48 articles on Sunday, January 20

arXiv:1901.05442v1 [pdf, other]
Observational signatures of magnetic field structure in relativistic AGN jets
Comments: Accepted by Astronomy and Astrophysics (abstract shortened to fit within arXiv character limit). arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:astro-ph/0205497 by other authors

Context. Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) launch highly energetic jets sometimes outshining their host galaxy. These jets are collimated outflows that have been accelerated near a supermassive black hole located at the centre of the galaxy. Their, virtually indispensable, energy reservoir is either due to gravitational energy released from accretion or due to the extraction of kinetic energy from the rotating supermassive black hole itself. In order to channel part of this energy to the jet, though, the presence of magnetic fields is necessary. The extent to which these magnetic fields survive in the jet further from the launching region is under debate. Nevertheless, observations of polarised emission and Faraday rotation measure confirm the existence of large scale magnetic fields in jets. Results. Radio emission distributions from the jets with dominant large-scale helical fields show asymmetry across their width. The Faraday rotation asymmetry is the same for fields with opposing chirality (handedness). For jets which are tilted towards the observer the synchrotron emission and fractional polarization can distinguish the fields chirality. When viewed either side-on or at a Blazar type angle only the fractional polarization can make this distinction. Further this distinction can only be made if the direction of the jet propagation velocity is known, along with the location of the jet's origin. The complex structure of the braided field is found not to be observable due to a combination of line of sight integration and limited resolution of observation. This raises the possibility that, even if asymmetric radio emission signatures are present, the true structure of the field may still be obscure.

arXiv:1901.05460v1 [pdf, other]
Giant cold satellites from low-concentration haloes
Comments: MNRAS Letters submitted, comments welcome

The dwarf satellite galaxies of the Milky Way Crater II and Antlia II have uncommonly low dynamical mass densities, due to their large size and low velocity dispersion. Previous work have failed to identify formation scenarios within the $\Lambda$CDM framework and have invoked cored dark matter haloes, processed by tides. I show that the tidal evolution of $\Lambda$CDM NFW haloes is richer than previously recognised: tidal heating causes the innermost regions of haloes that fall short of the mass-concentration relation to expand significantly, resulting in the formation of giant, kinematically cold satellites like Crater II and Antlia II. Furthermore, while the satellite is reaching apocenter, extra-tidal material can cause an even more inflated appearance. When present, as likely for the larger Antlia II, nominally unbound material can be recognised thanks to its somewhat hotter kinematics and line-of-sight velocity gradient. Contrary to other formation scenarios, Crater II and Antlia II may well have experienced very little mass loss, as in fact hinted by their observed metallicity. If indeed a satellite of NGC1052, tidal evolution of a low-concentration halo may similarly have led to the formation of NGC1052-DF2.

arXiv:1901.05461v1 [pdf, other]
Constraining Type Iax Supernova Progenitor Systems with Stellar Population Aging
Comments: 18 pages, 11 figures

Type Iax supernovae (SNe~Iax) are the most common class of peculiar SNe. While they are thought to be thermonuclear white-dwarf (WD) SNe, SNe~Iax are observationally similar to, but distinct from SNe~Ia. Unlike SNe~Ia, where roughly 30\% occur in early-type galaxies, only one SN~Iax has been discovered in an early-type galaxy, suggesting a relatively short delay time and a distinct progenitor system. Furthermore, one SN~Iax progenitor system has been detected in pre-explosion images with its properties consistent with either of two models: a short-lived (<100 Myr) progenitor system consisting of a WD primary and a He-star companion, or a singular Wolf-Rayet progenitor star. Using deep \textit{Hubble Space Telescope} images of nine nearby SN~Iax host galaxies, we measure the properties of stars within 200 pc of the SN position. The ages of local stars, some of which formed with the SN progenitor system, can constrain the time between star formation and SN, known as the delay time. We compare the local stellar properties to synthetic photometry of single-stellar populations, fitting to a range of possible delay times for each SN. With this sample, we uniquely constrain the delay-time distribution for SNe~Iax, with a median and $1-\sigma$ confidence interval delay time of $63_{- 15}^{+ 58} \times 10^{6}$ years. The measured delay-time distribution provides an excellent constraint on the progenitor system for the class, indicating a preference for a WD progenitor system over a Wolf-Rayet progenitor star.

arXiv:1901.05462v1 [pdf, other]
Using Circular Polarisation to Test the Composition and Dynamics of Astrophysical Particle Accelerators
Comments: 15 pages, 11 figures

We investigate the production of circularly polarised X and gamma-ray signals in cosmic accelerators such as supernova remnants and AGN jets. Proton-proton and proton-photon collisions within these sites produce a charge asymmetry in the distribution of mesons and muons that eventually leads to a net circular polarisation signal as these particles decay radiatively. We find that the fraction of circular polarisation thus produced is at the level of $ 5 \times 10^{-4}$, regardless of the exact beam spectrum, as long as it is made predominantly of protons. While this fraction is very small, the detection of circular polarisation signals in conjunction with high-energy neutrinos would provide an unambiguous signature of the presence of high-energy protons in cosmic accelerators. In Supernovae shocks in particular, this would indicate the presence of relativistic protons hitting stationary protons and/or low-energy photons in the intergalactic or interstellar medium.

arXiv:1901.05463v1 [pdf, other]
Fundamentals of effective cloud management for the new NASA Astrophysics Data System
Comments: To appear in the proceedings of the 28th annual international Astronomical Data Analysis Software & Systems (ADASS XXVIII)

The new NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) is designed with a serviceoriented architecture (SOA) that consists of multiple customized Apache Solr search engine instances plus a collection of microservices, containerized using Docker, and deployed in Amazon Web Services (AWS). For complex systems, like the ADS, this loosely coupled architecture can lead to a more scalable, reliable and resilient system if some fundamental questions are addressed. After having experimented with different AWS environments and deployment methods, we decided in December 2017 to go with Kubernetes as our container orchestration. Defining the best strategy to properly setup Kubernetes has shown to be challenging: automatic scaling services and load balancing traffic can lead to errors whose origin is difficult to identify, monitoring and logging the activity that happens across multiple layers for a single request needs to be carefully addressed, and the best workflow for a Continuous Integration and Delivery (CI/CD) system is not self-evident. We present here how we tackle these challenges and our plans for the future.

arXiv:1901.05465v1 [pdf, other]
The Faintest Dwarf Galaxies
Comments: 48 pages, 8 figures, 1 table. To appear in Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. This version is the author's version of the article prior to receiving suggestions from the editor

The lowest luminosity (L < 10^5 L_sun) Milky Way satellite galaxies represent the extreme lower limit of the galaxy luminosity function. These ultra-faint dwarfs are the oldest, most dark matter-dominated, most metal-poor, and least chemically evolved stellar systems known. They therefore provide unique windows into the formation of the first galaxies and the behavior of dark matter on small scales. In this review, we summarize the discovery of ultra-faint dwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in 2005, and the subsequent observational and theoretical progress in understanding their nature and origin. We describe their stellar kinematics, chemical abundance patterns, structural properties, stellar populations, orbits, and luminosity function, and what can be learned from each type of measurement. We conclude that: (1) in most cases, the stellar velocity dispersions of ultra-faint dwarfs are robust against systematic uncertainties such as binary stars and foreground contamination; (2) the chemical abundance patterns of stars in ultra-faint dwarfs require two sources of r-process elements, one of which can likely be attributed to neutron star mergers; (3) even under conservative assumptions, only a small fraction of ultra-faint dwarfs may have suffered significant tidal stripping of their stellar components; (4) determining the properties of the faintest dwarfs out to the virial radius of the Milky Way will require very large investments of observing time with future telescopes. Finally, we offer a look forward at the observations that will be possible with future facilities as the push toward a complete census of the Local Group dwarf galaxy population continues.

arXiv:1901.05466v1 [pdf, other]
A Wide Orbit Exoplanet OGLE-2012-BLG-0838Lb
Comments: 17 pages, 6 figures, submitted

We present the discovery of a planet on a very wide orbit in the microlensing event OGLE-2012-BLG-0838. The signal of the planet is well separated from the main peak of the event and the planet-star projected separation is found to be twice larger than the Einstein ring radius, which roughly corresponds to a projected separation of ~4 AU. Similar planets around low-mass stars are very hard to find using any technique other than microlensing. We discuss microlensing model fitting in detail and discuss the prospects for measuring the mass and distance of lens system directly.

arXiv:1901.05467v1 [pdf, other]
The nature of sub-millimeter and highly star-forming galaxies in the EAGLE simulation
Comments: 15 pages, 9 figures, submitted to MNRAS

We exploit EAGLE, a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, to reproduce the selection of the observed sub-millimeter (submm) galaxy population by selecting the model galaxies at $z \geq 1$ with mock submm fluxes $S_{850} \geq 1$ mJy. There is a reasonable agreement between the galaxies within this sample and the properties of the observed submm population, such as their star formation rates (SFRs) at $z<3$, redshift distribution and many integrated galaxy properties. We find that the bulk of the $S_{850} \geq 1$ mJy model population is at $z = 2.5$, and that they are massive galaxies ($M_* \sim 10^{11}$ Msol) with high dust masses ($M_{\mathrm{dust}} \sim 10^{8}$ Msol), gas fractions ($f_{\mathrm{gas}} \approx 50$%) and SFRs ($\dot M_* \approx 100$ Msol/yr). They have major and minor merger fractions similar to the general population, suggesting that mergers are not the primary driver of the model submm galaxies. Instead, the $S_{850} \geq 1$ mJy model galaxies yield high SFRs primarily because they maintain a significant gas reservoir as a result of hosting an undermassive black hole. In addition, we find that not all highly star-forming EAGLE galaxies have submm fluxes $S_{850} > 1$ mJy. Thus, we investigate the nature of $z \geq 1$ highly star-forming Submm-Faint galaxies (i.e., $\dot M_* \geq 80$ Msol/yr but $S_{850}< 1$ mJy). We find they are similar to the model submm galaxies; being gas rich and hosting undermassive black holes, however they are typically lower mass ($M_* \sim 10^{10}$ Msol) and are at higher redshifts ($z>4$). These typically higher-$z$ galaxies show stronger evidence for having been triggered by major mergers, and critically, they are likely missed by current submm surveys due to their higher dust temperatures. This suggests a potentially even larger contribution to the SFR density at $z > 3$ from dust-obscured systems than implied by current observations.

arXiv:1901.05468v1 [pdf, other]
Ephemeris errors and the gravitational wave signal: Harmonic mode coupling in pulsar timing array searches
Comments: 14 pages, 10 figures. Submitted. Comments welcome!

Any unambiguous detection of a stochastic gravitational wave background by a pulsar timing array will rest on the measurement of a characteristic angular correlation between pulsars. The ability to measure this correlation will depend on the geometry of the array. However, spatially correlated sources of noise, such as errors in the planetary ephemeris or clock errors, can produce false-positive correlations. The severity of this contamination will also depend on the geometry of the array. This paper quantifies these geometric effects with a spherical harmonic analysis of the pulsar timing residuals. At least 9 well-spaced pulsars are needed to simultaneously measure a gravitational wave background and separate it from ephemeris and clock errors. Uniform distributions of pulsars can eliminate the contamination for arrays with large numbers of pulsars, but pulsars following the galactic distribution of known millisecond pulsars will always be affected. We quantitatively demonstrate the need for arrays to include many pulsars and for the pulsars to be distributed as uniformly as possible. Finally, we suggest a technique to cleanly separate the effect of ephemeris and clock errors from the gravitational wave signal.

arXiv:1901.05470v1 [pdf, other]
Simulating Gas Inflow at the Disk-Halo Interface
Comments: 26 pages, 14 figures, 1 table, Accepted for publication in ApJ, Simulation movies available at https://doi.org/10.7916/d8-vgnn-7n73

The interaction between inflowing gas clouds and galactic outflows at the interface where the galactic disk transitions into the circumgalactic medium is an important process in galaxy fueling, yet remains poorly understood. Using a series of tall-box hydrodynamic ENZO simulations, we have studied the interaction between smooth gas inflow and supernovae-driven outflow at the disk-halo interface with pc-scale resolution. A realistic wind of outflowing material is generated by supernovae explosions in the disk, while inflowing gas is injected at the top boundary of the simulation box with an injection velocity ranging from $10-100 \rm \ km \ s^{-1}$. We find that cooling and hydrodynamic instabilities drive the injected gas to fragment into cold ($\sim 10^{3}$ K) cloud clumps with typical densities of $\sim 1 \rm \ cm^{-3}$. These clumps initially accelerate before interacting and partially mixing with the outflow and decelerating to velocities in the 50-100 $\rm km \ s^{-1}$ range. When the gas clumps hit the disk, $10\%-50 \%$ of the injected material is able to accrete (depending on the injection velocity). Clumps originating from gas injected with a higher initial velocity approach the disk with greater ram pressure, allowing them to penetrate through the disk in low density regions. We use (equilibrium) CLOUDY photoionization models to generate absorption and emission signatures of gas accretion, finding that our mock HI and H$\alpha$ observables are prominent and generally consistent with measurements in the Milky Way. We do not predict enhanced emission/absorption for higher ionization states such as OVI.

arXiv:1901.05471v1 [pdf, other]
HARPS-N radial velocities confirm the low densities of the Kepler-9 planets
Comments: 11 pages, 9 figures, 5 tables. Accepted for publication in MNRAS

We investigated the discrepancy between planetary mass determination using the transit timing variations (TTVs) and radial velocities (RVs), by analysing the multi-planet system Kepler-9. Despite being the first system characterised with TTVs, there are several discrepant solutions in the literature, with those reporting lower planetary densities being apparently in disagreement with high-precision RV observations. To resolve this, we gathered HARPS-N RVs at epochs that maximised the difference between the predicted RV curves from discrepant solutions in the literature. We also re-analysed the full Kepler data-set and performed a dynamical fit, within a Bayesian framework, using the newly derived central and duration times of the transits. We compared these results with the RV data and found that our solution better describes the RV observations, despite the masses of the planets being nearly half that presented in the discovery paper. We therefore confirm that the TTV method can provide mass determinations that agree with those determined using high-precision RVs. The low densities of the planets place them in the scarcely populated region of the super-Neptunes / inflated sub-Saturns in the mass-radius diagram.

arXiv:1901.05479v1 [pdf, other]
Revisiting the maximum mass of differentially rotating neutron stars in general relativity: Übermassive stars with realistic equations of state
Comments: 16 pages, 6 figures, 8 tables

We study the solution space of general relativistic, axisymmetric, equilibria of differentially rotating neutron stars with realistic, nuclear equations of state. We find that different types of stars, which were identified by earlier works for polytropic equations of state, arise for realistic equations of state, too. Scanning the solution space for the sample of realistic equations of state we treat, we find lower limits on the maximum rest masses supported by cold, differentially rotating stars for each type of stars. We often discover equilibrium configurations that can support more than 2 times the mass of a static star. We call these equilibria "\"ubermassive", and in our survey we find \"ubermassive stars that can support up to 2.5 times the maximum rest mass that can be supported by a cold, non-rotating star with the same equation of state. This is nearly two times larger than what previous studies employing realistic equations of state had found, and which did not uncover \"ubermassive neutron stars. Moreover, we find that the increase in the maximum rest mass with respect to the non-spinning stellar counterpart is larger for moderately stiff equations of state. These results may have implications for the lifetime and the gravitational wave and electromagnetic counterparts of hypermassive neutron stars formed following binary neutron star mergers.

arXiv:1901.05480v1 [pdf, other]
Radio Galaxy Zoo: The Distortion of Radio Galaxies by Galaxy Clusters
Comments: 23 pages, 17 figures, 2 tables, accepted for publication in The Astronomical Journal

We study the impact of cluster environment on the morphology of a sample of 4304 extended radio galaxies from Radio Galaxy Zoo. 87% of the sample lies within a projected 15 Mpc of an optically identified cluster. Brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) are more likely to be radio sources than other cluster members are, and are also moderately bent. The surface density as a function of separation from cluster center of non-BCG radio galaxies follows a power law with index $-1.10\pm0.03$ out to $10~r_{500}$ ($\sim 7$ Mpc), which is steeper than the corresponding distribution for optically-selected galaxies. Non-BCG radio galaxies are statistically more bent the closer they are to the cluster center. Within the inner $1.5~r_{500}$ ($\sim 1$ Mpc) of a cluster, non-BCG radio galaxies are statistically more bent in high mass clusters than in low mass clusters. Together, we find that non-BCG sources are statistically more bent in environments that exert greater ram pressure. We use the orientation of bent radio galaxies as an indicator of galaxy orbits, and find that they are preferentially in radial orbits. Away from clusters, there is a large population of bent radio galaxies, limiting their use as cluster locators; however, they are still located within statistically overdense regions. We investigate the asymmetry in the tail length of sources that have their tails aligned along the radius vector from the cluster center, and find that the length of the inward-pointing tail is weakly suppressed for sources close to the center of the cluster.

arXiv:1901.05485v1 [pdf, other]
Signs of accretion in the white dwarf + brown dwarf binary NLTT5306
Comments: 10 pages, 5 figures

We present new XSHOOTER spectra of NLTT5306, a 0.44 $\pm$ 0.04\msun white dwarf in a short period (101\,min) binary system with a brown dwarf companion that is likely to have previously undergone common envelope evolution. We have confirmed the presence of H$\alpha$ emission and discovered Na I absorption associated with the white dwarf. These observations are indicative of accretion. Accretion is typically evidenced by high energy emission in the UV and X-ray regime. However our \textit{Swift} observations covering the full orbital period in three wavebands (uvw1, uvm2, uvw2) revealed no UV excess or modulation. We used the X-ray non-detection to put an upper limit on the accretion rate of 2$\times$10$^{-15}$\msun yr$^{-1}$. We compare NLTT5306 to similar accreting binaries with brown dwarf donors and suggest the inferred accretion rate could be from wind accretion or accretion from a debris/dust disk. The lack of evidence for a disk implies NLTT5306 is magnetically funnelling a weak wind from a potentially low gravity brown dwarf. The upper limit on the accretion rate suggests a magnetic field as low as 0.45\,kG would be sufficient to achieve this. If confirmed this would constitute the first detection of a brown dwarf wind and could provide useful constraints on mass loss rates.

arXiv:1901.05486v1 [pdf, other]
Low-Latency Algorithm for Multi-messenger Astrophysics (LLAMA) with Gravitational-Wave and High-Energy Neutrino Candidates
Comments: 11 pages, 4 figures

We describe in detail the online data analysis pipeline that was used in the multi-messenger search for common sources of gravitational waves (GWs) and high-energy neutrinos (HENs) during the second observing period (O2) of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. Beyond providing added scientific insight into source events, low-latency coincident HENs can offer better localization than GWs alone, allowing for faster electromagnetic follow-up. Transitioning GW+HEN analyses to low-latency, automated pipelines is therefore mission-critical for future multi-messenger efforts. The O2 Low-Latency Algorithm for Multi-messenger Astrophysics (\pipeline) also served as a proof-of-concept for future online GW+HEN searches and led to a codebase that can handle other messengers as well. During O2, the pipeline was used to take LIGO/Virgo GW candidates as triggers and search in realtime for temporally coincident HEN candidates provided by the IceCube Collaboration that fell within the \ninetyCR of the reconstructed GW skymaps. The algorithm used NASA's Gamma-ray Coordinates Network to report coincident alerts to LIGO/Virgo's electromagnetic follow-up partners.

arXiv:1901.05487v1 [pdf, other]
A Predicted Correlation Between Age Gradient and Star Formation History in FIRE Dwarf Galaxies
Comments: 13 pages, 8 figures. Submitted to MNRAS, comments welcome

We explore the radial variation of star formation histories in dwarf galaxies simulated with Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) physics. The sample contains 9 low-mass field dwarfs with M_ star = 10^5 - 10^7 M_sun from previous FIRE results, and a new suite of 17 higher mass field dwarfs with M_star = 10^7 - 10^9 M_sun introduced here. We find that age gradients are common in our dwarfs, with older stars dominant at large radii. The strength of the gradient correlates with overall galaxy age such that earlier star formation produces a more pronounced gradient. The relation between formation time and strength of the gradient is driven by both mergers and star-formation feedback. Mergers can both steepen and flatten the age gradient depending on the timing of the merger and star formation history of the merging galaxy. In galaxies without significant mergers, early feedback pushes stars to the outskirts at early times. Interestingly, among galaxies without mergers, those with large dark matter cores have flatter age gradients because these galaxies have more late-time feedback. If real galaxies have age gradients as we predict, stellar population studies that rely on sampling a limited fraction of a galaxy can give a biased view of its global star formation history. We show that central fields can be biased young by a few Gyrs while outer fields are biased old. Fields positioned near the 2D half-light radius will provide the least biased measure of a dwarf galaxy's global star formation history.

arXiv:1901.05488v1 [pdf, other]
Dissecting the active galactic nucleus in Circinus -- II. A thin dusty disc and a polar outflow on parsec scales
Comments: MNRAS accepted

Recent observations which resolved the mid-infrared (MIR) emission of nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN), surprisingly revealed that their dust emission appears prominently extended in the polar direction, at odds with the expectations from the canonical dusty torus. This polar dust, tentatively associated with dusty winds driven by radiation pressure, is found to have a major contribution to the MIR flux from scales of a few to hundreds of parsecs. When facing a potential change of paradigm, case studies of objects with the best intrinsic resolution are essential. One such source with a clear detection of polar dust is a nearby, well-known AGN in the Circinus galaxy. In the first paper, we successfully explained the peculiar MIR morphology of Circinus observed on large, tens of parsec scales with a model consisting of a compact dusty disc and an extended hollow dusty cone. In this work, we further refine the model on smaller, parsecs scales to test whether it can also explain the MIR interferometric data. We find that a model composed of a thin dusty disc seen almost edge-on and a polar outflow in the form of a hyperboloid shell can reproduce well the VLTI/MIDI observations at all wavelengths, baselines and position angles. In contrast, while providing a good fit to the integrated MIR spectrum, the dusty torus model fails to reproduce the spatially resolved interferometric data. We put forth the disc$+$hyperboloid wind model of Circinus AGN as a prototype for the dust structure in the AGN population with polar dust.

arXiv:1901.05489v1 [pdf, other]
Internal dynamics and stellar content of eight ultra-diffuse galaxies in the Coma cluster prove their evolutionary link with dwarf early-type galaxies
Comments: Submitted to ApJL, 9 pages, 3 figures, 1 table

Ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) are spatially extended low surface brightness stellar systems with regular elliptical-like morphology. They are found in large numbers in galaxy clusters and groups, but their formation and evolution remain poorly understood because their low surface brightnesses have made studies of their internal dynamics and dark matter content challenging. Here we present spatially resolved velocity profiles, stellar velocity dispersions, ages and metallicities of 8 UDGs in the Coma cluster. We use intermediate-resolution spectra obtained with Binospec, the MMT's new high-throughput optical spectrograph. We derive dark matter fractions between 50% and 90% within the half-light radius using Jeans dynamical models. Two galaxies exhibit major axis rotation, two others have highly anisotropic stellar orbits, and one shows signs of triaxiality. In the Faber--Jackson and mass--metallicity relations, the 8 UDGs fill the gap between cluster dwarf elliptical (dE) and fainter dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies. Overall, observed properties of all 8 UDGs can be explained by a combination of internal processes (supernovae feedback) and environmental effects (ram-pressure stripping, interaction with neighbors). These observations suggest that UDGs and dEs are members of the same galaxy population.

arXiv:1901.05492v1 [pdf, other]
Asteroid pairs: a complex picture
Comments: Submitted to Icarus on 2019 January 7. The Electronic Supplementary Information to this paper is at http://www.asu.cas.cz/~asteroid/astpairscomplex_si.pdf

We studied 93 asteroid pairs. We estimated times elapsed since separation of pair members that are between 7*10^3 and a few 10^6 yr. We derived the rotation periods for all the primaries and a sample of secondaries. We derived the absolute magnitude differences of the asteroid pairs that provide their mass ratios. We refined their WISE geometric albedos and estimated their taxonomic classifications. For 17 pairs, we determined their pole positions. In 2 pairs where we obtained the spin poles for both components, we saw the same sense of rotation for both components and constrained the angles between their original spin vectors at the time of their separation. We found that the primaries of 13 pairs are actually binary or triple systems, i.e., they have one or two bound secondaries (satellites). As by-product, we found 3 new young asteroid clusters (each of them consisting of three known asteroids on highly similar orbits). We compared the obtained asteroid pair data with theoretical predictions and discussed their implications. We found that 86 of the 93 studied pairs follow the trend of primary rotation period vs mass ratio that was found by Pravec et al. (2010). Of the 7 outliers, 3 appear insignificant (may be due to our uncertain or incomplete knowledge), but 4 are high mass ratio pairs that were unpredicted by the theory of asteroid pair formation by rotational fission. We discuss a (remotely) possible way that they could be created by rotational fission of flattened parent bodies followed by re-shaping of the formed components. The 13 pairs with binary primaries are particularly interesting systems that place important constraints on formation and evolution of asteroid pairs. We present two hypotheses for their formation: The pairs having both bound and unbound secondaries could be 'failed asteroid clusters', or they could be formed by a cascade primary spin fission process.

arXiv:1901.05496v1 [pdf, other]
Improved Dynamical Constraints on the Masses of the Central Black Holes in Nearby Low-mass Early-type Galactic Nuclei And the First Black Hole Determination for NGC 205
Comments: 31 pages, 19 figures, 6 tables, Accepted to ApJ

We improve the dynamical black hole (BH) mass estimates in three nearby low-mass early-type galaxies--NGC 205, NGC 5102, and NGC 5206. We use new \hst/STIS spectroscopy to fit the star formation histories of the nuclei in these galaxies, and use these measurements to create local color--mass-to-light ratio (\ml) relations. We then create new mass models from \hst~imaging and combined with adaptive optics kinematics, we use Jeans dynamical models to constrain their BH masses. The masses of the central BHs in NGC 5102 and NGC 5206 are both below one million solar masses and are consistent with our previous estimates, $9.12_{-1.53}^{+1.84}\times10^5$\Msun~and $6.31_{-2.74}^{+1.06}\times10^5$\Msun~(3$\sigma$ errors), respectively. However, for NGC 205, the improved models suggest the presence of a BH for the first time, with a best-fit mass of $6.8_{-6.7}^{+95.6}\times10^3$\Msun~(3$\sigma$ errors). This is the least massive central BH mass in a galaxy detected using any method. We discuss the possible systematic errors of this measurement in detail. Using this BH mass, the existing upper limits of both X-ray, and radio emissions in the nucleus of NGC 205 suggest an accretion rate $\lesssim$$10^{-5}$ of the Eddington rate. We also discuss the color--\mleff~relations in our nuclei and find that the slopes of these vary significantly between nuclei. Nuclei with significant young stellar populations have steeper color--\mleff~relations than some previously published galaxy color--\mleff~relations.

arXiv:1901.05500v1 [pdf, other]
Signatures of a jet cocoon in early spectra of a supernova associated with a $γ$-ray burst
Comments: 30 pages, 11 figures, 4 tables. Original author manuscript version of a Letter published in Nature journal. Full article available at https://goo.gl/7y9ZeM

Long gamma-ray bursts mark the death of massive stars, as revealed by their association with energetic broad-lined stripped-envelope supernovae. The scarcity of nearby events and the brightness of the GRB afterglow, dominating the first days of emission, have so far prevented the study of the very early stages of the GRB-SN evolution. Here we present detailed, multi-epoch spectroscopic observations of SN 2017iuk, associated with GRB 171205A which display features at extremely high expansion velocities of $\sim$ 100,000 km s$^{-1}$ within the first day after the burst. These high-velocity components are characterized by chemical abundances different from those observed in the ejecta of SN 2017iuk at later times. Using spectral synthesis models developed for the SN 2017iuk, we explain these early features as originating not from the supernova ejecta, but from a hot cocoon generated by the energy injection of a mildly-relativistic GRB jet expanding into the medium surrounding the progenitor star. This cocoon becomes rapidly transparent and is outshone by the supernova emission which starts dominating three days after the burst. These results proves that the jet plays an important role not only in powering the GRB event but also its associated supernova.

arXiv:1901.05505v1 [pdf, other]
Testing Emergent Gravity on Galaxy Cluster Scales
Comments: 18 pages, 5 figures, 5 tables

Verlinde's theory of Emergent Gravity (EG) describes gravity as an emergent phenomenon rather than a fundamental force. Applying this reasoning in de Sitter space leads to gravity behaving differently on galaxy and galaxy cluster scales; this excess gravity might offer an alternative to dark matter. Here we test these ideas using the data from the Coma cluster and from 58 stacked galaxy clusters. The X-ray surface brightness measurements of the clusters at $0.1 < z < 1.2$ along with the weak lensing data are used to test the theory. We find that the simultaneous EG fits of the X-ray and weak lensing datasets are significantly worse than those provided by General Relativity (with cold dark matter). For the Coma cluster, the predictions from Emergent Gravity and General Relativity agree in the range of 250 - 700 kpc, while at around 1 Mpc scales, EG total mass predictions are larger by a factor of 2. For the cluster stack the predictions are only in good agreement at around the 1 - 2 Mpc scales, while for $r \gtrsim 10$ Mpc EG is in strong tension with the data. According to the Bayesian information criterion analysis, GR is preferred in all tested datasets; however, we also discuss possible modifications of EG that greatly relax the tension with the data.

arXiv:1901.05508v1 [pdf, other]
A Long-Duration Luminous Type IIn Supernova KISS15s: Strong Recombination Lines from the Inhomogeneous Ejecta-CSM Interaction Region and Hot Dust Emission from Newly Formed Dust
Comments: 43 pages, 29 figures, and 12 tables, accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal (ApJ) 2019 January 15

We report the discovery of an SN1988Z-like type IIn supernova KISS15s found in a low-mass star-forming galaxy at redshift z=0.038 during the course of the Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS). KISS15s shows long-duration optical continuum and emission line light curves, indicating that KISS15s is powered by a continuous interaction between the expanding ejecta and dense circumstellar medium (CSM). The H$\alpha$ emission line profile can be decomposed into four Gaussians of narrow, intermediate, blue-shifted intermediate, and broad velocity width components, with a full width at half maximum of $\lesssim 100$, $\sim 2,000$, and $\sim 14,000$ km s${}^{-1}$ for the narrow, intermediate, and broad components, respectively. The presence of the blue-shifted intermediate component, of which the line-of-sight velocity relative to the systemic velocity is about $-5,000$ km s${}^{-1}$, suggests that the ejecta-CSM interaction region has an inhomogeneous morphology and anisotropic expansion velocity. We found that KISS15s shows increasing infrared continuum emission, which can be interpreted as hot dust thermal emission of $T \sim 1,200$ K from newly formed dust in a cool, dense shell in the ejecta-CSM interaction region. The progenitor mass-loss rate, inferred from bolometric luminosity, is $\dot{M} \sim 0.4 M_{\odot} \text{yr}^{-1} (v_{w}/40 \text{km}~\text{s}^{-1})$, where $v_{w}$ is the progenitor's stellar wind velocity. This implies that the progenitor of KISS15s was a red supergiant star or a luminous blue variable that had experienced a large mass-loss in the centuries before the explosion.

arXiv:1901.05523v1 [pdf, other]
The Rotation-Disk Connection in Young Brown Dwarfs: Strong Evidence for Early Rotational Braking
Comments: No comment found

We use Kepler/K2 lightcurves to measure rotation periods of brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Upper Scorpius star-forming region. Our sample comprises a total of 104 periods. Depending on the assumed age of Upper Scorpius, about a third of them are for brown dwarfs. The median period is 1.28 d for the full sample and 0.84 d for the probable brown dwarfs. With this period sample, we find compelling evidence for early rotational braking in brown dwarfs, caused by the interaction between the central object and the disk. The median period for objects with disks is at least 50% longer than for those without. Two brown dwarfs show direct signs of 'disk-locking' in their lightcurves, in the form of dips that recur on a timescale similar to the rotation period. Comparing the period samples for brown dwarfs at different ages, there is a clear need to include rotational braking into period evolution tracks between 1 and 10 Myr. A locked period over several Myr followed by spin-up due to contraction fits the observational data. We conclude that young brown dwarfs are affected by the same rotational regulation as stars, though they start off with significantly faster rotation, presumably set by initial conditions.

arXiv:1901.05525v1 [pdf, other]
Pointing Chandra Toward the Extreme Ultraviolet Fluxes of Very Low-Mass Stars
Comments: Submitted to ApJ

The X-ray and EUV emission of stars plays a key role in the loss and evolution of the atmospheres of their planets. The coronae of dwarf stars later than M6 appear to behave differently to those of earlier spectral types and are more X-ray dim and radio bright. Too faint to have been observed by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, their EUV behavior is currently highly uncertain. We have devised a method to use the Chandra X-ray Observatory High Resolution Camera to provide a measure of EUV emission in the 50-170 \AA\ range and have applied it to the M6.5 dwarf LHS 248 in a pilot 10 ks exposure. Analysis with model spectra using simple, idealised coronal emission measure distributions inspired by an analysis of Chandra HETG spectra of the M5.5 dwarf Proxima Cen and results from the literature, finds greatest consistency with a very shallow emission measure distribution slope, $DEM \propto T^{3/2}$ or shallower, in the range $\log T=5.5$-$6.5$. Within $2\sigma$ confidence, a much wider range of slopes can be accommodated. Model spectra constrained by this method can provide accurate (within a factor of 2-4) synthesis and extrapolation of EUV spectra for wavelengths $<400$-500 \AA. At longer wavelengths models are uncertain by an order of magnitude or more, and depend on the details of the emission measure distribution at temperatures $\log T < 5.5$. The method is sensitive to possible incompleteness of plasma radiative loss models in the 30 170 \AA\ range for which re-examination would be warranted.

arXiv:1901.05532v1 [pdf, other]
Age Determination in Upper Scorpius with Eclipsing Binaries
Comments: accepted to The Astrophysical Journal

The Upper Scorpius OB association is the nearest region of recent massive star formation and thus an important benchmark for investigations concerning stellar evolution and planet formation timescales. We present nine EBs in Upper Scorpius, three of which are newly reported here and all of which were discovered from K2 photometry. Joint fitting of the eclipse photometry and radial velocities from newly acquired Keck-I/HIRES spectra yields precise masses and radii for those systems that are spectroscopically double-lined. The binary orbital periods in our sample range from 0.6-100 days, with total masses ranging from 0.2-8 $M_\odot$. At least 33% of the EBs reside in hierarchical multiples, including two triples and one quadruple. We use these EBs to develop an empirical mass-radius relation for pre-main-sequence stars, and to evaluate the predictions of widely-used stellar evolutionary models. We report evidence for an age of 5-7 Myr which is self-consistent in the mass range of 0.3-5 $M_\odot$ and based on the fundamentally-determined masses and radii of eclipsing binaries (EBs). Evolutionary models including the effects of magnetic fields imply an age of 9-10 Myr. Our results are consistent with previous studies that indicate many models systematically underestimate the masses of low-mass stars by 20-60% based on H-R diagram analyses. We also consider the dynamical states of several binaries and compare with expectations from tidal dissipation theories. Finally, we identify RIK 72 b as a long-period transiting brown dwarf ($M = 59.2 \pm 6.8\ M_\mathrm{Jup}$, $R = 3.10 \pm 0.31\ R_\mathrm{Jup}$, $P \approx 97.8$ days) and an ideal benchmark for brown dwarf cooling models at 5-10 Myr.

arXiv:1901.05579v1 [pdf, other]
HI-MaNGA: HI Followup for the MaNGA Survey
Comments: 10 pages, 7 figures. Was submitted to MNRAS in 2018; working on helpful referee comments asking for moderate revision, but decided to post to arxiv as submitted as data was part of the SDSS-IV DR15 and so is now public

We present the HI-MaNGA programme of HI follow-up for the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey. MaNGA, which is part of the Fourth phase of the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys (SDSS-IV), is in the process of obtaining integral field unit (IFU) spectroscopy for a sample of ~10,000 nearby galaxies. We give an overview of the HI 21cm radio follow-up observing plans and progress and present data for the first 331 galaxies observed in the 2016 observing season at the Robert C. Bryd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). We also provide a cross match of the current MaNGA (DR15) sample with publicly available HI data from the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey. The addition of HI data to the MaNGA data set will strengthen the survey's ability to address several of its key science goals that relate to the gas content of galaxies, while also increasing the legacy of this survey for all extragalactic science.

arXiv:1901.05598v1 [pdf, other]
Transient High-energy Gamma-rays and Neutrinos from Nearby Type II Supernovae
Comments: 11 pages, 4 figures; accepted for publication in ApJ

The dense wind environment (or circumstellar medium) may be ubiquitous for the regular Type II supernovae (SNe) before the explosion, the interaction of which with the SN ejecta could result in a wind breakout event. The shock generated by the interaction of the SN ejecta and the wind can accelerate the protons and subsequently the high-energy gamma-rays and neutrinos could arise from the inelastic pp collisions. In this work, we present the detailed calculations of gamma-ray and neutrino production for the regular Type II SNe. The calculation is executed by applying time-dependent evolutions of dynamic and proton distribution so that the emission could be shown at different times. Our results show, for the SN 2013fs-like wind environment, the multi-GeV and ~ few-100 TeV gamma-rays are detectable with a time window of several days at <~ 2-3 Mpc by Fermi/LAT and CTA during the ejecta-wind interaction, respectively, and can be detected at a further distance if the wind environment is denser. Besides, we found the contribution of the wind breakouts of regular Type II SNe to diffuse neutrino flux is subdominant by assuming all Type II SNe are SN 2013fs-like, whereas for a denser wind environment the contribution could be conspicuous above 300TeV.

arXiv:1901.05615v1 [pdf, other]
Effects of baryons on the gravitational redshift profile of ΛCDM halos
Comments: 11 pages, 8 figures

Gravitational redshifts and other relativistic effects are beginning to be studied in the context of galaxy clustering. Distortions consistent with those expected in General Relativity have been measured in galaxy cluster redshift profiles by Wojtak et al. and others and in the the cross-correlation function of galaxy populations by Alam et al. On scales below ~20 Mpc/$h$ simulations have shown that gravitational redshift dominates over other effects. However, this signal is related to the shape and depth of gravitational potentials, and therefore the matter density in galaxies and galaxy clusters that is responsible for them. We investigate the effects of baryonic physics on the gravitational redshift profiles of massive (group and cluster-sized) halos. We compare the profiles of different components in halos taken from the MassiveBlack-II cosmological hydrodynamic simulation and a dark matter-only version of the same simulation. We find that inclusion of baryons, cooling, star formation and feedback significantly alters the relevant inner density profiles. These baryonic effects lead to overall increases in both gravitational redshifts and the transverse relativistic Doppler effects by up to ~50% for group size halos. We show how modified Navarro Frenk White halo profiles can be used to parametrize these differences, and provide relevant halo profile fits.

arXiv:1901.05616v1 [pdf, other]
Gravitational redshift profiles of MaNGA BCGs
Comments: 13 pages, 12 figures

The gravitational potential well of an $M>10^{13}$ $M_\odot$ galaxy will lead to a gravitational redshift differential of order 1 km/s between the galaxy core and its outskirts. Current surveys of massive galaxies with spatially resolved spectroscopy have reached a size which makes feasible attempts to detect gravitational redshifts within galaxies. We use spectra from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) experiment to attempt a measurement of the averaged stellar redshift profile of large elliptical galaxies. We find that systematic effects (possibly related to charge transfer or wavelength calibration accuracy) make the standard MaNGA data pipeline unsuitable for measuring the relevant sub km/s wavelength shifts. We therefore develop a cross-correlation technique to mitigate these effects, but caution that we are working beyond the design accuracy of the MaNGA experiment. With a sample of $272$ galaxies in halos with $\log (M/M_\odot)>13$, we attempt a measurement of the gravitational redshift profile, achieving $1 \sigma$ errors of size $\sim 0.5$ km/s, but are unable to make a significant detection of the signal. Even without a detection, our measurement can be used to limit the dark matter mass within the half light radius of elliptical galaxies to $1.2$ times the stellar mass, at the 68% confidence level. We also perform weighting scheme tests and split sample tests, and address target selection issues and other relativistic effects, including the transverse Doppler effect and relativistic beaming of stars. Future detections could lead to new constraints on the galaxy mass distribution that are different from kinematic and lensing determinations and open a window on galaxy properties and tests of gravity.

arXiv:1901.05618v1 [pdf, other]
Discovery of a strong ionized-gas outflow in an AKARI-selected Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxy at z = 0.5
Comments: 20 pages, 18 figures, accepted to be published in PASJ

In order to construct a sample of ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs, with infrared luminosity, $L_{\rm IR} > 10^{12}$ L$_{\odot}$) at 0.5 < z < 1, we are conducting an optical follow-up program for bright 90-$\mu$m FIR sources with a faint optical (i < 20) counterpart selected in the AKARI Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) Bright Source catalog (Ver.2). AKARI-FIS-V2 J0916248+073034, identified as a ULIRG at z = 0.49 in the spectroscopic follow-up observation, indicates signatures of an extremely strong outflow in its emission line profiles. Its [OIII] 5007\AA\ emission line shows FWHM of 1830 km s$^{-1}$ and velocity shift of -770 km s$^{-1}$ in relative to the stellar absorption lines. Furthermore, low-ionization [OII] 3726\AA\ 3729\AA\ doublet also shows large FWHM of 910 km s$^{-1}$ and velocity shift of -380 km s$^{-1}$. After the removal of an unresolved nuclear component, the long-slit spectroscopy 2D image possibly shows that the outflow extends to radius of 4 kpc. The mass outflow and energy ejection rates are estimated to be 500 M$_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ and $4\times10^{44}$ erg s$^{-1}$, respectively, which imply that the outflow is among the most powerful ones observed in ULIRGs and QSOs at 0.3 < z < 1.6. The co-existence of the strong outflow and intense star formation (star formation rate of 990 M$_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$) indicates that the feedback of the strong outflow has not severely affect the star-forming region of the galaxy.

arXiv:1901.05636v1 [pdf, other]
The Magellanic System: the puzzle of the leading gas stream
Comments: No comment found

The Magellanic Clouds (MCs) are the most massive gas-bearing systems falling into the Galaxy at the present epoch. They show clear signs of interaction, manifested in particular by the Magellanic Stream, a spectacular gaseous wake that trails from the MCs extending more than 150 degree across the sky. Ahead of the MCs is the "Leading Arm" usually interpreted as the gaseous counterpart of the Magellanic Stream, an assumption we now call into question. We revisit the formation of these tidal features in a first-infall scenario, including for the first time a Galactic model with a weakly magnetised, spinning hot corona. In agreement with previous studies, we broadly recover the location and the extension of the Stream on the sky. In contrast, we find that the formation of the Leading Arm -- that is otherwise present in models without a corona -- is inhibited by the hydrodynamic interaction with the hot component. These results hold with or without coronal rotation or a weak, ambient magnetic field. Since the existence of the hot corona is well established, we are led to two possible interpretations: (i) the Leading Arm survives because the coronal density beyond 20 kpc is a factor of 10 lower than required by conventional spheroidal coronal x-ray models, consistent with recent claims of rapid coronal rotation; or (ii) the 'Leading Arm' is cool gas trailing from a frontrunner, a satellite moving ahead of the MCs, consistent with its higher metallicity compared to the trailing stream. Both scenarios raise issues that we discuss.

arXiv:1901.05644v1 [pdf, other]
Tidal disruptions of rotating stars by a supermassive black hole
Comments: 7 pages. 9 figures. Originally master's thesis of the first author. Version submitted to MNRAS on 31 Aug 2018

We compare mass infall rates of tidal-disruption debris of a non-rotating and of a rotating star when they come close to a supermassive black hole at the center of a galaxy. Remarkably the mass distribution of debris bound to the black hole as a function of specific energy shows clear difference between rotating and non-rotating stars, even if the stellar rotation is far from the break-up limit. The debris of a star whose initial spin is parallel to the orbital angular momentum has a mass distribution which extends to lower energy than that of non-rotating star. The debris of a star with anti-parallel spin has a larger energy compared with a non-rotating counterpart. As a result, debris from a star with anti-parallel spin is bound more tightly and the mass-infall rate rises later in time, while that of a star with a parallel spin is loosely bound and falls back to the black hole earlier. The different rising timescales of mass-infall rate may affect the early phase of flares due to the tidal disruptions.

arXiv:1901.05650v1 [pdf, other]
Active Optics in Astonomy - Modeling of freeform deformable substrates - FIREBall and MESSIER
Comments: Journal of the mechanical behavior of materials, In Press, 2, pp.27 - 31

Active optics techniques on large telescopes and astronomical instrumentations provide high imaging quality. For ground-based astronomy, the co-addition of adaptive optics again increases angular resolution up to provide diffraction-limited imaging at least in the infrared. Active and adaptive optics marked milestone progress in the detection of exoplanets, super-massive black holes, and large scale structure of galaxies. This paper is dedicated to highly deformable active optics that can generate non-axisymmetric aspheric surfaces-or freeform surfaces-by use of a minimum number of actuators: a single uniform load acts over the surface of a vase-form substrate whilst under reaction to its elliptical perimeter ring. Two such instruments are presented, 1) the FIREBall telescope and MOS where the freeform reflective diffraction grating is generated by replication of a deformable master grating, and 2) the MESSIER wide-field low-central-obstruction TMA telescope proposal where the freeform mirror is generated by stress figuring and elastic relaxation. Freeform surfaces were obtained by plane super-polishing. Preliminary analysis required use of the optics theory of 3rd-order aberrations and elasticity theory of thin elliptical plates. Final cross-optimizations were carried out with Zemax raytracing code and Nastran FEA elasticity code in order to determine geometry of the deformable substrates.

arXiv:1901.05658v1 [pdf, other]
Dark Matter Self Interactions and its Impact on Large Scale Structures
Comments: 44 pages, 30 figures

The LambdaCDM model of cosmology, though very successful at large scales, has some discrepancy with observations at the galactic and sub-galactic scales. These include the core-cusp problem, missing satellites problem etc. Spergel and Steingardt (2000) proposed that if dark matter undergoes feeble self interactions with each other, then such problems can be averted. In this thesis, a two-component dark matter model involving two singlet scalar fields capable of self-interactions has been proposed and its impact on large scale structure formation has been studied through cosmological simulations. The proposed model involves simple extensions of the Standard Model with two singlet scalar fields formed non-thermally through the decay of heavier particles in the very early universe. These particles acquire their relic abundance through a freeze-in mechanism. The coupled Boltzmann equation of the FIMP-FIMP model was solved and the relic densities for different values of the coupling parameters were obtained and matched with PLANCK results. The impact of dark matter self interactions was studied through cosmological simulations using a modified version of the parallel TreePM code GADGET-2 and the halo mass function and halo catalog for different dark matter self interaction cross sections were obtained. Lastly, the newly developed Effective Theory of Structure Formation (ETHOS) framework which is a new and innovative paradigm in the study of the cosmological effects of different dark matter models was studied and using the public code, ETHOS-CAMB the signatures of dark acoustic oscillations in the matter power spectrum for a particular dark matter model was obtained.

arXiv:1901.05697v1 [pdf, other]
New models of Jupiter in the context of Juno and Galileo
Comments: No comment found

Observations of Jupiter's gravity field by Juno have revealed surprisingly small values for the high order gravitational moments, considering the abundances of heavy elements measured by Galileo 20 years ago. The derivation of recent equations of state for hydrogen and helium, much denser in the Mbar region, worsen the conflict between these two observations. In order to circumvent this puzzle, current Jupiter model studies either ignore the constraint from Galileo or invoke an ad hoc modification of the equations of state. In this paper, we derive Jupiter models which satisfy both Juno and Galileo constraints. We confirm that Jupiter's structure must encompass at least four different regions: an outer convective envelope, a region of compositional, thus entropy change, an inner convective envelope and an extended diluted core enriched in heavy elements, and potentially a central compact core. We show that, in order to reproduce Juno and Galileo observations, one needs a significant entropy increase between the outer and inner envelopes and a smaller density than for an isentropic profile, associated with some external differential rotation. The best way to fulfill this latter condition is an inward decreasing abundance of heavy elements in this region. We examine in details the three physical mechanisms able to yield such a change of entropy and composition: a first order molecular-metallic hydrogen transition, immiscibility between hydrogen and helium or a region of layered convection. Given our present knowledge of hydrogen pressure ionization, combination of the two latter mechanisms seems to be the most favoured solution.

arXiv:1901.05705v1 [pdf, other]
A Model-Independent Measurement of the Spatial Curvature using Cosmic Chronometers and the HII Hubble Diagram
Comments: 4 pages, 3 figures, submitted to ApJ

We propose a model-independent way to determine the cosmic curvature using the Hubble parameter $H(z)$ measured with cosmic chronometers and the comoving distance $D(z)$ inferred from HII galaxies. We employ Gaussian processes to smooth the measure of distance and match it to $30$ values of $H(z)$. The curvature parameter $\Omega_k$ may be obtained individually for each such pair. The weighted average for the complete sample is $\Omega_k=-0.0013\pm0.0004$, suggesting a bias towards negative values. The accuracy of the curvature measurement improves with increased redshift, however, given possible systematic effects associated with local inhomogeneities. We therefore also analyze a high-redshift ($z>1.5$) sub-sample on its own, which is more likely to reflect the geometry of the Universe on large, smooth scales. We find for this set of data that $\Omega_k=-0.0111\pm0.0416$, consistent with zero to better than $1\sigma$. This result is in agreement with the spatially flat universe inferred from the cosmic microwave background observations. We expect this method to yield even tighter constraints on the curvature parameter with future, more accurate observations of HII galaxies at high $z$.

arXiv:1901.05736v1 [pdf, other]
The Light-Trap: A novel concept for a large SiPM-based pixel for Very High Energy gamma-ray astronomy and beyond
Comments: Accepted for pulication in NIM-A

Among the main disadvantages of using silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) in large experiments are their limited physical area (increasing the cost and the complexity of the readout of a camera) and their sensitivity to unwanted wavelengths. This explains why photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are still selected for the largest cameras of present and future Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray telescopes. These telescopes require photosensors that are sensitive to the fast and dim optical/near-UV Cherenkov radiation emitted due to the interaction of gamma rays with the atmosphere. Here we introduce a low-cost pixel consisting of a SiPM attached to a PMMA disk doped with a wavelength-shifting material, which collects light over a much larger area than standard SiPMs, increases sensitivity to near-UV light and improves background rejection. We also show the measurements performed in the laboratory with a proof-of-concept \textit{Light-Trap} pixel that is equipped with a 3$\times$3~mm$^2$ SiPM collecting light only in the 300-400~nm band, covering an area $\sim$20 times larger than that of the same SiPM itself. We also present results from simulations performed with Geant4 to evaluate its performance. In addition to VHE astronomy, this pixel could have other applications in fields where detection area and cost are critical.

arXiv:1901.05763v1 [pdf, other]
The solar chromosphere at millimetre and ultraviolet wavelengths. I. Radiation temperatures and a detailed comparison
Comments: Accepted for publication in the Astronomy & Astrophysics journal

Solar observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) provide us with direct measurements of the brightness temperature in the solar chromosphere. We study the temperature distributions obtained with ALMA Band 6 (in four sub-bands at 1.21, 1.22, 1.29, and 1.3 mm) for various areas at, and in the vicinity of, a sunspot, comprising quasi-quiet and active regions with different amounts of underlying magnetic fields. We compare these temperatures with those obtained at near- and far-ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths (and with the line-core intensities of the optically-thin far-UV spectra), co-observed with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) explorer. These include the emission peaks and cores of the Mg II k 279.6 nm and Mg II h 280.4 nm lines as well as the line cores of C II 133.4 nm, O I 135.6 nm, and Si IV 139.4 nm, sampling the mid-to-high chromosphere and the low transition region. Splitting the ALMA sub-bands resulted in an slight increase of spatial resolution in individual temperature maps, thus, resolving smaller-scale structures compared to those produced with the standard averaging routines. We find that the radiation temperatures have different, though somewhat overlapping, distributions in different wavelengths and in the various magnetic regions. Comparison of the ALMA temperatures with those of the UV diagnostics should, however, be interpreted with great caution, the former is formed under the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions, the latter under non-LTE. The mean radiation temperature of the ALMA Band 6 is similar to that extracted from the IRIS C II line in all areas with exception of the sunspot and pores where the C II poses higher radiation temperatures. In all magnetic regions, the Mg II lines associate with the lowest mean radiation temperatures in our sample. These will provide constraints for future numerical models.

arXiv:1901.05767v1 [pdf, other]
High velocity string of knots in the outburst of the Planetary Nebula Hb4
Comments: 10 pages, 7 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS

The bipolar collimated outflows of the Hb4 Planetary Nebula (PN) exhibit an evident decrease in their expansion velocity with respect to the distance from the central star. So far, similar velocity law has also been found in Herbig-Haro objects. The interpretation of this peculiar velocity law and the classification of the outflows is the main focal point of this paper. High dispersion long-slit echelle spectra along with high resolution images from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are applied in the astronomical code SHAPE in order to reproduce a three-dimensional morpho-kinematical model for the core and the bipolar outflows. Its central part shows a number of low-ionization filamentary structures (knots and jets) indicative of common-envelope PNe evolution and it is reconstructed assuming a toroidal structure. The high-resolution HST [N II] image of Hb4 unveils the fragmented structure of outflows. The northern and southern outflows are composed by four and three knots, respectively, and each knot moves outwards with its own expansion velocity. They are reconstructed as string of knots rather than jets.This string of knots is formed by ejection events repeated every 200- 250 years. Hb4 displays several indirect evidence for a binary central system with a [WR] companion evolved through the common envelopes channel.The observed deceleration of the knots is likely associated with shock collisions between the knots and the interstellar medium or nebular material.

arXiv:1901.05791v1 [pdf, other]
Strong lensing reveals jets in a sub-microJy radio quiet quasar
Comments: 16 pages, 9 figures. Submitted to MNRAS: minor revisions made after reviewer's comments

We present e-MERLIN and EVN observations which reveal unambiguous jet activity within radio quiet quasar HS~0810+2554. With an intrinsic flux density of 880~nJy, this is the faintest radio source ever imaged. The findings present new evidence against the idea that radio loud and radio quiet quasars are powered by different underlying radio emission mechanisms, showing instead that the same AGN mechanism can operate as the dominant source of radio emission even in the very lowest radio luminosity quasars. Thanks to strong gravitational lensing, our source is not only visible, but with VLBI is imaged to a scale of just 0.27~pc: the highest ever resolution image of a radio quiet quasar. Brightness temperatures of at least $8.4\times 10^6$~K are associated with two highly compact components, and subsequent modelling of the lensed system has revealed that the components are linearly aligned on opposing sides of the optical quasar core, with the typical morphology of a compact symmetric object (CSO). Given that this source has been found to fall on the radio--FIR correlation, we suggest that the radio--FIR correlation cannot always be used to rule out AGN activity in favour of star-formation activity. The correlation -- or at least its scatter -- may conceal the coexistence of kinetic and radiative feedback modes in AGN. Modelling of the lensing mass itself points to a non-smooth mass distribution, hinting at the presence of dark matter substructure which has manifested as astrometric perturbations of the VLBI lensed images, posing no threat to the CDM paradigm.

arXiv:1901.05792v1 [pdf, other]
A comparison between short GRB afterglows and KN170817: shedding light on kilonovae properties
Comments: 35 pages, 11 figures, submitted to MNRAS

Multi-messenger astronomy started with the discovery of kilonova AT2017gfo, the optical counterpart of GW170817 and of the short GRB 170817A. This was also the first time that a kilonova could be followed up spectroscopically. In this work, we aim at searching the fingerprints of AT2017gfo-like kilonova emissions in the optical/NIR light curves of selected short GRBs. We used the spectroscopic and photometric data-set of AT2017gfo to build rest-frame spectral templates of the kilonova. Afterwards we compared these templates with light curves of 39 short GRBs with known redshift. We could establish empirical constraints on the existence of AT2017gfo-like kilonovae in previously observed short GRBs posing limits to the kilonova emission mechanism. Moreover, we find further supporting evidence to all claimed kilonova detections and seven new possible kilonovae associated with short GRBs.

arXiv:1901.05804v1 [pdf, other]
Rise and fall of molecular clouds across the M33 disk
Comments: 15 pages, 12 figures, Accepted for publication in A&A

We carried out deep searches for CO line emission in the outer disk of M33, at R>7 kpc, and examined the dynamical conditions that can explain variations in the mass distribution of the molecular cloud throughout the disk of M33. We used the IRAM-30~m telescope to search for CO lines in the outer disk toward 12 faint mid-infrared (MIR) selected sources and in an area of the southern outer disk hosting MA1, a bright HII region. We detect narrow CO lines at the location of two MIR sources at galactocentric distances of about 8 kpc that are associated with low-mass young stellar clusters, and at four locations in the proximity of MA1. The paucity of CO lines at the location of weak MIR-selected sources probably arises because most of them are not star-forming sites in M33, but background sources. Although very uncertain, the total molecular mass of the detected clouds around MA1 is lower than expected given the stellar mass of the cluster, because dispersal of the molecular gas is taking place as the HII region expands. The mean mass of the giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in M33 decreases radially by a factor 2 from the center out to 4 kpc, then it stays constant until it drops at R>7 kpc. We suggest that GMCs become more massive toward the center because of the fast rotation of the disk, which drives mass growth by coalescence of smaller condensations as they cross the arms. The analysis of both HI and CO spectral data gives the consistent result that corotation of the two main arms in this galaxy is at a radius of 4.7+-0.3 kpc, and spiral shock waves become subsonic beyond 3.9 kpc. Perturbations are quenched beyond 6.5 kpc, where CO lines have been detected only around sporadic condensations associated with UV and MIR emission.

arXiv:1901.05855v1 [pdf, other]
Spitzer transit follow-up of planet candidates from the K2 mission
Comments: 21 pages, 8 figures, 9 tables, accepted for publication in AJ

We present precision 4.5 $\mu$m Spitzer transit photometry of eight planet candidates discovered by the K2 mission: K2-52 b, K2-53 b, EPIC 205084841.01, K2-289 b, K2-174 b, K2-87 b, K2-90 b, and K2-124 b. The sample includes four sub-Neptunes and two sub-Saturns, with radii between 2.6 and 18 $R_\oplus$, and equilibrium temperatures between 440 and 2000 K. In this paper we identify several targets of potential interest for future characterization studies, demonstrate the utility of transit follow-up observations for planet validation and ephemeris refinement, and present new imaging and spectroscopy data. Our simultaneous analysis of the K2 and Spitzer light curves yields improved estimates of the planet radii, and multi-wavelength information which help validate their planetary nature, including the previously un-validated candidate EPIC 205686202.01 (K2-289 b). Our Spitzer observations yield an order of magnitude increase in ephemeris precision, thus paving the way for efficient future study of these interesting systems by reducing the typical transit timing uncertainty in mid-2021 from several hours to a dozen or so minutes. K2-53 b, K2-289 b, K2-174 b, K2-87 b, and K2-90 b are promising radial velocity (RV) targets given the performance of spectrographs available today or in development, and the M3V star K2-124 hosts a temperate sub-Neptune that is potentially a good target for both RV and atmospheric characterization studies.

arXiv:1901.05860v1 [pdf, other]
Optimizing the accuracy and efficiency of optical turbulence profiling using adaptive optics telemetry for extremely large telescopes
Comments: No comment found

Advanced adaptive optics (AO) instruments on ground-based telescopes require accurate knowledge of the atmospheric turbulence strength as a function of altitude. This information assists point spread function reconstruction, AO temporal control techniques and is required by wide-field AO systems to optimize the reconstruction of an observed wavefront. The variability of the atmosphere makes it important to have a measure of the optical turbulence profile in real time. This measurement can be performed by fitting an analytically generated covariance matrix to the cross-covariance of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) centroids. In this study we explore the benefits of reducing cross-covariance data points to a covariance map region of interest (ROI). A technique for using the covariance map ROI to measure and compensate for SHWFS misalignments is also introduced. We compare the accuracy of covariance matrix and map ROI optical turbulence profiling using both simulated and on-sky data from CANARY, an AO demonstrator on the 4.2 m William Herschel telescope, La Palma. On-sky CANARY results are compared to contemporaneous profiles from Stereo-SCIDAR - a dedicated high-resolution optical turbulence profiler. It is shown that the covariance map ROI optimizes the accuracy of AO telemetry optical turbulence profiling. In addition, we show that the covariance map ROI reduces the fitting time for an extremely large telescope-scale system by a factor of 72. The software package we developed to collect all of the presented results is now open source.

arXiv:1901.05866v1 [pdf, other]
Chemical composition of post-AGB star candidates
Comments: 18 pages, 11 figures and 5 tables. To be published by Astronomische Nachrichten

We present a high resolution detailed abundance analysis for a sample of six post-AGB candidate stars, five of them had not been studied spectroscopically in the optical region. All the analyzed objects are IRAS sources identified as possible post-AGB on the two-colours IRAS diagram. We find three objects with clear signs of evolved stars; IRAS 05338-3051 shows abundances similar to the RV Tauri V453 Oph; the lower-luminosity stars IRAS 18025 - 3906 is O-rich without s-process enrichment and IRAS 18386 - 1253 shows a moderate selective depletion of refractory elements generally seen in post-AGB stars, which show mid-IR excess; they may be evolved post-RGB objects, in which case these would be the first Galactic counterparts of post-RGB objects observed in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (Kamath et al. 2014, 2015). On the other hand, IRAS 02528 + 4350 seems to be a moderately metal-poor young object and IRAS 20259 + 4206 also seems to be a young object showing carbon deficiency; however, an analysis with better spectra might be in order to clarify its evolutionary state. Finally, our abundances calculations for the binary post-AGB star IRAS 17279 - 1119 are found in good agreement with those of De Smedt et al. (2016).

arXiv:1901.05870v1 [pdf, other]
Observations of solar small-scale magnetic flux-sheet emergence
Comments: 6 pages, 5 figures, accepted as a letter in A&A

Aims. Moreno-Insertis et al. (2018) recently discovered two types of flux emergence in their numerical simulations: magnetic loops and magnetic sheet emergence. Whereas magnetic loop emergence has been documented well in the last years, by utilising high-resolution full Stokes data from ground-based telescopes as well as satellites, magnetic sheet emergence is still an understudied process. We report here on the first clear observational evidence of a magnetic sheet emergence and characterise its development. Methods. Full Stokes spectra from the Hinode spectropolarimeter were inverted with the SIR code to obtain solar atmospheric parameters such as temperature, line-of-sight velocities and full magnetic field vector information. Results. We analyse a magnetic flux emergence event observed in the quiet-sun internetwork. After a large scale appearance of linear polarisation, a magnetic sheet with horizontal magnetic flux density of up to 194 Mx/cm$^{2}$ hovers in the low photosphere spanning a region of 2 to 3 arcsec. The magnetic field azimuth obtained through Stokes inversions clearly shows an organised structure of transversal magnetic flux density emerging. The granule below the magnetic flux-sheet tears the structure apart leaving the emerged flux to form several magnetic loops at the edges of the granule. Conclusions. A large amount of flux with strong horizontal magnetic fields surfaces through the interplay of buried magnetic flux and convective motions. The magnetic flux emerges within 10 minutes and we find a longitudinal magnetic flux at the foot points of the order of $\sim$$10^{18}$ Mx. This is one to two orders of magnitude larger than what has been reported for small-scale magnetic loops. The convective flows feed the newly emerged flux into the pre-existing magnetic population on a granular scale.

arXiv:1901.05956v1 [pdf, other]
MGCAMB with massive neutrinos and dynamical dark energy
Comments: 11 pages, 3 figures

We present a major upgrade of MGCAMB, a patch for the Einstein-Boltzmann solver CAMB used for phenomenological tests of general relativity against cosmological datasets. This new version is compatible with the latest CosmoMC code and includes a consistent implementation of massive neutrinos and dynamical dark energy. The code has been restructured to make it easier to modify to fit the custom needs of specific users. To illustrate the capabilities of the code, we present joint constraints on the modified growth, massive neutrinos and the dark energy equation of state from the latest cosmological observations, including the recent galaxy counts and weak lensing measurements from the Dark Energy Survey, and find a good consistency with the {\Lambda}CDM model.