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[1]  arXiv:1504.06322 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Radio rebrightening of the GRB afterglow by the accompanying supernova
Comments: 7 pages, 4 figures, MNRAS submitted on April 11
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

The gamma-ray burst (GRB) jet powers the afterglow emission by shocking the surrounding medium, and radio afterglow can now be routinely observed to almost a year after the explosion. Long-duration GRBs are accompanied by supernovae (SNe) that typically contain much more energy than the GRB jet. Here we consider the fact that the SN blast wave will also produce its own afterglow, which will peak at much later time (since it is non-relativistic), when the SN blast wave transitions from a coasting phase to a decelerating Sedov-Taylor phase. We predict that this component will peak generally a few tens of years after the explosion and it will outshine the GRB powered afterglow well-before its peak emission. In the case of GRB 030329, where the external density is constrained by the $\sim 10$-year coverage of the radio GRB afterglow, the radio emission is predicted to start rising over the next decade and to continue to increase for the following decades up to a level of $\sim 0.5$ mJy. Detection of the SN-powered radio emission will greatly advance our knowledge of particle acceleration in $ \sim 0.1$c shocks.

[2]  arXiv:1504.06324 [pdf, other]
Title: Dynamical constraints on the dark matter distribution in the Milky Way
Comments: 10 pages, 5 figures, 2 tables
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); High Energy Physics - Experiment (hep-ex); High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph)

An accurate knowledge of the dark matter distribution in the Milky Way is of crucial importance for galaxy formation studies and current searches for particle dark matter. In this paper we set new dynamical constraints on the Galactic dark matter profile by comparing the observed rotation curve, updated with a comprehensive compilation of kinematic tracers, with that inferred from a wide range of observation-based morphologies of the bulge, disc and gas. The generalised Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) and Einasto dark matter profiles are fitted to the data in order to determine the favoured ranges of local density, slope and scale radius. For a representative baryonic model, we find a local dark matter density 0.420+0.021-0.018 (2 sigma) +- 0.025 GeV/cm^3 (0.420+0.019-0.021 (2 sigma) +- 0.026 GeV/cm^3) for NFW (Einasto), where the second error is an estimate of the systematic due to baryonic modelling. The main sources of uncertainty inside and outside the solar circle are baryonic modelling and rotation curve measurements, respectively. Astronomical observations over the coming years are expected to reduce uncertainties on both fronts.

[3]  arXiv:1504.06325 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: EVN observations of 6.7 GHz methanol maser polarization in massive star-forming regions III. The flux-limited sample
Comments: 17 pages, 10 figures, 9 tables, accepted by Astronomy & Astrophysics. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1306.6335
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Theoretical simulations and observations at different angular resolutions have shown that magnetic fields have a central role in massive star formation. Like in low-mass star formation, the magnetic field in massive young stellar objects can either be oriented along the outflow axis or randomly. Measuring the magnetic field at milliarcsecond resolution (10-100 au) around a substantial number of massive young stellar objects permits determining with a high statistical significance whether the direction of the magnetic field is correlated with the orientation of the outflow axis or not. In late 2012, we started a large VLBI campaign with the European VLBI Network to measure the linearly and circularly polarized emission of 6.7 GHz methanol masers around a sample of massive star-forming regions. This paper focuses on the first seven observed sources, G24.78+0.08, G25.65+1.05, G29.86-0.04, G35.03+0.35, G37.43+1.51, G174.20-0.08, and G213.70-12.6. For all these sources, molecular outflows have been detected in the past. We detected a total of 176 methanol masing cloudlets toward the seven massive star-forming regions, 19% of which show linearly polarized emission. The methanol masers around the massive young stellar object MM1 in G174.20-0.08 show neither linearly nor circularly polarized emission. The linear polarization vectors are well ordered in all the other massive young stellar objects. We measured significant Zeeman splitting toward both A1 and A2 in G24.78+0.08, and toward G29.86-0.04 and G213.70-12.6. By considering all the 19 massive young stellar objects reported in the literature for which both the orientation of the magnetic field at milliarcsecond resolution and the orientation of outflow axes are known, we find evidence that the magnetic field (on scales 10-100 au) is preferentially oriented along the outflow axes.

[4]  arXiv:1504.06326 [pdf, other]
Title: The Interaction of Venus-like, M-dwarf Planets with the Stellar Wind of Their Host Star
Comments: 13 pages, 7 figures, accepted to ApJ
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

We study the interaction between the atmospheres of Venus-like, non-magnetized exoplanets orbiting an M-dwarf star, and the stellar wind using a multi-species Magnetohydrodynaic (MHD) model. We focus our investigation on the effect of enhanced stellar wind and enhanced EUV flux as the planetary distance from the star decreases. Our simulations reveal different topologies of the planetary space environment for sub- and super-Alfvenic stellar wind conditions, which could lead to dynamic energy deposition in to the atmosphere during the transition along the planetary orbit. We find that the stellar wind penetration for non-magnetized planets is very deep, up to a few hundreds of kilometers. We estimate a lower limit for the atmospheric mass-loss rate and find that it is insignificant over the lifetime of the planet. However, we predict that when accounting for atmospheric ion acceleration, a significant amount of the planetary atmosphere could be eroded over the course of a billion years.

[5]  arXiv:1504.06328 [pdf, other]
Title: Luminous Red Galaxies: Selection and classification by combining optical and infrared photometry
Comments: 10 pages, 13 figures, Published in the Astrophysical Journal
Journal-ref: ApJ 803 105 (2015)
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We describe a new method of combining optical and infrared photometry to select Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) at redshifts $z > 0.6$. We explore this technique using a combination of optical photometry from CFHTLS and HST, infrared photometry from the WISE satellite, and spectroscopic or photometric redshifts from the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey or COSMOS. We present a variety of methods for testing the success of our selection, and present methods for optimization given a set of rest-frame color and redshift requirements. We have tested this selection in two different regions of the sky, the COSMOS and Extended Groth Strip (EGS) fields, to reduce the effect of cosmic/sample variance. We have used these methods to assemble large samples of LRGs for two different ancillary programs as a part of the SDSS-III/ BOSS spectroscopic survey. This technique is now being used to select $\sim$600,000 LRG targets for SDSS-IV/eBOSS, which began observations in Fall 2014, and will be adapted for the proposed DESI survey. We have found these methods can select high-redshift LRGs efficiently with minimal stellar contamination; this is extremely difficult to achieve with selections that rely on optical photometry alone.

[6]  arXiv:1504.06332 [pdf]
Title: Short term Variability of the Sun Earth System: An Overview of Progress Made during the CAWSES II Period
Comments: 85 pages, 30 figures, 2 tables, Accepted for publication in Progress in Earth and Planetary Science on April 13, 2015
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Space Physics (physics.space-ph)

This paper presents an overview of results obtained during the CAWSES II period on the short term variability of the Sun and how it affects the near Earth space environment. CAWSES II was planned to examine the behavior of the solar terrestrial system as the solar activity climbed to its maximum phase in solar cycle 24. After a deep minimum following cycle 23, the Sun climbed to a very weak maximum in terms of the sunspot number in cycle 24 (MiniMax24), so many of the results presented here refer to this weak activity in comparison with cycle 23. The short term variability that has immediate consequence to Earth and geospace manifests as solar eruptions from closed field regions and high speed streams from coronal holes. Both electromagnetic (flares) and mass emissions (coronal mass ejections, CMEs) are involved in solar eruptions, while coronal holes result in high speed streams that collide with slow wind forming the so called corotating interaction regions (CIRs). Fast CMEs affect Earth via leading shocks accelerating energetic particles and creating large geomagnetic storms. CIRs and their trailing high speed streams (HSSs), on the other hand, are responsible for recurrent small geomagnetic storms and extended (days) of auroral zone activity, respectively. The latter lead to the acceleration of relativistic magnetospheric killer electrons. One of the major consequences of the weak solar activity is the altered physical state of the heliosphere that has serious implications for the shock-driving and storm causing properties of CMEs. Finally, a discussion is presented on extreme space weather events prompted by the 2012 July 23 super storm event that occurred on the backside of the Sun. Many of these studies were enabled by the simultaneous availability of remote-sensing and in situ observations from multiple vantage points with respect to the Sun Earth line.

[7]  arXiv:1504.06335 [pdf, other]
Title: Physics of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
Comments: Lectures given at the 2nd Jos\'e Pl\'inio Baptista School in Cosmology, 9-14 March 2014. 43 pages, 8 figures
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation provides a remarkable window onto the early universe, revealing its composition and structure. In these lectures we review and discuss the physics underlying the main features of the CMB.

[8]  arXiv:1504.06343 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: High energy $γ$-ray emission from PSR B1259$-$63 during 2014 and 2010 periastron passages
Comments: Conference proceeding. Swift: 10 Years of Discovery, 2-5 December 2014, La Sapienza University, Rome, Italy. 6 pages, 2 figures
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

PSR B1259$-$63/SS 2883 is a $\gamma$-ray binary system composed of a radio pulsar in a long (1236.7 days) and elliptical ($e\sim0.87$) orbit around a Be star. In its 2010 periastron passage, multiwavelength emission from radio to TeV was observed, and an unexpected GeV flare was detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Here we present the results of the LAT monitoring of PSR B1259$-$63 during its most recent 2014 periastron passage. We confirm that the GeV flare is recurrent within the orbit. The comparison of the 2014 and 2010 periastron passages shows overall similarities of flare durations, average flux levels, and spectra. In contrast, the detailed time evolutions of the two flares present interesting differences. Indeed, the light curves of the two flares show both a different structure and peak energy flux ($9.6 \pm1.8 \times 10^{-10}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ and $7.1 \pm1.3 \times 10^{-10}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, respectively in 2010 and 2014). While the tail of the 2010 flare the flux decayed exponentially, in 2014 it persisted at a high level. The interpretation of these differences as well as of the flare themselves is subject of debate.

[9]  arXiv:1504.06354 [pdf, other]
Title: The fragility of planetary systems
Authors: Simon Portegies Zwart, Lucie Jilkova (Leiden Observatory)
Comments: 4 pages, accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

We specify the range to which perturbations penetrate a planetesimal system. Such perturbations can originate from massive planets or from encounters with other stars. The latter can have an origin in the star cluster in which the planetary system was born, or from random encounters once the planetary system has escaped its parental cluster. The probability of a random encounter, either in a star cluster or in the Galactic field depends on the local stellar density, the velocity dispersion and the time spend in that environment. By adopting order of magnitude estimates we argue that the majority of planetary systems born in open clusters will have a {\em Parking zone}, in which planetesimals are affected by encounters in their parental star cluster but remain unperturbed after the star has left the cluster. Objects found in this range of semi-major axis and eccentricity preserve the memory of the encounter that last affected their orbits, and they can therefore be used to reconstruct this encounter. Planetary systems born in a denser environment, such as in a globular cluster are unlikely to have a Parking zone. We further argue that some planetary systems may have a {\em Frozen zone}, in which orbits are not affected either by the more inner massive planets or by external influences. Objects discovered in this zone will have preserved information about their formation in their orbital parameters.

[10]  arXiv:1504.06365 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Extrasolar Binary Planets II: Detectability by Transit Observations
Comments: accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

We discuss the detectability of gravitationally bounded pairs of gas-giant planets (which we call "binary planets") in extrasolar planetary systems that are formed through orbital instability followed by planet-planet dynamical tides during their close encounters, based on the results of N-body simulations by Ochiai, Nagasawa and Ida (Paper I). Paper I showed that the formation probability of a binary is as much as $\sim 10\%$ for three giant planet systems that undergo orbital instability, and after post-capture long-term tidal evolution, the typical binary separation is 3--5 times the sum of physical radii of the planets. The binary planets are stable during main sequence lifetime of solar-type stars, if the stellarcentric semimajor axis of the binary is larger than 0.3 AU. We show that detecting modulations of transit light curves is the most promising observational method to detect binary planets. Since the likely binary separations are comparable to the stellar diameter, the shape of the transit light curve is different from transit to transit, depending on the phase of the binary's orbit. The transit durations and depth for binary planet transits are generally longer and deeper than those for the single planet case. We point out that binary planets could exist among the known inflated gas giant planets or objects classified as false positive detections at orbital radii > 0.3 AU, propose a binary planet explanation for the CoRoT candidate SRc01 E2 1066, and show that binary planets are likely to be present in, and could be detected using Kepler-quality data.

[11]  arXiv:1504.06369 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Measuring Ambient Densities and Lorentz Factors of Gamma-Ray Bursts from GeV and Optical Observations
Authors: Romain Hascoët, Indrek Vurm, Andrei M. Beloborodov (Columbia University)
Comments: 21 pages, 9 figures, submitted to ApJ
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

Fermi satellite discovered that cosmological gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are accompanied by long GeV flashes. In two GRBs, an optical counterpart of the GeV flash has been detected. Recent work suggests that the GeV+optical flash is emitted by the external blast wave from the explosion in a medium loaded with copious $e^\pm$ pairs. The full light curve of the flash is predicted by a first-principle radiative transfer simulation and can be tested against observations. Here we examine a sample of 7 bursts with best GeV+optical data and test the model. We find that the observed light curves are in agreement with the theoretical predictions and allow us to measure three parameters for each burst: the Lorentz factor of the explosion, its isotropic kinetic energy, and the external density. With one possible exception of GRB 090510 (which is the only short burst in the sample) the ambient medium is consistent with a wind from a Wolf-Rayet progenitor. The wind density parameter $A=\rho r^2$ varies in the sample around $10^{11}$g/cm. The initial Lorentz factor of the blast wave varies from 200 to 540 and correlates with the burst luminosity. Radiative efficiency of the prompt emission in the sample is between 0.1 and 0.8. For the two bursts with detected optical flash, GRB 120711A and GRB 130427A, we also estimate the magnetization of the external blast wave. Remarkably, the model reproduces the entire optical light curve of GRB 120711A (with its sharp peak, fast decay, plateau, and break) as well as the GeV data. The spectrum of GeV flashes is predicted to extend above 0.1 TeV, where they can be detected by ground-based Cherenkov telescopes.

[12]  arXiv:1504.06371 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: A search for variable and transient radio sources in the extended Chandra Deep Field South at 5.5 GHz
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present a three epoch survey for transient and variables in the extended Chandra Deep Field South at 5.5 GHz with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. A region covering $\sim$0.3 deg$^{2}$ was observed on timescales of 2.5 months and 2.5 years and typical sensitivities 12.1 $-$ 17.1 $\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$ (1$\sigma$) were achieved. This survey represents the deepest search for transient and variable radio sources at 5.5 GHz. In total 124 sources were detected above the 5.5$\sigma$ level. One highly variable radio source was found with $\Delta S > 50%$ implying a surface density of $\sim$3 deg$^{-2}$. A further three radio sources were found with lower levels of variability equating to a surface density of $\sim$13 deg$^{-2}$ above a detection threshold of 82.3 $\mu$Jy. All of the variable sources have inverted radio spectra (between 1.4 and 5.5 GHz) and are associated with active galactic nuclei. We conclude that these variables are young gigahertz peaked-spectrum sources with active and self-absorbed radio jets. We explore the variability completeness of this sample and conclude that the fairly low levels of variability would only be detectable in 3$-$25% of all sources within the field. No radio transients were detected in this survey and we place an upper limit on the surface density of transient events $ < 7.5$ deg$^{-2}$ above a detection threshold of 68.8~$\mu$Jy.

[13]  arXiv:1504.06399 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Key Science Observations of AGNs with KaVA Array
Comments: Proceedings of the 12th European VLBI Network Symposium and Users Meeting, 7-10 October 2014, Cagliari, Italy
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

KaVA (KVN and VERA Array) is a new combined VLBI array with KVN (Korean VLBI Network) and VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry). First, we briefly review the imaging capabilities of KaVA array which actually achieves more than three times better dynamic range than that achieved by VERA alone. The KaVA images clearly show detailed structures of extended radio jets in AGNs. Next, we represent the key science program to be led by KaVA AGN sub working group. We will conduct the monitoring observations of Sgr A* and M87 because of the largeness of their central super-massive black hole angular sizes. The main science goals of the program are (i) testing magnetically-driven-jet paradigm by mapping velocity fields of the M87 jet, and (ii) obtaining tight constraints on physical properties of radio emitting region in Sgr A*.

[14]  arXiv:1504.06417 [pdf, other]
Title: A NLTE analysis of the hot subdwarf O star BD+28 4211. II. The optical spectrum
Comments: Accepted for publication in A&A, 15 pages
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We present the second part of our detailed analysis of the hot sdO and spectroscopic standard star BD+28 4211, in which we focus on the optical spectrum. In the first part of our study, we determined the abundances of some 11 metals detected in the atmosphere of BD+28 4211 using UV spectra of the star and corroborated the fundamental parameters estimated in past studies (Teff $\sim$ 82,000 K, log g $\sim$ 6.2, and solar N(He)/N(H)). In this work, we aim at rederiving these secured parameters on the sole basis of high-quality optical spectra. A first grid of non-LTE line-blanketed model atmospheres, including metals with the abundances derived from the UV spectrum, does not give satisfactory results when we apply a standard simultaneous fitting procedure to the observed H and He lines of our optical spectra. The line profiles are not finely reproduced and the resulting effective temperatures, in particular, are too low by $\sim$10,000 K. We next investigate the probable cause of this failure, that is, the importance of missing opacity sources on the atmospheric stratification. We compare line profiles computed from models with artificially boosted metallicities, from solar abundances to 15$\times$ these values. We find that the structural effects saturate for a metallicity of $\sim$10x solar, and use this to compute a second full grid of models and synthetic spectra. This metal-enriched grid allows us to achieve significantly improved spectral fits with models having the expected parameters. Our test case thus reveals that there is still a need for models with enhanced metallicity for better estimating the atmospheric parameters of objects such as hot subdwarfs and hot white dwarfs if only optical spectra are available.

[15]  arXiv:1504.06427 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Redshift and spatial distribution of the intermediate gamma-ray bursts
Comments: AIP Conference Proceedings; 1358. pp. 235-238
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

One of the most important task of the Gamma-Ray Burst field is the classification of the bursts. Many researches have proven the existence of the third kind (intermediate duration) of GRBs in the BATSE data. Recent works have analyzed BeppoSax and Swift observations and can also identify three types of GRBs in the data sets. However, the class memberships are probabilistic we have enough observed redshifts to calculate the redshift and spatial distribution of the intermediate GRBs. They are significantly farther than the short bursts and seems to be closer than the long ones.

[16]  arXiv:1504.06428 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Variability of young stellar objects: accretion, disks, outflows and magnetic activity
Authors: B. Stelzer
Comments: 6 pages, to appear in "Reviews of Modern Astronomy" Vol.27, special issue of Astronomical Notes
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

This article represents a short review of the variability characteristics of young stellar objects. Variability is a key property of young stars. Two major origins may be distinguished: a scaled-up version of the magnetic activity seen on main-sequence stars and various processes related to circumstellar disks, accretion and outflows.

[17]  arXiv:1504.06429 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Methyl Acetate and its singly deuterated isotopomers in the interstellar medium
Comments: 24 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

Methyl acetate (CH_3COOCH_3) has been recently observed by IRAM 30 m radio telescope in Orion though the presence of its deuterated isotopomers is yet to be confirmed. We therefore study the properties of various forms of methyl acetate, namely, CH_3COOCH_3, CH_2DCOOCH_3 and CH_3COOCH_2D. Our simulation reveals that these species could be produced efficiently both in gas as well as in ice phases. Production of methyl acetate could follow radical-radical reaction between acetyl (CH_3CO) and methoxy (CH_3O) radicals. To predict abundances of CH_3COOCH_3 along with its two singly deuterated isotopomers and its two isomers (ethyl formate and hydroxyacetone), we prepare a gas-grain chemical network to study chemical evolution of these molecules. Since gas phase rate coefficients for methyl acetate and its related species were unknown, either we consider similar rate coefficients for similar types of reactions (by following existing data bases) or we carry out quantum chemical calculations to estimate the unknown rate coefficients. For the surface reactions, we use adsorption energies of reactants from some earlier studies. Moreover, we perform quantum chemical calculations to obtain spectral properties of methyl acetate in infrared and sub-millimeter regions. We prepare two catalog files for the rotational transitions of CH_2DCOOCH_3 and CH_3COOCH_2D in JPL format, which could be useful for their detection in regions of interstellar media where CH_3COOCH_3 has already been observed.

[18]  arXiv:1504.06444 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Search for Interstellar Adenine
Comments: 13 pages, 6 figures, Accepted in Astrophys Space Sci
Journal-ref: Astrophys Space Sci, 2015, 357, 90
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

It is long debated if pre-biotic molecules are indeed present in the interstellar medium. Despite substantial works pointing to their existence, pre-biotic molecules are yet to be discovered with a complete confidence. In this paper, our main aim is to study the chemical evolution of interstellar adenine under various circumstances. We prepare a large gas-grain chemical network by considering various pathways for the formation of adenine. Majumdar et al. (2012) proposed that in the absence of adenine detection, one could try to trace two precursors of adenine, namely, HCCN and NH_2CN. Recently Merz et al. (2014), proposed another route for the formation of adenine in interstellar condition. They proposed two more precursor molecules. But it was not verified by any accurate gas-grain chemical model. Neither was it known if the production rate would be high or low. Our paper fills this important gap. We include this new pathways to find that the contribution through this pathways for the formation of Adenine is the most dominant one in the context of interstellar medium. We propose that observers may look for the two precursors (C_3NH and HNCNH) in the interstellar media which are equally important for predicting abundances of adenine. We perform quantum chemical calculations to find out spectral properties of adenine and its two new precursor molecules in infrared, ultraviolet and sub-millimeter region. Our present study would be useful for predicting abundance of adenine.

[19]  arXiv:1504.06453 [pdf, other]
Title: Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the formation of molecular hydrogen and its deuterated forms
Comments: 20 pages, 8 figures, published in New Astronomy
Journal-ref: New Astronomy, 2015, 38, 23-30
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

$H_2$ is the most abundant interstellar species. Its deuterated forms ($HD$ and $D_2$) are also significantly abundant. Huge abundances of these molecules could be explained by considering the chemistry occurring on the interstellar dust. Because of its simplicity, Rate equation method is widely used to study the formation of grain-surface species. However, since recombination efficiency of formation of any surface species are heavily dependent on various physical and chemical parameters, Monte Carlo method would be best method suited to take care of randomness of the processes. We perform Monte Carlo simulation to study the formation of $H_2$, $HD$ and $D_2$ on interstellar ices. Adsorption energies of surface species are the key inputs for the formation of any species on interstellar dusts but binding energies of deuterated species are yet to known with certainty. A zero point energy correction exists between hydrogenated and deuterated species which should be considered while modeling the chemistry on the interstellar dusts. Following some earlier studies, we consider various sets of adsorption energies to study the formation of these species in diverse physical circumstances. As expected, noticeable difference in these two approaches (Rate equation method and Monte Carlo method) is observed for production of these simple molecules on interstellar ices. We introduce two factors, namely, $S_f$ and $\beta$ to explain these discrepancies: $S_f$ is a scaling factor, which could be used to correlate discrepancies between Rate equation and Monte Carlo methods. $\beta$ factor indicates the formation efficiency under various circumstances. Higher values of $\beta$ indicates a lower production efficiency. We found that $\beta$ increases with a decrease in rate of accretion from gas phase to grain phase.

[20]  arXiv:1504.06465 [pdf, other]
Title: Interpreting the X-ray state transitions of Cygnus X-1
Comments: 12 pages, 10 figures, 3 tables. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1303.1198 by other authors
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We present a novel method for interpreting observations of high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) based on a combination of spectroscopic data and numerical results from a radiation hydrodynamic model of stellar winds. We calculate synthetic Doppler tomograms of predicted emission in low/hard and high/soft X-ray states and compare them with Doppler tomograms produced using spectra of Cygnus X-1, a prototype of HMXBs. Emission from HMXBs is determined by local conditions within the circumstellar medium, namely density, temperature, and ionization state. These quantities depend strongly on the X-ray state of the systems. By increasing intensity of an X-ray emission produced by the compact companion in the HMXB model, we achieved a complete redistribution of the circumstellar medium in the vicinity of the modelled system. These changes (which simulate the transitions between two major spectral states) are also apparent in the synthetic Doppler tomograms which are in good agreement with the observations.

[21]  arXiv:1504.06468 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Comparison between RHD simulation of supercritical accretion flows and steady model with outflows
Comments: 37 pages, 15 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We apply our two-dimensional (2D), radially self-similar steady-state accretion flow model to the analysis of hydrodynamic simulation results of supercritical accretion flows. Self-similarity is checked and the input parameters for the model calculation, such as advective factor and heat capacity ratio, are obtained from time-averaged simulation data. Solutions of the model are then calculated and compared with the simulation results. We find that in the converged region of the simulation, excluding the part too close to the black hole, the radial distribution of azimuthal velocity $v_\phi$, density $\rho$ and pressure $p$ basically follows the self-similar assumptions, i.e. they are roughly proportional to $r^{-0.5}$, $r^{-n}$, and $r^{-(n+1)}$, respectively, where $n\sim0.85$ for the mass injection rate of $1000L_\mathrm{E}/c^2$, and $n\sim0.74$ for $3000L_\mathrm{E}/c^2$. The distribution of $v_r$ and $v_\theta$ agrees less with self-similarity, possibly due to convective motions in the $r\theta$ plane. The distribution of velocity, density and pressure in $\theta$ direction obtained by the steady model agrees well with the simulation results {within the calculation boundary of the steady model}. Outward mass flux in the simulations is overall directed toward polar angle of 0.8382 rad ($\sim 48.0^\circ$) for $1000L_\mathrm{E}/c^2$, and 0.7852 rad ($\sim 43.4^\circ$) for $3000L_\mathrm{E}/c^2$, and $\sim$94\% of the mass inflow are driven away as outflow, while outward momentum and energy fluxes are focused around the polar axis. Part of these fluxes lie in the region that are not calculated by the steady model, and special attention should be paid when the model is applied.

[22]  arXiv:1504.06472 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Signatures of a two million year old supernova in the spectra of cosmic ray protons, antiprotons and positrons
Comments: 5 pages, 3 eps figures
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

The locally observed cosmic ray spectrum has several puzzling features, such as the excess of positrons and antiprotons above $\sim 20$ GeV and the discrepancy in the slopes of the spectra of cosmic ray protons and heavier nuclei in the TeV-PeV energy range. We show that these features are consistently explained by a nearby source which was active $\sim 2$ Myr ago and has injected $(1-2)\times 10^{50}$ erg in cosmic rays. The transient nature of the source and its overall energy budget point to the supernova origin of this local cosmic ray source. The age of the supernova suggests that the local cosmic ray injection was produced by the same supernova that has deposited $^{60}$Fe isotopes in the deep ocean crust.

[23]  arXiv:1504.06473 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: How are Forbush decreases related with interplanetary magnetic field enhancements ?
Comments: accepted in A&A
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Aims. Forbush decrease (FD) is a transient decrease followed by a gradual recovery in the observed galactic cosmic ray intensity. We seek to understand the relationship between the FDs and near-Earth interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) enhancements associated with solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Methods. We use muon data at cutoff rigidities ranging from 14 to 24 GV from the GRAPES-3 tracking muon telescope to identify FD events. We select those FD events that have a reasonably clean profile, and magnitude > 0.25%. We use IMF data from ACE/WIND spacecrafts. We look for correlations between the FD profile and that of the one hour averaged IMF. We ask if the diffusion of high energy protons into the large scale magnetic field is the cause of the lag observed between the FD and the IMF. Results. The enhancement of the IMF associated with FDs occurs mainly in the shock-sheath region, and the turbulence level in the magnetic field is also enhanced in this region. The observed FD profiles look remarkably similar to the IMF enhancement profiles. The FDs typically lag the IMF enhancement by a few hours. The lag corresponds to the time taken by high energy protons to diffuse into the magnetic field enhancement via cross-field diffusion. Conclusions. Our findings show that high rigidity FDs associated with CMEs are caused primarily by the cumulative diffusion of protons across the magnetic field enhancement in the turbulent sheath region between the shock and the CME.

[24]  arXiv:1504.06485 [pdf, other]
Title: $Herschel$ SPIRE-FTS observations of RCW 120
Authors: J. A. Rodón (1 and 2), A. Zavagno (2), J.-P. Baluteau (2), E. Habart (3), M. Köhler (3), J. Le Bourlot (4), F. Le Petit (4), A. Abergel (3) ((1) European Southern Observatory, (2) Aix Marseille université, CNRS, LAM, (3) Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS/Université Paris-Sud, (4) LUTH, Observatoire de Paris et Université Paris)
Comments: 11 pages, 11 figures, accepted by A&A
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

The expansion of Galactic HII regions can trigger the formation of a new generation of stars. However, little is know about the physical conditions that prevail in these regions. We study the physical conditions that prevail in specific zones towards expanding HII regions that trace representative media such as the photodissociation region, the ionized region, and condensations with and without ongoing star formation. We use the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board $Herschel$ to observe the HII region RCW 120. Continuum and lines are observed in the $190-670\,\mu$m range. Line intensities and line ratios are obtained and used as physical diagnostics of the gas. We used the Meudon PDR code and the RADEX code to derive the gas density and the radiation field at nine distinct positions including the PDR surface and regions with and without star-formation activity. For the different regions we detect the atomic lines [NII] at $205\,\mu$m and [CI] at $370$ and $609\,\mu$m, the $^{12}{\rm CO}$ ladder between the $J=4$ and $J=13$ levels and the $^{13}{\rm CO}$ ladder between the $J=5$ and $J=14$ levels, as well as CH$ ^{+} $ in absorption. We find gas temperatures in the range $45-250\,$K for densities of $10^4-10^6\,{\rm cm}^{-3}$, and a high column density on the order of $N_{{\rm H}}\sim10^{22}\,{\rm cm}^{-2}$ that is in agreement with dust analysis. The ubiquitousness of the atomic and CH$ ^{+} $ emission suggests the presence of a low-density PDR throughout RCW 120. High-excitation lines of CO indicate the presence of irradiated dense structures or small dense clumps containing young stellar objects, while we also find a less dense medium ($N_{{\rm H}}\sim10^{20}\,{\rm cm}^{-2}$) with high temperatures ($80-200\,$K).

[25]  arXiv:1504.06486 [pdf, other]
Title: Electron acceleration by cascading reconnection in the solar corona I Magnetic gradient and curvature effects
Comments: submitted to A&A
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Aims: We investigate the electron acceleration in convective electric fields of cascading magnetic reconnection in a flaring solar corona and show the resulting hard X-ray (HXR) radiation spectra caused by Bremsstrahlung for the coronal source. Methods: We perform test particle calculation of electron motions in the framework of a guiding center approximation. The electromagnetic fields and their derivatives along electron trajectories are obtained by linearly interpolating the results of high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) MHD simulations of cascading magnetic reconnection. Hard X-ray (HXR) spectra are calculated using an optically thin Bremsstrahlung model. Results: Magnetic gradients and curvatures in cascading reconnection current sheet accelerate electrons: trapped in magnetic islands, precipitating to the chromosphere and ejected into the interplanetary space. The final location of an electron is determined by its initial position, pitch angle and velocity. These initial conditions also influence electron acceleration efficiency. Most of electrons have enhanced perpendicular energy. Trapped electrons are considered to cause the observed bright spots along coronal mass ejection CME-trailing current sheets as well as the flare loop-top HXR emissions.

[26]  arXiv:1504.06500 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Relaxation in N-body simulations of spherical systems
Authors: J. A. Sellwood (Rutgers University)
Comments: 7 pages, 4 figures, submitted to ApJ
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

I present empirical measurements of the rate of relaxation in N-body simulations of stable spherical systems and distinguish two separate causes of relaxation: two-body effects, which cause energy exchange between particles of differing masses, and collective oscillations driven by shot noise that lead to an enhanced energy diffusion rate. I use four different methods to compute the gravitational field, and a 100-fold range in the numbers of particles in each case. I find the rate at which energy is exchanged between particles of differing masses does not depend at all on the force determination method, but I do find the energy diffusion rate, which is substantially enhanced by collective modes, is marginally lower when a field method is used. The relaxation rate in 3D is virtually independent of the method used because it is dominated by distant encounters; any method to estimate the gravitational field that correctly captures the contributions from distant particles must also capture their statistical fluctuations and the collective modes they drive.

[27]  arXiv:1504.06509 [pdf, other]
Title: G2C2 - IV: A novel approach to study the radial distributions of multiple populations in Galactic globular clusters
Comments: 8 pages, 6 figures. The complete table of the KS statistics and figures for all the sample clusters showing the cumulative radial distributions can be found in the online appendix. Accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We use the HB morphology of 48 Galactic GCs to study the radial distributions of the different stellar populations known to exist in globular clusters. Assuming that the (extremely) blue HB stars correspond to stars enriched in Helium and light elements, we compare the radial distributions of stars selected according to colour on the HB to trace the distribution of the secondary stellar populations in globular clusters. Unlike other cases, our data show that the populations are well mixed in 80% of the cases studied. This provides some constraints on the mechanisms proposed to pollute the interstellar medium in young globular clusters.

[28]  arXiv:1504.06510 [pdf, other]
Title: The nature of voids: I. Watershed void finders and their connection with theoretical models
Comments: 12 pages, 8 figures. Submitted to MNRAS
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

The statistical study of voids in the matter distribution promises to be an important tool for precision cosmology, but there are known discrepancies between theoretical models of voids and the voids actually found in large simulations or galaxy surveys. The empirical properties of observed voids are also not well understood. In this paper we study voids in an N-body simulation, using the ZOBOV watershed algorithm. As in other studies, we use sets of subsampled dark matter particles as tracers to identify voids, but we use the full-resolution simulation output to measure dark matter densities at the identified locations. Voids span a wide range of sizes and densities, but there is a clear trend towards larger voids containing deeper density minima, a trend which is expected for all watershed void finders. We also find that the tracer density at void locations is smaller than the true density, and that this relationship depends on the sampling density of tracers. We show that fitting functions given in the literature fail to match the density profiles of voids either quantitatively or qualitatively. The average enclosed density contrast within watershed voids varies widely with both the size of the void and the minimum density within it, but is always far from the shell-crossing threshold expected from theoretical models. Voids with deeper density minima also show much broader density profiles. We discuss the implications of these results for the excursion set approach to modelling such voids.

[29]  arXiv:1504.06514 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The Deepest Constraints on Radio and X-ray Magnetic Activity in Ultracool Dwarfs from WISE J104915.57-531906.1
Comments: 15 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ Letters
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

We report upper limits to the radio and X-ray emission from the newly discovered ultracool dwarf binary WISE J104915.57$-$531906.1 (Luhman 16AB). As the nearest ultracool dwarf binary (2 pc), its proximity offers a hefty advantage to studying plasma processes in ultracool dwarfs which are more similar in gross properties (radius, mass, temperature) to the solar system giant planets than stars. The radio and X-ray emission upper limits from the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and Chandra observations, each spanning multiple rotation periods, provide the deepest fractional radio and X-ray luminosities to date on an ultracool dwarf, with $\log{(L_{\rm r,\nu}/L_{\rm bol}) [Hz^{-1}]} < -18.1$ (5.5 GHz), $\log{(L_{\rm r,\nu}/L_{\rm bol}) [Hz^{-1}]} < -17.9$ (9 GHz), and $\log{(L_{\rm x}/L_{\rm bol})} < -5.7$. While the radio upper limits alone do not allow for a constraint on the magnetic field strength, we limit the size of any coherently emitting region in our line of sight to less than 0.2\% of the radius of one of the brown dwarfs. Any source of incoherent emission must span less than about 20\% of the brown dwarf radius, assuming magnetic field strengths of a few tens to a few hundred Gauss. The fast rotation and large amplitude photometric variability exhibited by the T dwarf in the Luhman 16AB system are not accompanied by enhanced nonthermal radio emission, nor enhanced heating to coronal temperatures, as observed on some higher mass ultracool dwarfs, confirming the expected decoupling of matter and magnetic field in cool neutral atmospheres.

[30]  arXiv:1504.06517 [pdf, other]
Title: High-energy Emission Processes in M 87
Comments: 10 pages, 3 tables, 5 Figures
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We study the contribution of thermal and non-thermal processes to the inverse Compton emission of the radio galaxy M 87 by modelling its broad-band emission. Through this we aim to derive insight into where within the AGN the X-ray, gamma-ray, and VHE emission is produced. We have analysed all available INTEGRAL IBIS/ISGRI data on M 87, spanning almost 10 years, to set an upper limit to the average hard X-ray flux of $f(20 - 60 \rm \, keV) < 3\times 10^{-12}$ $\rm \, erg \, cm^{-2} \, s^{-1}$, using several techniques beyond the standard analysis which are also presented here. We also analysed hard X-ray data from Suzaku/PIN taken late November 2006, and we report the first hard X-ray detection of M 87 with a flux of $f(20 - 60 \rm \, keV) = 10^{-11}\rm \, erg \, cm^{-2} \, s^{-1} $. In addition we analyse data from Fermi/LAT, INTEGRAL/JEM-X, and Suzaku/XIS. We collected historical radio/IR/optical and VHE data and combined them with the X-ray and gamma-ray data, to create broad-band spectral energy distributions for the average low-flux state and the flaring state. The resulting spectral energy distributions are modelled by applying a single-zone SSC model with a jet angle of theta = 15 degrees. We also show that modelling the core emission of M 87 using a single-zone synchrotron self-Compton model does represent the SED, suggesting that the core emission is dominated by a BL Lac type AGN core. Using SED modelling we also show that the hard X-ray emission detected in 2006 is likely due to a flare of the jet knot HST-1, rather than being related to the core.

[31]  arXiv:1504.06530 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Intensity mapping of [CII] from early galaxies
Comments: 12 pages, 10 figures. Accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

The intensity mapping of the [CII] 157.7 $\rm \mu$m fine-structure emission line represents an ideal experiment to probe star formation activity in galaxies, especially in those that are too faint to be individually detected. Here, we investigate the feasibility of such an experiment for $z > 5$ galaxies. We construct the $L_{\rm CII} - M_{\rm h}$ relation from observations and simulations, then generate mock [CII] intensity maps by applying this relation to halo catalogs built from large scale N-body simulations. Maps of the extragalactic far-infrared (FIR) continuum, referred to as "foreground", and CO rotational transition lines and [CI] fine-structure lines referred to as "contamination", are produced as well. We find that, at 316 GHz (corresponding to $z_{\rm CII} = 5$), the mean intensities of the extragalactic FIR continuum, [CII] signal, all CO lines from $J=1$ to 13 and two [CI] lines are $\sim 3\times10^5$ Jy sr$^{-1}$, $\sim 1200$ Jy sr$^{-1}$, $\sim 800$ Jy sr$^{-1}$ and $\sim 100$ Jy sr$^{-1}$, respectively. We discuss a method that allows us to subtract the FIR continuum foreground by removing a spectrally smooth component from each line of sight, and to suppress the CO/[CI] contamination by discarding pixels that are bright in contamination emission. The $z > 5$ [CII] signal comes mainly from halos in the mass range $10^{11-12} \,M_\odot$; as this mass range is narrow, intensity mapping is an ideal experiment to investigate these early galaxies. In principle such signal is accessible to a ground-based telescope with a 6 m aperture, 150 K system temperature, a $128\times128$ pixels FIR camera in 5000 hr total integration time, however it is difficult to perform such an experiment by using currently available telescopes.

[32]  arXiv:1504.06535 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The unusual quadruple system HD 91962 with a "planetary" architecture
Comments: Accepted by Astronomical Journal; 12 pages, 5 figures, 7 tables
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

The young nearby solar-type star HD 91962 is a rare quadruple system where three companions revolve around the main component with periods of 170.3 days, 8.85 years, and 205 years. The two outer orbits are nearly co-planar, and all orbits have small eccentricities. We refine the visual orbit of the outer pair, determine the combined spectro-interferometric orbit of the middle 8.8-yr pair and the spectroscopic orbit of the inner binary. The middle and inner orbits are likely locked in a 1:19 resonance, the ratio of the outer and middle periods is ~23. The masses of all components are estimated (inside-out: 1.14, 0.32, 0.64, 0.64 solar mass), the dynamical parallax is 27.4+-0.6 mas. We speculate that this multiple system originated from collapse of an isolated core and that the companions migrated in a dissipative disk. Other multiple systems with similar features (coplanarity, small eccentricity, and period ratio around 20) are known.

[33]  arXiv:1504.06546 [pdf, other]
Title: New limits on extragalactic magnetic fields from rotation measures
Comments: 4 pages, 3 figures
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We take advantage of the wealth of rotation measures data contained in the NVSS catalogue to derive new, statistically robust, upper limits on the strength of extragalactic magnetic fields. We simulate the extragalactic contribution to the rotation measures for a given field strength and correlation length, by assuming that the electron density follows the distribution of Lyman-$\alpha$ clouds. Based on the observation that rotation measures from low-luminosity distant radio sources do not exhibit any trend with redshift, while the extragalactic contribution instead grows with distance, we constrain fields with Mpc coherence length to be below 1.2 nG at the $2\sigma$ level, and fields coherent across the entire observable Universe below 0.5 nG. These limits do not depend on the particular origin of these cosmological fields.

[34]  arXiv:1504.06550 [pdf]
Title: Early-Time Flux Measurements of SN 2014J Obtained with Small Robotic Telescopes: Extending the AAVSO Light Curve
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

In this work, early-time photometry of supernova (SN) 2014J is presented, extending the AAVSO CCD database to prediscovery dates. The applicability of NASA's small robotic MicroObservatory Network telescopes for photometric measurements is evaluated. Prediscovery and postdiscovery photometry of SN 2014J is measured from images taken by two different telescopes of the network, and is compared to measurements from the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope and the Itagaki Observatory. In the early light-curve phase (which exhibits stable spectral behavior with constant color indices), these data agree with reasonably high accuracy (better than 0.05 mag around maximum brightness, and 0.15 mag at earlier times). Owing to the changing spectral energy distribution of the SN and the different spectral characteristics of the systems used, differences increase after maximum light. We augment light curves of SN 2014J downloaded from the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) online database with these data, and consider the complete brightness evolution of this important Type Ia SN. Furthermore, the first detection presented here (Jan. 15.427, 2014) appears to be one of the earliest observations of SN 2014J yet published, taken less than a day after the SN exploded.

[35]  arXiv:1504.06570 [pdf, other]
Title: Simulation of Astronomical Images from Optical Survey Telescopes using a Comprehensive Photon Monte Carlo Approach
Comments: Accepted for publication in ApJS; 34 pages, 15 figures
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

We present a comprehensive methodology for the simulation of astronomical images from optical survey telescopes. We use a photon Monte Carlo approach to construct images by sampling photons from models of astronomical source populations, and then simulating those photons through the system as they interact with the atmosphere, telescope, and camera. We demonstrate that all physical effects for optical light that determine the shapes, locations, and brightnesses of individual stars and galaxies can be accurately represented in this formalism. By using large scale grid computing, modern processors, and an efficient implementation that can produce 400,000 photons/second, we demonstrate that even very large optical surveys can be now be simulated. We demonstrate that we are able to: 1) construct kilometer scale phase screens necessary for wide-field telescopes, 2) reproduce atmospheric point-spread-function moments using a fast novel hybrid geometric/Fourier technique for non-diffraction limited telescopes, 3) accurately reproduce the expected spot diagrams for complex aspheric optical designs, and 4) recover system effective area predicted from analytic photometry integrals. This new code, the photon simulator (PhoSim), is publicly available. We have implemented the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) design, and it can be extended to other telescopes. We expect that because of the comprehensive physics implemented in PhoSim, it will be used by the community to plan future observations, interpret detailed existing observations, and quantify systematics related to various astronomical measurements. Future development and validation by comparisons with real data will continue to improve the fidelity and usability of the code.

[36]  arXiv:1504.06576 [pdf, other]
Title: On the interpretation of dark matter self-interactions in Abell 3827
Comments: 5 pages, 3 figures
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph)

Self-interactions of dark matter particles can potentially lead to an observable separation between the dark matter halo and the stars of a galaxy moving through a region of large dark matter density. Such a separation has recently been observed in a galaxy falling into the core of the galaxy cluster Abell 3827. We estimated the DM self-interaction cross section needed to reproduce the observed effects and find that the sensitivity of Abell 3827 has been significantly overestimated in a previous study. Our corrected estimate is $\tilde{\sigma}/m_\text{DM} \sim 3\:\text{cm}^2\:\text{g}^{-1}$ when self-interactions result in an effective drag force and $\sigma/m_\text{DM} \sim 1.5\:\text{cm}^2\:\text{g}^{-1}$ for the case of contact interactions, in some tension with previous upper bounds.

[37]  arXiv:1504.06579 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Solving the polarization problem in ALMA-VLBI observations
Comments: To appear in the Proceedings of the 12th European VLBI Network Symposium (7-10 Oct 2014, Cagliary, Italy)
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

The Atacama Large mm-submm Array (ALMA) is, by far, the most sensitive mm/submm telescope in the World. The ALMA Phasing Project (APP) will allow us to phase-up all the ALMA antennas and use them as one single VLBI station. This will be a key component of the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a Global VLBI array at millimeter wavelengths. A problem in the APP is the calibration and conversion of the polarization channels. Most VLBI stations record their signals in a circular basis, but the ALMA receivers record in a linear basis. The strategy that will be followed in the phased-ALMA VLBI observations will be to correlate in "mixed" basis (i.e., linear versus circular) and convert the visibilities to a pure circular basis after the correlation. We have developed an algorithm to perform such a polarization conversion of the VLBI visibilities. In these proceedings, we present the basics of the PolConvert algorithm and discuss on the polarization conversion in the general case were single dishes (besides phased arrays) record with linear receivers in VLBI observations. We show some results of PolConvert applied to realistic simulations, as well as a test with real VLBI observations at 86\,GHz between the Onsala radiotelescope (recording in linear basis) and the Effelsberg radiotelescope (recording in circular basis).

[38]  arXiv:1504.06600 [pdf, other]
Title: Revisiting the cosmological bias due to local gravitational redshifts
Authors: Zhiqi Huang
Comments: 3 pages; 4 figures
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc); High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph); High Energy Physics - Theory (hep-th)

A recent article by Wojtak {\it et al} (arXiv:1504.00178) pointed out that the local gravitational redshift, despite its smallness ($\sim 10^{-5}$), can have a noticeable ($\sim 1\%$) systematic effect on our cosmological parameter measurements. The authors studied a few extended cosmological models (non-flat $\Lambda$CDM, $w$CDM, and $w_0$-$w_a$CDM) with a mock supernova dataset. We repeat this calculation and find that the $\sim 1\%$ biases are due to strong degeneracy between cosmological parameters. When Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data are added to break the degeneracy, the biases due to local gravitational redshift are negligible ($\lesssim 0.1 \sigma$).

[39]  arXiv:1504.06605 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The Gravitational Wave Background From Coalescing Compact Binaries: A New Method
Comments: 8 pages, 2 figures
Journal-ref: Braz J Phys, 44, 824 (2014)
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc)

Gravitational waves are perturbations in the spacetime that propagate at the speed of light. The study of such phenomenon is interesting because many cosmological processes and astrophysical objects, such as binary systems, are potential sources of gravitational radiation and can have their emissions detected in the near future by the next generation of interferometric detectors. Concerning the astrophysical objects, an interesting case is when there are several sources emitting in such a way that there is a superposition of signals, resulting in a smooth spectrum which spans a wide range of frequencies, the so-called stochastic background. In this paper, we are concerned with the stochastic backgrounds generated by compact binaries (i.e. binary systems formed by neutron stars and black holes) in the coalescing phase. In particular, we obtain such backgrounds by employing a new method developed in our previous studies.