Asymmetric Planetary Nebulae VII (http://www.mdpi.com/journal/galaxies/special_issues/Planetary) Galaxies 2018, 6(3), 89

We study the effects of a reduced mass-loss rate on the evolution of low metallicity Jsolated stars, following our earlier classification for angular momentum (J) isolated stars. By using the stellar evolution code MESA we study the evolution with different mass-loss rate efficiencies for stars with low metallicities of Z=0.001 and Z=0.004, and compare with the evolution with solar metallicity, Z=0.02. We further study the possibility for late asymptomatic giant branch (AGB)-planet interaction and its possible effects on the properties of the planetary nebula (PN). We find for all metallicities that only with a reduced mass-loss rate an interaction with a low mass companion might take place during the AGB phase of the star. The interaction will most likely shape an elliptical PN. The maximum post-AGB luminosities obtained, both for solar metallicity and low metallicities, reach high values corresponding to the enigmatic finding of the PN luminosity function.


arXiv:1808.05456v1 [pdf, other]
Magnetic arms of NGC6946 traced in the Faraday cubes at low radio frequencies
Comments: 7 pages, 7 figures, 1 table

Magnetic fields in galaxies exist on various spatial scales. Large-scale magnetic fields are thought to be generated by the $\alpha-\Omega$ dynamo. Small-scale galactic magnetic fields (1 kpc and below) can be generated by tangling the large-scale field or by the small-scale turbulent dynamo. The analysis of field structures with the help of polarized radio continuum emission is hampered by the effect of Faraday dispersion (due to fluctuations in magnetic field and/or thermal electron density) that shifts signals from large to small scales. At long observation wavelengths large-scale magnetic fields may become invisible, as in the case of spectro-polarimetric data cube of the spiral galaxy NGC~6946 observed with the Westerbork Radio Synthesis Telescope in the wavelength range 17-23 cm. The application of RM Synthesis alone does not overcome this problem. We propose to decompose the Faraday data cube into data cubes at different spatial scales by a wavelet transform. Signatures of the 'magnetic arms' observed in NGC~6946 at shorter wavelengths become visible. Our method allows us to search for large-scale field patterns in data cubes at long wavelengths, as provided by new-generation radio telescopes.


arXiv:1808.05462v1 [pdf, other]
HEOSAT: A mean elements orbit propagator program for Highly Elliptical Orbits
Comments: 18 pages, 5 figures

The algorithms used in the construction of a semi-analytical propagator for the long-term propagation of Highly Elliptical Orbits (HEO) are described. The software propagates mean elements and include the main gravitational and non-gravitational effects that may affect common HEO orbits, as, for instance, geostationary transfer orbits or Molniya orbits. Comparisons with numerical integration show that it provides good results even in extreme orbital configurations, as the case of SymbolX.


arXiv:1808.05503v1 [pdf, other]
Magnetic characterization and variability study of the magnetic SPB star o Lup
Comments: 19 pages, 6 Tables, 9 Figures, Accepted for publication in A&A

Thanks to large dedicated surveys, large-scale magnetic fields have been detected for about 10% of early-type stars. We aim to precisely characterize the large-scale magnetic field of the magnetic component of the wide binary $o$ Lup, by using high-resolution ESPaDOnS and HARPSpol spectropolarimetry to analyse the variability of the measured longitudinal magnetic field. In addition, we investigate the periodic variability using space-based photometry collected with the BRITE-Constellation by means of iterative prewhitening. The rotational variability of the longitudinal magnetic field indicates a rotation period $P_{\mathrm{rot}}=2.95333(2)$d and that the large-scale magnetic field is dipolar, but with a significant quadrupolar contribution. Strong differences in the strength of the measured magnetic field occur for various chemical elements as well as rotational modulation for Fe and Si absorption lines, suggesting a inhomogeneous surface distribution of chemical elements. Estimates of the geometry of the large-scale magnetic field indicate $i=27\pm 10^{\circ}$, $\beta = 74^{+7}_{-9}\,^{\circ}$, and a polar field strength of at least 5.25 kG. The BRITE photometry reveals the rotation frequency and several of its harmonics, as well as two gravity mode pulsation frequencies. The high-amplitude g-mode pulsation at $f=1.1057\mathrm{d^{-1}}$ dominates the line-profile variability of the majority of the spectroscopic absorption lines. We do not find direct observational evidence of the secondary in the spectroscopy. Therefore, we attribute the pulsations and the large-scale magnetic field to the B5IV primary of the $o$ Lup system, but we discuss the implications should the secondary contribute to or cause the observed variability.


arXiv:1808.05515v1 [pdf, other]
Magnetic field as a tracer for studying the differential rotation of the solar corona
Comments: No comment found

The differential rotation of the solar corona for the period 1976-2004 was studied as a function of the distance from the center of the Sun. For this study, we developed a method using the coronal magnetic field as a tracer. The field in a spherical layer from the base of the corona up to the source surface was determined from photospheric measurements. Calculations were performed for 14 heliocentric distances from the base of the corona up to 2.45 solar radii and from the equator to about 75 degrees of latitude at 5 degrees steps. For each day, we calculated three components, which were then used to obtain the field strength. The coronal rotation periods were determined by the periodogram method for all distances and latitudes under consideration. The variations in the coronal rotation during the time interval 1976-2004 were as follows: the gradient of differential rotation decreased with the increase of heliocentric distance; the rotation remaining differential even in the vicinity of the source surface. The largest rotation rates were recorded at the cycle minimum at small heights in the corona. The lowest rotation rate was observed at the middle of the ascending branch at large distances. At the minimum of the cycle, the differential rotation is most clearly pronounced, especially at small heliocentric distances. As the distance increases, the differential gradient decreases in all phases. The results based on magnetic data and on the brightness of the coronal green line 530.3nm FeXIV used earlier show a satisfactory agreement. Since the rotation of the magnetic field at the corresponding heights in the corona is probably determined by the conditions in the field generation region, an opportunity arises to use this method for diagnostics of differential rotation in the subphotospheric layers.


arXiv:1808.05531v1 [pdf, other]
Photo-evaporation of proto-planetary gas discs due to flybys of external single stars in different orbits
Comments: accepted by MNRAS

During the evolution of proto-planetary disc, photo-evaporations of both central and external stars play important roles. Considering the complicated radiation surroundings in the clusters, where the star formed, the proto-planetary discs survive in different lifetimes due to flyby events. In this paper, we mainly focus on the disc around a T Tauri star, which encounters with another main-sequence star with different temperatures in hyperbolic orbits with different peri-center distances, eccentricities and inclinations. We find the criterion for gap-opening due to photo-evaporation of central star after the flyby event. A gap is opened in the late stage of gas disc, and induce that the gap only influence the planet formation and migration limitedly. If the flyby orbit has a moderate value of peri-center distance, which weakly depends on the eccentricity and inclination, the external photo-evaporation lead to a maximum mass loss during the flyby event. Flyby stars in orbits with smaller eccentricities or larger inclinations induce larger mass loss. Adopting a simple multiple flyby models, we conclude that in open clusters, gas discs usually survive in typical lifetimes between 1 and 10 Myr, except there are many massive stars in dense open clusters. In globular clusters, discs disperse very quickly and hardly produce the gas giant planets. The fast-depleted discs are probably responsible for the null detection of giant planets in globular clusters.


arXiv:1808.05536v1 [pdf, other]
The impact of bars and interactions on optically selected AGNs in spiral galaxies
Comments: 13 pages, 9 figures. Accepted for publication in A&A

Aims. With the aim of performing a suitable comparison of the internal process of galactic bars with respect to the external effect of interactions on driving gas toward the inner most region of the galaxies, we explored the efficiency of both mechanisms on central nuclear activity in active galactic nuclei (AGN) in spiral galaxies. Methods. We selected samples of barred AGN and active objects residing in pair systems, derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). In order to carry out a reliable comparison of both samples (AGNs in barred hosts in isolation and in galaxy pairs), we selected spiral AGN galaxies with similar distributions of redshift, magnitude, stellar mass, color and stellar age population from both catalogs. With the goal of providing an appropriate quantification of the influence of bars and interactions on nuclear activity, we also constructed a suitable control sample of unbarred spiral AGNs with similar host properties than the other two samples. Results. We found that barred AGNs show an excess of nuclear activity (as derived from the $Lum[OIII]$) and accretion rate ($\cal R$) with respect to AGN in pairs. In addition, both samples show an excess of high values of $Lum[OIII]$ and $\cal R$ with respect to unbarred AGNs in the control sample. We also found that the fractions of AGNs with powerful nuclear activity and high accretion rates increase toward more massive hosts with bluer colors and younger stellar populations. Moreover, AGNs with bars exhibit a higher fraction of galaxies with powerful $Lum[OIII]$ and efficient $\cal R$ with respect to AGNs inhabiting pair systems. Regarding to AGN belonging to pair systems, we found that the central nuclear activity is remarkably dependent on the galaxy pair companion features.


arXiv:1808.05538v1 [pdf, other]
Multi-scale three-dimensional visualization of emission, scattering and absorption in active galactic nuclei using Virtual Observatories tools
Comments: 4 pages, 1 figure. To appear in the Proceedings of the French Society of Astronomy & Astrophysics (SF2A)

Whether aimed for the study of the planetary systems, the distribution of the stars in the galaxies or the formation of the large-scale structures in the Universe, the sizes of numerical simulations are becoming increasingly important in terms of their virtual volumes and computer memories. The visualization of the data becomes more complicated with the requirement of the exposition of the large number of data points. In order to lighten such burden, Virtual Observatories (VO) have been developed and are now essential tools in astronomy to share existing data, for visualization and for data analysis. Using a software, currently being developed at the Centre de Donn\'ees de Strasbourg (CDS) jointly with the Astronomical Observatory of Strasbourg, we show how three-dimensional radiative transfer simulations of active galactic nuclei (AGN) can be visualized in order to extract new information. The ability to zoom over ten orders of magnitude and to journey inside/between the multiple scattering regions allows to identify where emission, scattering, and absorption truly take place. Among all the new possibilities offered by the software, it is possible to test the single-scattering hypothesis or evaluate the impact of fragmentation onto the propagation of light echoes within the broad line region (BLR) or the circumnuclear region (torus).


arXiv:1808.05540v1 [pdf, other]
Decomposing blazar spectra into lepto-hadronic emission components
Comments: IBWS Proceedings, 6 pages, 4 figures

Recently reported coincidences between high-energy neutrino events and major blazar outbursts reinforce the relevance of lepto-hadronic emission models for blazars. We study the influence of physical parameters on the neutrino output modeling blazar spectral energy distributions self-consistently assuming a relativistically propagating acceleration zone surrounded by a larger cooling zone. We find that the gross features of the spectral energy distribution can readily be explained with the model. A rigorous test requires time-resolved measurements of blazar spectral energy distributions during an outburst and high-statistics neutrino measurements to discriminate the leptonic and hadronic emission components.


arXiv:1808.05552v1 [pdf, other]
Least Squares Two-Point Function Estimation
Comments: 3 pages, 1 figure

The standard estimator for the two-point function of a homogeneous and isotropic random field is a special case of a larger class of least squares estimators that interpolate the function values. Using a different interpolation scheme, two-point function values can be estimated at specific distances, instead of the binned averages.


arXiv:1808.05556v1 [pdf, other]
Broad-band spectral evolution and temporal variability of IGR J17091-3624 during its 2016 outburst : SWIFT and NuSTAR results
Comments: Accepted for publication in Astrophysics & Space science

We report on the 2016 outburst of the transient Galactic Black Hole candidate IGR J17091-3624 based on the observation campaign carried out with SWIFT and NuSTAR. The outburst profile, as observed with SWIFT-XRT, shows a typical 'q'-shape in the Hardness Intensity Diagram (HID). Based on the spectral and temporal evolution of the different parameters, we are able to identify all the spectral states in the q-profile of HID and the Hardness-RMS diagram (HRD). Both XRT and NuSTAR observations show an evolution of low frequency Quasi periodic oscillations (QPOs) during the low hard and hard intermediate states of the outburst rising phase. We also find mHz QPOs along- with distinct coherent class variabilities (heartbeat oscillations) with different timescales, similar to the $\rho$-class (observed in GRS 1915+105). Phenomenological modelling of the broad-band XRT and NuSTAR spectra also reveals the evolution of high energy cut-off and presence of reflection from ionized material during the rising phase of the outburst. Further, we conduct the modelling of X-ray spectra of SWIFT and NuSTAR in 0.5 - 79 keV to understand the accretion flow dynamics based on two component flow model. From this modelling, we constrain the mass of the source to be in the range of 10.62 - 12.33 Msun with 90% confidence, which is consistent with earlier findings.


arXiv:1808.05562v1 [pdf, other]
The Role of Twist in Kinked Flux Rope Emergence and Delta-Spot Formation
Comments: Accepted for publication in ApJ, but comments welcome

It has been observationally well established that the magnetic configurations most favorable for producing energetic flaring events reside in delta-spots, a class of sunspots defined as having opposite polarity umbrae sharing a common penumbra. They are frequently characterized by extreme compactness, strong rotation and anti-Hale orientation. Numerous studies have shown that nearly all of the largest solar flares originate in delta-spots, making the understanding of these structures a fundamental step in predicting space weather. Despite their important influence on the space environment, surprisingly little is understood about the origin and behavior of delta-spots. In this paper, we perform a systematic study of the behavior of emerging flux ropes to test a theoretical model for the formation of delta-spots: the kink instability of emerging flux ropes. We simulated the emergence of highly twisted, kink-unstable flux ropes from the convection zone into the corona, and compared their photospheric properties to those of emerged weakly twisted, kink-stable flux ropes. We show that the photospheric manifestations of the emergence of highly twisted flux ropes closely match the observed properties of delta-spots, and we discuss the resulting implications for observations. Our results strongly support and extend previous theoretical work that suggested that the kink instability of emerging flux ropes is a promising candidate to explain delta-spot formation, as it reproduces their key characteristics very well.


arXiv:1808.05564v1 [pdf, other]
Dynamic equilibrium sets atomic content of galaxies across cosmic time
Comments: 12 pages, 7 figures; Submitted to ApJ

We analyze 88 independent high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations of disk galaxies in the NIHAO simulations suite to explore the connection between the atomic gas fraction and angular momentum of baryons throughout cosmic time. The study is motivated by the analytic model of \citet{obreschkow16}, which predicts a relation between the atomic gas fraction $f_{\rm atm}$ and the global atomic stability parameter $q \equiv j\sigma / (GM)$, where $M$ and $j$ are the mass and specific angular momentum of the galaxy (stars+cold gas) and $\sigma$ is the velocity dispersion of the atomic gas. We show that the simulated galaxies follow this relation from their formation ($z\simeq4$) to present within $\sim 0.5$ dex. To explain this behavior, we explore the evolution of the local Toomre stability and find that $90\%$--$100\%$ of the atomic gas in all simulated galaxies is stable at any time. In other words, throughout the entire epoch of peak star formation until today, the timescale for accretion is longer than the timescale to reach equilibrium, thus resulting in a quasi-static equilibrium of atomic gas at any time. Hence, the evolution of $f_{\rm atm}$ depends on the complex hierarchical growth history primarily via the evolution of $q$. An exception are galaxies subject to strong environmental effects.


arXiv:1808.05571v1 [pdf, other]
A flux-ratio anomaly in the CO spectral line emission from gravitationally-lensed quasar MG J0414+0534
Comments: Accepted as MNRAS Letter

We present an analysis of archival observations with the Atacama Large (sub-)Millimetre Array (ALMA) of the gravitationally lensed quasar MG J0414+0534, which show four compact images of the quasar and an Einstein ring from the dust associated with the quasar host galaxy. We confirm that the flux-ratio anomalies observed in the mid-infrared and radio persists into the sub-mm for the continuum images of the quasar. We report the detection of CO (11-10) spectral line emission, which traces a region of compact gas around the quasar nucleus. This line emission also shows evidence of a flux-ratio anomaly between the merging lensed images that is consistent with those observed at other wavelengths, suggesting high-excitation CO can also provide a useful probe of substructures that is unaffected by microlensing or dust extinction. However, we do not detect the candidate dusty dwarf galaxy that was previously reported with this dataset, which we conclude is due to a noise artefact. Thus, the cause of the flux-ratio anomaly between the merging lensed images is still unknown. The composite compact and diffuse emission in this system suggest lensed quasar-starbursts will make excellent targets for detecting dark sub-haloes and testing models for dark matter.


arXiv:1808.05582v1 [pdf, other]
Ruprecht 106: A riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma
Comments: 10 pages, 5 figures, resubmitted to ApJL after responding to the referee's report

Galactic globular clusters (GCs) show overwhelming photometric and spectroscopic evidence for the existence of multiple stellar populations. The question of whether or not there exists a GC that represents a true 'simple stellar population' remains open. Here we focus on Ruprecht 106 (R106), a halo GC with [Fe/H]=-1.5 and [alpha/Fe]~0. A previous spectroscopic study found no sign of the Na-O anticorrelation among 9 of its brightest red giants, which led to the conclusion that R106 is a true simple stellar population GC. Here we present new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 photometry of R106 that, when combined with archival HST images spanning a 6-year baseline, allows us to create proper motion cleaned color-magnitude diagrams spanning the ultraviolet (F336W) to the near-infrared (F814W). These data allow us to construct the pseudo-color C_{U,B,I} that is sensitive to the presence of light-element abundance spreads. We find no evidence of a split along the red giant branch (RGB) in the C_{U,B,I} diagram but the width of the RGB (sigma_CUBI = 0.015) is marginally broader than expected from artificial star tests (sigma_CUBI = 0.009). The observed spread in C_{U,B,I} is smaller than any other Galactic GC studied to date. Our results raise important questions about the role of formation environment and primordial chemical composition in the formation of multiple stellar populations in GCs.


arXiv:1808.05603v1 [pdf, other]
Using Gaia DR2 to Constrain Local Dark Matter Density and Thin Dark Disk
Comments: 34 pages, 19 figures

We use stellar kinematics from the latest Gaia data release (DR2) to measure the local dark matter density $\rho_{\rm DM}$ in a heliocentric cylinder of radius $R= 150 \ {\rm pc}$ and half-height $z= 200 \ {\rm pc}$. We also explore the prospect of using our analysis to estimate the DM density in local substructure by setting constraints on the surface density and scale height of a thin dark disk aligned with the baryonic disk and formed due to dark matter self-interaction. Performing the statistical analysis within a Bayesian framework for three types of tracers, we obtain ${\rho_{\rm DM}= 0.023 \pm 0.012}$ M$_\odot$/pc$^3$ for A stars; early G stars give a similar result, while F stars yield a significantly higher value. For a thin dark disk, A stars set the strongest constraint: excluding surface densities (5-15) M$_\odot$/pc$^2$ for scale heights below 100 pc with 95% confidence. Comparing our results with those derived using Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) data, we find that the uncertainty in our measurements of the local DM content is dominated by systematic errors that arise from assumptions of our kinematic analysis in the low $z$ region. Furthermore, there will only be a marginal reduction in these uncertainties with more data in the Gaia era. We comment on the robustness of our method and discuss potential improvements for future work.


arXiv:1808.05605v1 [pdf, other]
The Power Spectrum of the Lyman-$α$ Forest at z < 0.5
Comments: 16 pages, 8 figures, submitted

We present new measurements of the flux power-spectrum P(k) of the z<0.5 H I Lyman-$\alpha$ forest spanning scales k ~ 0.001-0.1 s/km. These results were derived from 65 far ultraviolet quasar spectra (resolution R~18,000) observed with Cosmic Origin Spectrograph (COS) on-board Hubble Space Telescope. The analysis required careful masking of all contaminating, coincident absorption from H I and metal-line transitions of the Galactic interstellar medium and intervening absorbers and proper treatment of the complex COS line-spread function. From the P(k) measurements, we estimate the H I photoionization rate ($\Gamma_{\rm HI}$) in the z<0.5 intergalactic medium. Our results confirm most of the previous $\Gamma_{\rm HI}$ estimates based on the H I Lyman-$\alpha$ line-fitting and low-z measurements of P(k). We conclude that previous concerns of a photon underproduction crisis are now resolved by showing that the measured $\Gamma_{\rm HI}$ is contributed by ultraviolet emission from quasars alone. In a companion paper, we will present constraints on the thermal state of the z<0.5 intergalactic medium from the P(k) measurements presented here.


arXiv:1808.05610v1 [pdf, other]
An Alternative Derivation of the Analytic Expression of Transmission Spectra
Comments: Accepted by Research Notes of the American Astronomical Society

Under some assumptions, an analytic expression for the transmission spectrum can be obtained, which can form the basis of atmospheric retrievals and allows insight on the degeneracies involved. In this Research Note we present an alternative derivation for the analytic expression of a transmission spectrum.