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J.P. Magué & B. Ménard



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[1]  arXiv:1410.8132 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Accreting Black Holes
Comments: 18 pages, 2 figures. To be published in the proceedings of the 26th Solvay Conference on Physics: "Astrophysics and Cosmology", R. Blandford and A. Sevrin, eds., World Scientific
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

I outline the theory of accretion onto black holes, and its application to observed phenomena such as X-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, tidal disruption events, and gamma-ray bursts. The dynamics as well as radiative signatures of black hole accretion depend on interactions between the relatively simple black-hole spacetime and complex radiation, plasma and magnetohydrodynamical processes in the surrounding gas. I will show how transient accretion processes could provide clues to these interactions. Larger global magnetohydrodynamic simulations as well as simulations incorporating plasma microphysics and full radiation hydrodynamics will be needed to unravel some of the current mysteries of black hole accretion.

[2]  arXiv:1410.8134 [pdf, other]
Title: The VLA Nascent Disk And Multiplicity (VANDAM) Survey of Perseus Protostars. Resolving the Sub-Arcsecond Binary System in NGC 1333 IRAS2A
Authors: John J. Tobin (NRAO/Leiden), Michael M. Dunham (CfA), Leslie W. Looney (Illinois), Zhi-Yun Li (Virginia), Claire J. Chandler (NRAO), Dominique Segura-Cox (Illinois), Sarah I. Sadavoy (MPIA), Carl Melis (UCSD), Robert J. Harris (Illinois), Laura M. Perez (NRAO), Kaitlin Kratter (Arizona), Jes K. Jorgensen (Copenhagen), Adele L. Plunkett (Yale), Charles L. H. Hull (UC Berkely/CfA)
Comments: Accepted to ApJ, 27 pages, 6 Figures, 2 Tables
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We are conducting a Jansky VLA Ka-band (8 mm and 1 cm) and C-band (4 cm and 6.4 cm) survey of all known protostars in the Perseus Molecular Cloud, providing resolution down to $\sim$0.06'' and $\sim$0.35" in Ka-band and C-band, respectively. Here we present first results from this survey that enable us to examine the source NGC 1333 IRAS2A in unprecedented detail and resolve it into a proto-binary system separated by 0.621"$\pm$0.006" ($\sim$143 AU) at 8 mm, 1 cm, and 4 cm. These 2 sources (IRAS2A VLA1 and VLA2) are likely driving the two orthogonal outflows known to originate from IRAS2A. The brighter source IRAS2A VLA1 is extended perpendicular to its outflow in the VLA data, with a deconvolved size of 0.055" ($\sim$13 AU), possibly tracing a protostellar disk. The recently reported candidate companions (IRAS2A MM2 and MM3) are not detected in either our VLA data, CARMA 1.3 mm data, or SMA 850 $\mu$m data. SMA CO ($J=3\rightarrow2$), CARMA CO ($J=2\rightarrow1$), and lower resolution CARMA CO ($J=1\rightarrow0$) observations are used to examine the outflow origins and the nature of the candidate companions to IRAS2A VLA1. The CO ($J=3\rightarrow2$) and ($J=2\rightarrow1$) data show that IRAS2A MM2 is coincident with a bright CO emission spot in the east-west outflow, and IRAS2A MM3 is within the north-south outflow. In contrast, IRAS2A VLA2 lies at the east-west outflow symmetry point. We propose that IRAS2A VLA2 is the driving source of the East-West outflow and a true companion to IRAS2A VLA1, whereas IRAS2A MM2 and MM3 may not be protostellar.

[3]  arXiv:1410.8135 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The power spectrum of the Milky Way: Velocity fluctuations in the Galactic disk
Comments: ApJ, submitted
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We investigate the kinematics of stars in the mid-plane of the Milky Way on scales between 25 pc and 10 kpc with data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE), and the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey (GCS). Using red-clump stars in APOGEE, we determine the large-scale line-of-sight velocity field out to 5 kpc from the Sun in (0.75 kpc)^2 bins. The solar motion is the largest contribution to the power on large scales after subtracting an axisymmetric rotation field; we determine the solar motion by minimizing the large-scale power to be V_sun = 24+/-1 (ran.)+/-2 (syst [V_c])+/-5 (syst. [large-scale]) km/s, where the systematic uncertainty is due to (a) a conservative 20 km/s uncertainty in V_c and (b) the estimated power on unobserved larger scales. Combining the APOGEE peculiar-velocity field with red-clump stars in RAVE out to 2 kpc from the Sun and with local GCS stars, we determine the power spectrum of residual velocity fluctuations in the Milky Way's disk on scales between 0.2/kpc < k < 40/kpc. Most of the power is contained in a broad peak between 0.2/kpc < k < 0.9/kpc. We investigate the expected power spectrum for various non-axisymmetric perturbations and demonstrate that the central bar with commonly used parameters but of relatively high mass can explain the bulk of velocity fluctuations in the plane of the Galactic disk near the Sun. Streaming motions ~10 km/s on >~3 kpc scales in the Milky Way are in good agreement with observations of external galaxies and directly explain why local determinations of the solar motion are inconsistent with global measurements.

[4]  arXiv:1410.8136 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Searching for Inflationary B-modes: Can dust emission properties be extrapolated from 350 GHz to 150 GHz?
Comments: 5 pages, 4 figures, submitted to MNRAS
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Recent Planck results have shown that the path to isolating an inflationary B-mode signal in microwave polarization passes through understanding and modeling the interstellar dust polarized emission foreground, even in regions of the sky with the lowest level of dust emission. One of the most commonly used ways to remove the dust foreground is to extrapolate the polarized dust emission signal from frequencies where it dominates (e.g., 350 GHz) to frequencies commonly targeted by cosmic microwave background experiments (e.g., 150 GHz). We show, using a simple 2-cloud model, that if more than one cloud is present along the line-of-sight, with even mildly different temperature and dust column density, but severely misaligned magnetic field, then the 350 GHz polarized sky map is not predictive of that at 150 GHz. This problem is intrinsic to all microwave experiments and is due to information loss due to line-of-sight integration. However, it can be alleviated through interstellar medium tomography: a reconstruction of the dust column and magnetic fields at different distances, which could be achieved through the measurement of dust-absorption--induced polarization properties of starlight from stars at known distances in the optical and infrared.

[5]  arXiv:1410.8137 [pdf, other]
Title: Active galactic nuclei at z ~ 1.5: I. Spectral energy distribution and accretion discs
Comments: 23 pages, 14 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

The physics of active super massive black holes (BHs) is governed by their mass (M_BH), spin (a*) and accretion rate ($\dot{M}$). This work is the first in a series of papers with the aim of testing how these parameters determine the observable attributes of active galactic nuclei (AGN). We have selected a sample in a narrow redshift range, centered on z~1.55, that covers a wide range in M_BH and $\dot{M}$, and are observing them with X-shooter, covering rest wavelengths ~1200-9800 \AA. The current work covers 30 such objects and focuses on the origin of the AGN spectral energy distribution (SED). After estimating M_BH and $\dot{M}$ based on each observed SED, we use thin AD models and a Bayesian analysis to fit the observed SEDs in our sample. We are able to fit 22/30 of the SEDs. Out of the remaining 8 SEDs, 3 can be fit by the thin AD model by correcting the observed SED for reddening within the host galaxy and 4 can be fit by adding a disc wind to the model. In four of these 8 sources, Milky Way-type extinction, with the strong 2175\AA\ feature, provides the best reddening correction. The distribution in spin parameter covers the entire range, from -1 to 0.998, and the most massive BHs have spin parameters greater than 0.7. This is consistent with the "spin-up" model of BH evolution. Altogether, these results indicate that thin ADs are indeed the main power houses of AGN, and earlier claims to the contrary are likely affected by variability and a limited observed wavelength range.

[6]  arXiv:1410.8138 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: A New Class of Nascent Eclipsing Binaries with Extreme Mass Ratios
Comments: 24 pages, 12 figures, 5 tables, submitted to ApJ
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Early B-type main-sequence (MS) stars (M$_1$ = 5-16 M$_{\odot}$) with closely orbiting low-mass stellar companions (q = M$_2$/M$_1$ < 0.25) can evolve to produce Type Ia supernovae, low-mass X-ray binaries, and millisecond pulsars. However, the formation mechanism and intrinsic frequency of such close extreme mass-ratio binaries have been debated, especially considering none have hitherto been detected. Utilizing observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud galaxy conducted by the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment, we have discovered a new class of eclipsing binaries in which a luminous B-type MS star irradiates a closely orbiting low-mass pre-MS companion that has not yet fully formed. The primordial pre-MS companions have large radii and discernibly reflect much of the light they intercept from the B-type MS primaries ($\Delta$I$_{\rm refl}$ = 0.02-0.14 mag). For the 18 definitive MS + pre-MS eclipsing binaries in our sample with good model fits to the observed light curves, we measure short orbital periods P = 3.0-8.5 days, young ages $\tau$ = 0.6-8 Myr, and small secondary masses M$_2$ = 0.8-2.4 M$_{\odot}$ (q = 0.07-0.36). The majority of these nascent eclipsing binaries are still associated with stellar nurseries, e.g. the system with the deepest eclipse $\Delta$I$_1$ = 2.8 mag and youngest age $\tau$ = 0.6$\pm$0.4 Myr is embedded in the bright H II region 30 Doradus. After correcting for selection effects, we find that (2.0$\pm$0.6)% of B-type MS stars have companions with short orbital periods P = 3.0-8.5 days and extreme mass ratios q = 0.06-0.25. This is $\approx$10 times greater than that observed for solar-type MS primaries. We discuss how these new eclipsing binaries provide invaluable insights, diagnostics, and challenges for the formation and evolution of stars, binaries, and H II regions.

[7]  arXiv:1410.8139 [pdf, other]
Title: An accurate new method of calculating absolute magnitudes and K-corrections applied to the Sloan filter set
Comments: 23 pages, 16 figures
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We describe an accurate new method for determining absolute magnitudes, and hence also K-corrections, which is simpler than most previous methods, being based on a quadratic function of just one suitably chosen observed color. The method relies on the extensive and accurate new set of 129 empirical galaxy template SEDs from Brown et al. (2014). A key advantage of our method is that we can reliably estimate random errors in computed absolute magnitudes due to galaxy diversity, photometric error and redshift error. We derive K-corrections for the five Sloan Digital Sky Survey filters and provide parameter tables for use by the astronomical community. Using the New York Value-Added Galaxy Catalog we compare our K-corrections with those from kcorrect. Our K-corrections produce absolute magnitudes that are generally in good agreement with kcorrect. Absolute g, r, i, z-band magnitudes differ by less than 0.02 mag, and those in the u-band by ~0.04 mag. The evolution of rest-frame colors as a function of redshift is better behaved using our method, with relatively few galaxies being assigned anomalously red colors and a tight red sequence being observed across the whole 0.0 < z < 0.5 redshift range.

[8]  arXiv:1410.8141 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Forty-Seven Milky Way-Sized, Extremely Diffuse Galaxies in the Coma Cluster
Comments: Submitted to ApJ Letters. To illustrate how big and fluffy these things are we made a graphic comparing the one with ACS imaging (Fig 4) to several well-known galaxies, if they were at the same distance: this http URL
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We report the discovery of 47 low surface brightness objects in deep images of a 3 x 3 degree field centered on the Coma cluster, obtained with the Dragonfly Telephoto Array. The objects have central surface brightness mu(g,0) ranging from 24 - 26 mag/arcsec^2 and effective radii r_e = 3"-10", as measured from archival Canada France Hawaii Telescope images. From their spatial distribution we infer that most or all of the objects are galaxies in the Coma cluster. This relatively large distance is surprising as it implies that the galaxies are very large: with r_e = 1.5 - 4.6 kpc their sizes are similar to those of L* galaxies even though their median stellar mass is only ~6 x 10^7 Solar masses. The galaxies are relatively red and round, with <g-i> = 0.8 and <b/a> = 0.74. One of the 47 galaxies is fortuitously covered by a deep Hubble Space Telescope ACS observation. The ACS imaging shows a large spheroidal object with a central surface brightness mu(g,0) = 25.8 mag/arcsec^2, a Sersic index n=0.6, and an effective radius of 7", corresponding to 3.4 kpc at the distance of Coma. The galaxy is unresolved, as expected for a Coma cluster object. To our knowledge such "ultra-diffuse galaxies" have not been predicted in any modern galaxy formation model. We speculate that UDGs may have lost their gas supply at early times, possibly resulting in very high dark matter fractions.

[9]  arXiv:1410.8142 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Non-Equilibrium Electrons in the Outskirts of Galaxy Clusters
Comments: 7 pages, 4 figures, Submitted to ApJ
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

The analysis of X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel\'dovich measurements of the intracluster medium (ICM) assumes that electrons are in thermal equilibrium with ions in the plasma. However, electron-ion equilibration timescales can be comparable to the Hubble time in the low density galaxy cluster outskirts, leading to differences between the electron and ion temperatures. This temperature difference can lead to systematic biases in cluster mass estimates and mass-observable scaling relations. To quantify the impact of non-equilibrium electrons on the ICM profiles in cluster outskirts, we use a high resolution cosmological simulation with a two-temperature model assuming the Spitzer equilibration timescale for the electrons. First, we show how the radial profile of this temperature bias depends on both the mass and mass accretion rate of the cluster; the bias is most pronounced in the most massive and most rapidly accreting clusters. For the most extreme case in our sample, we find that the bias is of order 10% at half of the cluster virial radius and increases to 40% at the edge of the cluster. We also find that gas in filaments is less susceptible to the non-equilibrium effect, leading to azimuthal variations at large cluster-centric radii. By analyzing mock Chandra observations of simulated clusters, we show that such azimuthal variations can be probed with deep X-ray observations. Finally, the mass-dependent temperature bias introduces biases in hydrostatic mass and cluster temperature, which has implications for cluster-based cosmological inferences. We provide a mass-dependent model for the temperature bias profile which can be useful for modeling the effect of electron-ion equilibration in galaxy clusters.

[10]  arXiv:1410.8143 [pdf, other]
Title: Zombie Vortex Instability I: The "Dead" Zones of Protoplanetary Disks are Not Dead
Comments: Submitted to ApJ, 36 pages. Movies of simulations can be found at www.physics.sfsu.edu/~barranco/zombie.html
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Fluid Dynamics (physics.flu-dyn)

There has been considerable interest in purely hydrodynamic instabilities in the dead zones of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) as a mechanism for driving angular momentum transport and as a source of vortices to incubate planetesimal formation. We present a series of numerical simulations with both a pseudo-spectral anelastic code and the fully compressible Godunov finite-volume code Athena, showing that stably stratified flows in a shearing, rotating box are violently unstable and produce space-filling, sustained turbulence dominated by large vortices with Rossby numbers of order 0.2-0.3. This Zombie Vortex Instability (ZVI) is observed in both codes and is triggered by initial Kolmogorov turbulence with Mach numbers less than 0.01. ZVI is robust and requires no special tuning of cooling times, boundary conditions, or initial radial entropy or vortensity gradients. ZVI has not been seen in previous studies of flows in a rotating, shearing box because those calculations frequently lacked vertical density stratification and/or sufficient numerical resolution. Although we do not observe appreciable angular momentum transport from ZVI in small domains, we hypothesize that ZVI in larger domains with the fully compressible equations may lead to significant angular transport via spiral density waves launched by vortices. In a companion paper, we derive the instability criterion for ZVI; although ZVI is a subcritical instability, rather than a linear one, we show that initial Kolmogorov noise with Mach number no greater than 10^{-6} will trigger ZVI.

[11]  arXiv:1410.8146 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: IZI: Inferring the Gas Phase Metallicity (Z) and Ionization Parameter (q) of Ionized Nebulae using Bayesian Statistics
Authors: Guillermo A. Blanc (1), Lisa Kewley (2,3), Frédéric P.A. Vogt (2), Michael A. Dopita (2,3,4) ((1) Carnegie Observatories, USA (2) ANU, Australia (3) IfA Hawaii, USA (4) King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia)
Comments: 23 pages, 9 figures, Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal (Oct 28 2014)
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present a new method for inferring the metallicity (Z) and ionization parameter (q) of HII regions and star-forming galaxies using strong nebular emission lines (SEL). We use Bayesian inference to derive the joint and marginalized posterior probability density functions for Z and q given a set of observed line fluxes and an input photo-ionization model. Our approach allows the use of arbitrary sets of SELs and the inclusion of flux upper limits. The method provides a self-consistent way of determining the physical conditions of ionized nebulae that is not tied to the arbitrary choice of a particular SEL diagnostic and uses all the available information. Unlike theoretically calibrated SEL diagnostics the method is flexible and not tied to a particular photo-ionization model. We describe our algorithm, validate it against other methods, and present a tool that implements it called IZI. Using a sample of nearby extra-galactic HII regions we assess the performance of commonly used SEL abundance diagnostics. We also use a sample of 22 local HII regions having both direct and recombination line (RL) oxygen abundance measurements in the literature to study discrepancies in the abundance scale between different methods. We find that oxygen abundances derived through Bayesian inference using currently available photo-ionization models in the literature can be in good (~30%) agreement with RL abundances, although some models perform significantly better than others. We also confirm that abundances measured using the direct method are typically 0.2 dex lower than both RL and photo-ionization model based abundances.

[12]  arXiv:1410.8161 [pdf, other]
Title: Star formation quenching in simulated group and cluster galaxies: When, how, and why?
Comments: 24 pages, 21 figures; accepted by MNRAS
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

Star formation is observed to be suppressed in group and cluster galaxies compared to the field. To gain insight into the quenching process, we have analysed ~2000 galaxies formed in the GIMIC suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. The time of quenching varies from ~2 Gyr before accretion (first crossing of r200,c) to >4 Gyr after, depending on satellite and host mass. Once begun, quenching is rapid (>~ 500 Myr) in low-mass galaxies (M* < 10^10 M_Sun), but significantly more protracted for more massive satellites. The simulations predict a substantial role of outflows driven by ram pressure -- but not tidal forces -- in removing the star-forming interstellar matter (ISM) from satellite galaxies, especially dwarfs (M* ~ 10^9 M_Sun) where they account for nearly two thirds of ISM loss in both groups and clusters. Immediately before quenching is complete, this fraction rises to ~80% even for Milky Way analogues (M* ~ 10^10.5 M_Sun) in groups (M_host ~ 10^13.5 M_Sun). We show that (i) ISM stripping was significantly more effective at early times than at z = 0; (ii) approximately half the gas is stripped from `galactic fountains' and half directly from the star forming disk; (iii) galaxies undergoing stripping experience ram pressure up to ~100 times the average at a given group/cluster-centric radius, because they are preferentially located in overdense ICM regions. Remarkably, stripping causes at most half the loss of the extended gas haloes surrounding our simulated satellites. These results contrast sharply with the current picture of strangulation -- removal of the ISM through star formation after stripping of the hot halo -- being the dominant mechanism quenching group and cluster satellites.

[13]  arXiv:1410.8162 [pdf, other]
Title: Quasi-periodic pulsations in solar and stellar flares: re-evaluating their nature in the context of power-law flare Fourier spectra
Comments: 11 pages, 7 figures, 1 table. Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

The nature of quasi-periodic pulsations in solar and stellar flares remains debated. Recent work has shown that power-law-like Fourier power spectra, also referred to as 'red' noise processes, are an intrinsic property of solar and stellar flare signals, a property that many previous studies of this phenomenon have not accounted for. Hence a re-evaluation of the existing interpretations and assumptions regarding QPP is needed. Here we adopt a Bayesian method for investigating this phenomenon, fully considering the Fourier power law properties of flare signals. Using data from the PROBA2/LYRA, Fermi/GBM, Nobeyama Radioheliograph and Yohkoh/HXT instruments, we study a selection of flares from the literature identified as QPP events. Additionally we examine optical data from a recent stellar flare that appears to exhibit oscillatory properties. We find that, for all but one event tested, an explicit oscillation is not required in order to explain the observations. Instead, the flare signals are adequately described as a manifestation of a power law in the Fourier power spectrum, rather than a direct signature of oscillating components or structures. However, for the flare of 1998 May 8, strong evidence for the existence of an explicit oscillation with P ~ 14-16 s is found in the 17 GHz radio data and the 13-23 keV Yohkoh HXT data. We conclude that, most likely, many previously analysed events in the literature may be similarly described in terms of power laws in the flare Fourier power spectrum, without the need to invoke a narrowband, oscillatory component. As a result the prevalence of oscillatory signatures in solar and stellar flares may be less than previously believed. The physical mechanism behind the appearance of the observed power laws is discussed.

[14]  arXiv:1410.8164 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Jets in AGN at extremely high redshifts
Comments: To appear in the Proceedings of the IAU Symposium No. 313: Extragalactic jets from every angle, Galapagos, Ecuador, 15-19 September 2014, F. Massaro, C. C. Cheung, E. Lopez, and A. Siemiginowska (Eds.), Cambridge University Press
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

A brief review of VLBI structures in extremely high-redshift AGN.

[15]  arXiv:1410.8168 [pdf, other]
Title: CO gas inside the protoplanetary disk cavity in HD 142527: disk structure from ALMA
Comments: 13 pages, 10 figures. Accepted for publication in ApJ Main Journal
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Inner cavities and annular gaps in circumstellar disks are possible signposts of giant planet formation. The young star HD 142527 hosts a massive protoplanetary disk with a large cavity that extends up to 140 au from the central star, as seen in continuum images at infrared and millimeter wavelengths. Estimates of the survival of gas inside disk cavities are needed to discriminate between clearing scenarios. We present a spatially and spectrally resolved carbon monoxide isotopologue observations of the gas-rich disk HD 142527, in the J=2-1 line of 12CO, 13CO and C18O, obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). We detect emission coming from inside the dust-depleted cavity in all three isotopologues. Based on our analysis of the gas in the dust cavity, the 12CO emission is optically thick, while 13CO and C18O emission are both optically thin. The total mass of residual gas inside the cavity is about 1.5-2 Jupiter masses. We model the gas with an axisymmetric disk model. Our best fit model shows that the cavity radius is much smaller in CO than it is in millimeter continuum and scattered light observations, with a gas cavity that does not extend beyond 105 au (at 3-sigma). The gap wall at its outer edge is diffuse and smooth in the gas distribution, while in dust continuum it is manifestly sharper. The inclination angle, as estimated from the high velocity channel maps, is 28+/-0.5 degrees, higher than in previous estimates, assuming a fix central star mass of 2.2 Solar masses.

[16]  arXiv:1410.8178 [pdf, other]
Title: Detecting non-uniform period spacings in the Kepler photometry of gamma Doradus stars: methodology and case studies
Comments: 10 pages, 13 figures, 2 tables. Accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysics
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

Context. The analysis of stellar oscillations is one of the most reliable ways to probe stellar interiors. Recent space missions such as Kepler have provided us with an opportunity to study these oscillations with unprecedented detail. For many multi-periodic pulsators such as {\gamma} Doradus stars, this led to the detection of dozens to hundreds of oscillation frequencies that could not be found from ground-based observations. Aims. We aim to detect non-uniform period spacings in the Fourier spectra of a sample of {\gamma} Doradus stars observed by Kepler. Such detection is complicated by both the large number of significant frequencies in the space photometry and by overlapping non-equidistant rotationally split multiplets. Methods. Guided by theoretical properties of gravity-mode oscillation of {\gamma} Doradus stars, we developed a period-spacing detection method and applied it to Kepler observations of a few stars, after having tested the performance from simulations. Results. The application of the technique resulted in the clear detection of non-uniform period spacing series for three out of the five treated Kepler targets. Disadvantages of the technique are also discussed, and include the disability to distinguish between different values of the spherical degree and azimuthal order of the oscillation modes without additional theoretical modelling. Conclusions. Despite the shortcomings, the method is shown to allow solid detections of period spacings for {\gamma} Doradus stars, which will allow future asteroseismic analyses of these stars.

[17]  arXiv:1410.8185 [pdf, other]
Title: The Zwicky Transient Facility
Authors: Eric C. Bellm
Comments: 6 pages. Published in Proceedings of the Third Hot-Wiring the Transient Universe Workshop, available at this http URL
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

The Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) is a next-generation optical synoptic survey that builds on the experience and infrastructure of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). Using a new 47 deg$^2$ survey camera, ZTF will survey more than an order of magnitude faster than PTF to discover rare transients and variables. I describe the survey and the camera design. Searches for young supernovae, fast transients, counterparts to gravitational-wave detections, and rare variables will benefit from ZTF's high cadence, wide area survey.

[18]  arXiv:1410.8186 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Void Dynamics
Authors: Nelson Padilla (Catolica, Santiago), Dante Paz (IATE, Cordoba), Marcelo Lares (IATE, Cordoba), Laura Ceccarelli (IATE, Cordoba), Diego Garcia Lambas (IATE, Cordoba), Yan-Chuan Cai (ICC, Durham), Baojiu Li (ICC, Durham)
Comments: 8 pages, 4 figures, to appear in the proceedings of IAU308 Symposium "The Zeldovich Universe"
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

Cosmic voids are becoming key players in testing the physics of our Universe. Here we concentrate on the abundances and the dynamics of voids as these are among the best candidates to provide information on cosmological parameters. Cai, Padilla \& Li (2014) use the abundance of voids to tell apart Hu \& Sawicki $f(R)$ models from General Relativity. An interesting result is that even though, as expected, voids in the dark matter field are emptier in $f(R)$ gravity due to the fifth force expelling away from the void centres, this result is reversed when haloes are used to find voids. The abundance of voids in this case becomes even lower in $f(R)$ compared to GR for large voids. Still, the differences are significant and this provides a way to tell apart these models. The velocity field differences between $f(R)$ and GR, on the other hand, are the same for halo voids and for dark matter voids. Paz et al. (2013), concentrate on the velocity profiles around voids. First they show the necessity of four parameters to describe the density profiles around voids given two distinct void populations, voids-in-voids and voids-in-clouds. This profile is used to predict peculiar velocities around voids, and the combination of the latter with void density profiles allows the construction of model void-galaxy cross-correlation functions with redshift space distortions. When these models are tuned to fit the measured correlation functions for voids and galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, small voids are found to be of the void-in-cloud type, whereas larger ones are consistent with being void-in-void. This is a novel result that is obtained directly from redshift space data around voids. These profiles can be used to remove systematics on void-galaxy Alcock-Pacinsky tests coming from redshift-space distortions.

[19]  arXiv:1410.8190 [pdf, other]
Title: Detection of a Light Echo from the Otherwise Normal SN 2007af
Comments: 15 pages, 6 figures, 7 tables
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We present the discovery of a light echo from SN 2007af, a normal Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in NGC 5584. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images taken three years post explosion reveal two separate echoes; an outer echo and extended central region, which we propose as an unresolved inner echo. Multiple images were obtained in the F160W, F350LP, F555W, and F814W using the Wide Field Camera 3. If the outer echo is produced by an interstellar dust sheet perpendicular to the line of sight, it is located ~800 pc in front of the SN. The dust for the inner echo is 0.45 pc < d < 90 pc away from the SN. The inner echo color is consistent with typical interstellar dust wavelength-dependent scattering cross-sections, while the outer echo color does not match the predictions. Both dust sheets, if in the foreground, are optically thin for scattering, with the outer echo sheet thickness consistent with the inferred extinction from peak brightness. Whether the inner echo is from interstellar or circumstellar dust is ambiguous. Overall, the echo characteristics are quite similar to previously observed SN Ia echoes.

[20]  arXiv:1410.8194 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Can we explain non-typical solar flares?
Comments: 13 pages, Accepted in A&A
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We used multi-wavelength high-resolution data from ARIES, THEMIS, and SDO instruments, to analyze a non-standard, C3.3 class flare produced within the active region NOAA 11589 on 2012 October 16. Magnetic flux emergence and cancellation were continuously detected within the active region, the latter leading to the formation of two filaments.
Our aim is to identify the origins of the flare taking into account the complex dynamics of its close surroundings.
We analyzed the magnetic topology of the active region using a linear force-free field extrapolation to derive its 3D magnetic configuration and the location of quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) which are preferential sites for flaring activity. Because the active region's magnetic field was nonlinear force-free, we completed a parametric study using different linear force-free field extrapolations to demonstrate the robustness of the derived QSLs.
The topological analysis shows that the active region presented a complex magnetic configuration comprising several QSLs. The considered data set suggests that an emerging flux episode played a key role for triggering the flare. The emerging flux likely activated the complex system of QSLs leading to multiple coronal magnetic reconnections within the QSLs. This scenario accounts for the observed signatures: the two extended flare-ribbons developed at locations matched by the photospheric footprints of the QSLs, and were accompanied with flare loops that formed above the two filaments which played no important role in the flare dynamics.
This is a typical example of a complex flare that can a-priori show standard flare signatures that are nevertheless impossible to interpret with any standard model of eruptive or confined flare. We find that a topological analysis however permitted to unveil the development of such complex sets of flare signatures.

[21]  arXiv:1410.8204 [pdf, other]
Title: Exploring stellar evolution models of sdB stars using MESA
Comments: 10 pages, 4 figures, submitted to ApJ
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Detection of g-mode pulsations in subdwarf B (sdB) stars allows a rare test of how well stellar evolution theory can predict the interior properties of stars. Asteroseismology suggests He-CO cores of the order of $\sim 0.22-0.28\,M_\odot$, i.e.\ $\gtrsim$ 40\,\% of the total stellar mass. Using mixing-length theory (MLT) without convective overshoot produces significantly smaller cores ($\sim 0.1 M_\odot$).
We have used MESA (Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics) to explore how well stellar observational data can be reproduced by standard algorithms. Using the same parameters as previous investigators (not the MESA defaults), we show that our models can be made consistent with earlier sdB models in terms of timescales, qualitative evolutionary paths and position in the $\log g - T_{\rm{eff}}$ diagram. The sdB masses from our full stellar evolutionary sequences fall within the range of the empirical mass distribution of sdB stars, but are nearly always lower than the median. Also, the models are not completely consistent with observed atmospheric parameters.
To investigate the discrepancy in convective core masses, we varied the amount of overshoot within standard formulations. Even with a very high value of $f_{\rm{ov}}= 0.08$, we could barely produce He-CO core masses comparable to the lowest values suggested by the asteroseismological analyses. The large amount of convective overshooting required would increase the sdB lifetime by a factor of $2$ to $2.5$.
These inconsistencies are most simply explained by a flaw in standard mixing algorithms which diverts the {\it evolutionary} trajectories from the correct {\it structures}.

[22]  arXiv:1410.8214 [pdf, other]
Title: Detection of hot, metal-enriched outflowing gas around $z\approx\,$2.3 star-forming galaxies in the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey
Authors: Monica L. Turner (1), Joop Schaye (1), Charles C. Steidel (2), Gwen C. Rudie (3), Allison L. Strom (2) ((1) Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, (2) California Institute of Technology, (3) Carnegie Observatories)
Comments: Submitted to MNRAS, 14 pages, 9 figures (not including appendices)
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We use quasar absorption lines to study the physical conditions in the circumgalactic medium of redshift $z\approx 2.3$ star-forming galaxies taken from the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey (KBSS). In Turner et al. 2014 we used the pixel optical depth technique to show that absorption by HI and the metal ions OVI, NV, CIV, CIII and SiIV is strongly enhanced within $|\Delta v|\lesssim170$ km/s and projected distances $|d|\lesssim180$ proper kpc from sightlines to the background quasars. Here we demonstrate that the OVI absorption is also strongly enhanced at fixed HI, CIV, and SiIV optical depths, and that this enhancement extends out to $\sim350$ km/s. At fixed HI the increase in the median OVI optical depth near galaxies is 0.3-0.7 dex and is detected at 2--3-$\sigma$ confidence for all seven HI bins that have $\log_{10}\tau_{\rm HI}\ge-1.5$. We use ionisation models to show that the observed strength of OVI as a function of HI is consistent with enriched, photoionised gas for pixels with $\tau_{\rm HI}\gtrsim10$. However, for pixels with $\tau_{\rm HI} \lesssim 1$ this would lead to implausibly high metallicities at low densities if the gas were photoionised by the background radiation. This indicates that the galaxies are surrounded by gas that is sufficiently hot to be collisionally ionised ($T > 10^5\,$K) and that a substantial fraction of the hot gas has a metallicity $\gtrsim 10^{-1}$ of solar. Given the high metallicity and large velocity extent (out to $\sim1.5\times v_{\rm circ}$) of this gas, we conclude that we have detected hot, metal enriched outflows arising from star-forming galaxies.

[23]  arXiv:1410.8245 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Red giants in the outer halo of the elliptical galaxy NGC 5128 / Centaurus A
Comments: Accepted for publication in A&A. 11 pages, including 14 figures and 1 table
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We used VIMOS on VLT to perform $V$ and $I$ band imaging of the outermost halo of NGC 5128 / Centaurus A ($(m-M)_0=27.91\pm0.08$), 65 kpc from the galaxy's center and along the major axis. The stellar population has been resolved to $I_0 \approx 27$ with a $50\%$ completeness limit of $I_0 = 24.7$, well below the tip of the red-giant branch (TRGB), which is seen at $I_0 \approx 23.9$. The surface density of NGC 5128 halo stars in our fields was sufficiently low that dim, unresolved background galaxies were a major contaminant in the source counts. We isolated a clean sample of red-giant-branch (RGB) stars extending to $\approx 0.8$ mag below the TRGB through conservative magnitude and color cuts, to remove the (predominantly blue) unresolved background galaxies. We derived stellar metallicities from colors of the stars via isochrones and measured the density falloff of the halo as a function of metallicity by combining our observations with HST imaging taken of NGC 5128 halo fields closer to the galaxy center. We found both metal-rich and metal-poor stellar populations and found that the falloff of the two follows the same de Vaucouleurs' law profiles from $\approx 8$ kpc out to $\approx$ 70 kpc. The metallicity distribution function (MDF) and the density falloff agree with the results of two recent studies of similar outermost halo fields in NGC 5128. We found no evidence of a "transition" in the radial profile of the halo, in which the metal-rich halo density would drop rapidly, leaving the underlying metal-poor halo to dominate by default out to greater radial extent, as has been seen in the outer halo of two other large galaxies. If NGC 5128 has such a transition, it must lie at larger galactocentric distances.

[24]  arXiv:1410.8247 [pdf, other]
Title: The second epoch Molonglo Galactic Plane Survey: images and candidate supernova remnants
Comments: 13 pages, 13 figures. Accepted to Pub. Astron. Soc. Australia
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

The second epoch Molonglo Galactic Plane Survey (MGPS-2) covers the area bounded by 245deg < Galactic longitude < 365deg and Galactic latitude < |10|deg, at a frequency of 843 MHz and an angular resolution of 45" x 45" cosec(Dec.). The sensitivity varies between 1 - 2 mJy/beam depending on the presence of strong extended sources. This survey is currently the highest resolution and most sensitive large-scale continuum survey of the southern Galactic Plane. In this paper, we present the images of the complete survey, including postage stamps of some new supernova remnant (SNR) candidates and a discussion of the highly structured features detected in the interstellar medium. The intersection of these two types of features is discussed in the context of the "missing" SNR population in the Galaxy.

[25]  arXiv:1410.8252 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: OGLE-2011-BLG-0265Lb: a Jovian Microlensing Planet Orbiting an M Dwarf
Comments: 10 pages, 2 tables, 4 figures. Submitted in ApJ
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

We report the discovery of a Jupiter-mass planet orbiting an M-dwarf star that gave rise to the microlensing event OGLE-2011-BLG-0265. Such a system is very rare among known planetary systems and thus the discovery is important for theoretical studies of planetary formation and evolution. High-cadence temporal coverage of the planetary signal combined with extended observations throughout the event allows us to accurately model the observed light curve. The final microlensing solution remains, however, degenerate yielding two possible configurations of the planet and the host star. In the case of the preferred solution, the mass of the planet is $M_{\rm p}$ = 1.0 $\pm$ 0.3 $M_{\rm J}$, and the planet is orbiting a star with a mass $M$ = 0.23 $\pm$ 0.07 $M_\odot$. The second possible configuration (2\sigma away) consists of a planet with $M_{\rm p}$ = 0.6 $\pm$ 0.2 $M_{\rm J}$ and host star with $M$ = 0.15 $\pm$ 0.06 $M_{\odot}$. The system is located in the Galactic disk 3-4 kpc towards the Galactic bulge. In both cases, with an orbit size of 2 AU, the planet is a "cold Jupiter" -- located well beyond the "snow line" of the host star. Currently available data make the secure selection of the correct solution difficult, but there are prospects for lifting the degeneracy with additional follow-up observations in the future, when the lens and source star separate.

[26]  arXiv:1410.8256 [pdf, other]
Title: Time-domain Implementation of the Optimal Cross-Correlation Statistic for Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background Searches in Pulsar Timing Data
Comments: 12 pages, 3 figures, submitted to Physical Review D
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

Supermassive black hole binaries, cosmic strings, relic gravitational waves from inflation, and first order phase transitions in the early universe are expected to contribute to a stochastic background of gravitational waves in the 10^(-9) Hz-10^(-7) Hz frequency band. Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) exploit the high precision timing of radio pulsars to detect signals at such frequencies. Here we present a time-domain implementation of the optimal cross-correlation statistic for stochastic background searches in PTA data. Due to the irregular sampling typical of PTA data as well as the use of a timing model to predict the times-of-arrival of radio pulses, time-domain methods are better suited for gravitational wave data analysis of such data. We present a derivation of the optimal cross-correlation statistic starting from the likelihood function, a method to produce simulated stochastic background signals, and a rigorous derivation of the scaling laws for the signal-to-noise ratio of the cross-correlation statistic in the two relevant PTA regimes: the weak signal limit where instrumental noise dominates over the gravitational wave signal at all frequencies, and a second regime where the gravitational wave signal dominates at the lowest frequencies.

[27]  arXiv:1410.8262 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Box/Peanut and Bar structures in edge-on and face-on SDSS nearby galaxies I. Catalogue
Comments: 22pages, 21 figures
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We investigate Box/Peanut and bar structures in image data of edge-on and face-on nearby galaxies taken from SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) to present catalogues containing the surface brightness parameters and the morphology classification. About 1700 edge-on galaxies and 2600 face-on galaxies are selected from SDSS DR7 in g, r and i-band. The images of each galaxy are fitted with the model of 2-dimensional surface brightness of S\'{e}rsic bulge and exponential disk. After removing some irregular data, Box/Peanut, bar and other structures are easily distinguished by eye using residual (observed minus model) images. We find 292 Box/Peanut structures in the 1329 edge-on samples and 630 bar structures in 1890 face-on samples in i-band, after removing some irregular data. Then the fraction of Box/Peanut galaxies is about 22 percent against the edge-on samples, and that of bar is about 33 percent (about 50 percent if 629 elliptical galaxies are removed) against the face-on samples. Furthermore the strengths of the Box/Peanut and bar are evaluated as "Strong", "Standard" and "Weak". We find that the strength increases slightly with increasing $B/T$ (Bulge-to-Total flux ratio), and that the fraction of Box/Peanut is generally about a half of that of bar irrespective of the strength and the $B/T$. Our result supports the idea that the Box/Peanut is bar seen edge-on.

[28]  arXiv:1410.8265 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: ALMA observations of the debris disk around the young Solar Analog HD 107146
Comments: (38 pages, 7 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ)
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

We present ALMA continuum observations at a wavelength of 1.25 mm of the debris disk surrounding the $\sim$ 100 Myr old solar analog HD 107146. The continuum emission extends from about 30 to 150 AU from the central star with a decrease in the surface brightness at intermediate radii. We analyze the ALMA interferometric visibilities using debris disk models with radial profiles for the dust surface density parametrized as i) a single power-law, ii) a single power-law with a gap, and iii) a double power-law. We find that models with a gap of radial width $\sim 8$ AU at a distance of $\sim 80$ AU from the central star, as well as double power-law models with a dip in the dust surface density at $\sim 70$ AU provide significantly better fits to the ALMA data than single power-law models. We discuss possible scenarios for the origin of the HD 107146 debris disk using models of planetesimal belts in which the formation of Pluto-sized objects trigger disruptive collisions of large bodies, as well as models which consider the interaction of a planetary system with a planetesimal belt and spatial variation of the dust opacity across the disk. If future observations with higher angular resolution and sensitivity confirm the fully-depleted gap structure discussed here, a planet with a mass of approximately a few Earth masses in a nearly circular orbit at $\sim 80$ AU from the central star would be a possible explanation for the presence of the gap.

[29]  arXiv:1410.8266 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Is Compton cooling sufficient to explain evolution of observed QPOs in Outburst sources?
Comments: 5 pages, accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal, 2014
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

In outburst sources, quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency is known to evolve in a certain way: in the rising phase, it monotonically goes up till a soft intermediate state is achieved. In the propagating oscillatory shock model, oscillation of the Compton cloud is thought to cause QPOs. Thus, in order to increase QPO frequency, Compton cloud must collapse steadily in the rising phase. In decline phases, exactly opposite should be true. We investigate cause of this evolution of the Compton cloud. The same viscosity parameter which increases the Keplerian disk rate, also moves the inner edge of the Keplerian component, thereby reducing the size of the Compton cloud and reducing the cooling time scale. We show that cooling of the Compton cloud by inverse Comptonization is enough for it to collapse sufficiently so as to explain the QPO evolution. In the Two Component Advective Flow (TCAF) configuration of Chakrabarti-Titarchuk, centrifugal force induced shock represents boundary of the Compton cloud. We take the rising phase of 2010 outburst of Galactic black hole candidate H~1743-322 and find an estimation of variation of $\alpha$ parameter of the sub-Keplerian flow to be monotonically rising from $0.0001$ to $0.02$, well within the range suggested by magneto-rotational instability. We also estimate the inward velocity of the Compton cloud to be a few meters/second which is comparable to what is found in several earlier studies of our group by empirically fitting the shock locations with the time of observations.

[30]  arXiv:1410.8286 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The solar rotation in the period 1853-1870 from the sunspot catalogues of Carrington, Peters, and de la Rue
Comments: Submitted
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

R. C. Carrington, C. H. F. Peters, and W. de la Rue observed the sunspots in the second half of the 19th century, determining their heliographic positions between 1853 and 1870, before the establishment of the solar program of the Royal Greenwich Observatory. The large tables of sunspot positions included in the catalogues published by these observers have recently been converted to a machine readable format. The present work analyses this data by calculating the sunspot group velocities for each observer. These results are then fitted with a differential rotation law to compare the data of the three observers with each other and with the results published by other authors. Finally, a study is made of the possible relationship between the sunspot group areas as determined by de la Rue and the corresponding sunspot group velocities.

[31]  arXiv:1410.8291 [pdf, other]
Title: First Experimental Characterization of Microwave Emission from Cosmic Ray Air Showers
Comments: Accepted for publication in PRL
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

We report the first direct measurement of the overall characteristics of microwave radio emission from extensive air showers. Using a trigger provided by the KASCADE-Grande air shower array, the signals of the microwave antennas of the CROME (Cosmic-Ray Observation via Microwave Emission) experiment have been read out and searched for signatures of radio emission by high-energy air showers in the GHz frequency range. Microwave signals have been detected for more than 30 showers with energies above 3*10^16 eV. The observations presented in this Letter are consistent with a mainly forward-directed and polarised emission process in the GHz frequency range. The measurements show that microwave radiation offers a new means of studying air showers at energies above 10^17 eV.

[32]  arXiv:1410.8293 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Sulfur-bearing species in molecular clouds
Comments: accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Atomic and Molecular Clusters (physics.atm-clus); Chemical Physics (physics.chem-ph)

We study several molecules that could help in the solution of the missing sulfur problem in dense clouds and circumstellar regions, as well as in the clarification of the sulfur chemistry in comets. These sulfur molecules are: the trimer (CH2S)3 and the tetramer (CH2S)4 of thioformaldehyde, pentathian S5CH2, hexathiepan S6CH2, thiirane C2H4S, trisulfane HSSSH, and thioacetone (CH3)2CS. Infrared spectra of these species are calculated using density functional theory methods. The majority of calculated bands belong to the mid-infrared, with some of them occurring in the near and far-infrared region. We suggest that some of unidentified spectral features measured by Infrared Space Observatory in several active galactic nuclei and starburst galaxies could be caused by 1,3,5-trithiane ((CH2S)3), 1,3,5,7-tetrathiocane ((CH2S)4), and thiirane (C2H4S). The objects whose unidentified infrared features we compare with calculated bands are: NGC 253, M82, NGC 1068, Circinus, Arp 220, 30 Doradus, Orion KL, and Sgr B2.

[33]  arXiv:1410.8304 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Empirical determination of Einstein A-coefficient ratios of bright [Fe II] lines
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

The Einstein spontaneous rates (A-coefficients) of Fe^+ lines have been computed by several authors, with results that differ from each other up to 40%. Consequently, models for line emissivities suffer from uncertainties which in turn affect the determination of the physical conditions at the base of line excitation. We provide an empirical determination of the A-coefficient ratios of bright [Fe II] lines, which would represent both a valid benchmark for theoretical computations and a reference for the physical interpretation of the observed lines. With the ESO-VLT X-shooter instrument between 3,000 A, and 24,700 A, we obtained a spectrum of the bright Herbig-Haro object HH1. We detect around 100 [Fe II] lines, some of which with a signal-to-noise ratio > 100. Among these latter, we selected those emitted by the same level, whose de-reddened intensity ratio is a direct function of the Einstein A-coefficient ratios. From the same X-shooter spectrum, we got an accurate estimate of the extinction toward HH1 through intensity ratios of atomic species, HI, recombination lines and H_2 ro-vibrational transitions. We provide seven reliable A-ooefficient ratios between bright [Fe II] lines, which are compared with the literature determinations. In particular, the A-coefficient ratios involving the brightest near-infrared lines (12570A/16440A and 13209A/16440A) are better in agreement with the predictions by Quinet et al. (1996) Relativistic Hartree-Fock model. However, none of the theoretical models predicts A-coefficient ratios in agreement with all our determinations. We also show that literature data of near-infrared intensity ratios better agree with our determinations than with theoretical expectations.

[34]  arXiv:1410.8307 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Variable magnetic field geometry of the young sun HN Peg (HD 206860)
Comments: accepted in A&A
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

The large-scale magnetic field of solar-type stars reconstructed from their spectropolarimetric observations provide important insight into their underlying dynamo processes.We aim to investigate the temporal variability of the large-scale surface magnetic field and chromospheric activity of a young solar analogue, the G0 dwarf HN Peg.The large-scale surface magnetic field topology is reconstructed using Zeeman Doppler Imaging at six observational epochs covering seven years.We also investigated the chromospheric activity variations by measuring the flux in the line cores of the three chromospheric activity indicators: Ca II H&K, H alpha, and the Ca II IRT lines.The magnetic topology of HN Peg shows a complex and variable geometry. While the radial field exhibits a stable positive polarity magnetic region at the poles at each observational epoch, the azimuthal field is strongly variable in strength, where a strong band of positive polarity magnetic field is present at equatorial latitudes. This field disappears during the middle of our time span, reappearing again during the last two epochs of observations. The mean magnetic field derived from the magnetic maps also follow a similar trend to the toroidal field, with the field strength at a minimum in epoch 2009.54. Summing the line of sight magnetic field over the visible surface at each observation, HN Peg exhibits a weak longitudinal magnetic field ranging from -14 G to 13 G, with no significant long-term trend, although there is significant rotational variability within each epoch. Those chromospheric activity indicators exhibit more long-term variations over the time span of observations, where the minimal is observed in Epoch 2008.71.

[35]  arXiv:1410.8310 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Narrow-band search of continuous gravitational-wave signals from Crab and Vela pulsars in Virgo VSR4 data
Comments: 17 pages, 11 figures
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM); High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc)

In this paper we present the results of a coherent narrow-band search for continuous gravitational-wave signals from the Crab and Vela pulsars conducted on Virgo VSR4 data. In order to take into account a possible small mismatch between the gravitational wave frequency and two times the star rotation frequency, inferred from measurement of the electromagnetic pulse rate, a range of 0.02 Hz around two times the star rotational frequency has been searched for both the pulsars. No evidence for a signal has been found and 95$\%$ confidence level upper limits have been computed both assuming polarization parameters are completely unknown and that they are known with some uncertainty, as derived from X-ray observations of the pulsar wind torii. For Vela the upper limits are comparable to the spin-down limit, computed assuming that all the observed spin-down is due to the emission of gravitational waves. For Crab the upper limits are about a factor of two below the spin-down limit, and represent a significant improvement with respect to past analysis. This is the first time the spin-down limit is significantly overcome in a narrow-band search.

[36]  arXiv:1410.8315 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Sunspot Waves and Triggering of Homologous Active Region Jets
Comments: 9 pages, 9 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We present and discuss multi-wavelength observations of five homologous recurrent solar jets that occurred in active region NOAA 11133 on 11 December, 2010. These jets were well observed by the Solar Dynamic observatory (SDO) with high spatial and temporal resolution. The speed of the jets ranged between 86 and 267 km/s. A type III radio burst was observed in association with all the five jets. The investigation of the over all evolution of magnetic field in the source regions suggested that the flux was continuously emerging on longer term. However, all the jets but J5 were triggered during a local dip in the magnetic flux, suggesting the launch of the jets during localised submergence of magnetic flux. Additionally, using the PFSS modelling of the photospheric magnetic field, we found that all the jets were ejected in the direction of open field lines. We also traced sunspot oscillations from the sunspot interior to foot-point of jets and found presence of ~ 3 minute oscillations in all the SDO/AIA passbands. The wavelet analysis revealed an increase in amplitude of the oscillations just before the trigger of the jets, that decreased after the jets were triggered. The observations of increased amplitude of the oscillation and its subsequent decrease provides evidence of wave-induced reconnection triggering the jets.

[37]  arXiv:1410.8320 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Multiple star systems observed with CoRoT and Kepler (invited review)
Authors: John Southworth (Keele University, UK)
Comments: Invited review for the CoRoT Symposium 3 / Kepler KASC-7 joint meeting, Toulouse, July 2014. To be published by EPJ Web of Conferences
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

The CoRoT and Kepler satellites were the first space platforms designed to perform high-precision photometry for a large number of stars. Multiple systems display a wide variety of photometric variability, making them natural benefactors of these missions. I review the work arising from CoRoT and Kepler observations of multiple systems, with particular emphasis on eclipsing binaries containing giant stars, pulsators, triple eclipses and/or low-mass stars. Many more results remain untapped in the data archives of these missions, and the future holds the promise of K2, TESS and PLATO.

[38]  arXiv:1410.8322 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Phase transition in compact stars due to a violent shock
Comments: 5 pages, 7 figures
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Nuclear Theory (nucl-th)

In this letter we study the dynamics of a first order phase transition from nucleonic to quark matter in neutron stars. Using standard equations of state for these two phases we find the density range where such a transition is possible. Then we study the transformation of the star assuming that the quark core is formed via a spherical shock wave. The thermodynamical conditions in the quark core are found from the conservation laws across the transition region. Their dependence on the density and velocity of the incoming nuclear matter are studied. It is found that the shock is especially violent in the beginning of the conversion process when the velocity of the infalling matter is especially high. As the shock propagates further from the center the front velocity first increases and reaches a maximum value when the incoming velocity is around $0.2$. Finally, the front velocity quickly goes to zero when incoming matter velocity approaches zero. We have shown that the density and pressure jumps are especially large in the begining of the transition process.

[39]  arXiv:1410.8331 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The CoRoT discovery of a unique triple-mode cepheid in the galaxy
Comments: Published as ApJ Letter
Journal-ref: 2014, ApJ, 795, L36
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

The exploitation of the CoRoT treasure of stars observed in the exoplanetary field allowed the detection of a unusual triple-mode Cepheid in the Milky Way, CoRoT 0223989566. The two modes with the largest amplitudes and period ratio of 0.80 are identified with the first (P1=1.29 d) and second (P2=1.03 d) radial overtones. The third period, which has the smallest amplitude but able to produce combination terms with the other two, is the longest one (P3=1.89 d). The ratio of 0.68 between the first-overtone period and the third period is the unusual feature. Its identification with the fundamental radial or a nonradial mode is discussed with respect to similar cases in the Magellanic Clouds. In both cases the period triplet and the respective ratios make the star unique in our Galaxy. The distance derived from the period-luminosity relation and the galactic coordinates put CoRoT~0223989566 in the metal-rich environment of the "outer arm" of the Milky Way.

[40]  arXiv:1410.8351 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: New Periodic 6.7 GHz Class II Methanol Maser Associated with G358.460-0.391
Comments: 8 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS. The appendix of 4 pages (with 16 figures) will be published as online version
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Eight new class II methanol masers selected from the 6.7 GHz Methanol Multibeam survey catalogues I and II were monitored at 6.7 GHz with the 26m Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) radio telescope for three years and seven months, from February 2011 to September 2014. The sources were also observed at 12.2 GHz and two were sufficiently bright to permit monitoring. One of the eight sources, namely G358.460-0.391, was found to show periodic variations at 6.7 GHz. The period was determined and tested for significance using the Lomb-Scargle, epoch-folding and Jurkevich methods, and by fitting a simple analytic function. The best estimate for the period of the 6.7 GHz class II methanol maser line associated with G358.460-0.391 is 220.0 $\pm$ 0.2 day.

[41]  arXiv:1410.8352 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Formation of redbacks via accretion induced collapse
Comments: 12 pages, 7 figures
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We examine the growing class of binary millisecond pulsars known as redbacks. In these systems the pulsar's companion has a mass between 0.1 and about 0.5 solar masses in an orbital period of less than 1.5 days. All show extended radio eclipses associated with circumbinary material. They do not lie on the period-companion mass relation expected from the canonical intermediate-mass X-ray binary evolution in which the companion filled its Roche lobe as a red giant and has now lost its envelope and cooled as a white dwarf. The redbacks lie closer to, but usually at higher period than, the period-companion mass relation followed by cataclysmic variables and low-mass X-ray binaries. In order to turn on as a pulsar mass accretion on to a neutron star must be sufficiently weak, considerably weaker than expected in systems with low-mass main-sequence companions driven together by magnetic braking or gravitational radiation. If a neutron star is formed by accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf as it approaches the Chandrasekhar limit some baryonic mass is abruptly lost to its binding energy so that its effective gravitational mass falls. We propose that redbacks form when accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf takes place during cataclysmic variable binary evolution because the loss of gravitational mass makes the orbit expand suddenly so that the companion no longer fills its Roche lobe. Once activated, the pulsar can ablate its companion and so further expand the orbit and also account for the extended eclipses in the radio emission of the pulsar that are characteristic of these systems. The whole period-companion mass space occupied by the redbacks can be populated in this way.

[42]  arXiv:1410.8355 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Testing Gravity using Void Profiles
Authors: Yan-Chuan Cai (ICC, Durham), Nelson Padilla (Catolica, Santiago), Baojiu Li (ICC, Durham)
Comments: 6 pages, 3 figures, to appear in the proceedings of IAU 308 Symposium "The Zeldovich Universe"
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We investigate void properties in $f(R)$ models using N-body simulations, focusing on their differences from General Relativity (GR) and their detectability. In the Hu-Sawicki $f(R)$ modified gravity (MG) models, the halo number density profiles of voids are not distinguishable from GR. In contrast, the same $f(R)$ voids are more empty of dark matter, and their profiles are steeper. This can in principle be observed by weak gravitational lensing of voids, for which the combination of a spectroscopic redshift and a lensing photometric redshift survey over the same sky is required. Neglecting the lensing shape noise, the $f(R)$ model parameter amplitudes $|f_{R0}|=10^{-5}$ and $10^{-4}$ may be distinguished from GR using the lensing tangential shear signal around voids by 4 and 8$\sigma$ for a volume of 1~(Gpc/$h$)$^3$. The line-of-sight projection of large-scale structure is the main systematics that limits the significance of this signal for the near future wide angle and deep lensing surveys. For this reason, it is challenging to distinguish $|f_{R0}|=10^{-6}$ from GR. We expect that this can be overcome with larger volume. The halo void abundance being smaller and the steepening of dark matter void profiles in $f(R)$ models are unique features that can be combined to break the degeneracy between $|f_{R0}|$ and $\sigma_8$.

[43]  arXiv:1410.8363 [pdf, other]
Title: On the correlation between stellar chromospheric flux and the surface gravity of close-in planets
Authors: A. F. Lanza
Comments: 5 pages, 2 figures, submitted as a Letter to the Editor of Astronomy and Astrophysics
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

The chromospheric emission of stars with close-by transiting planets has been found to correlate with the surface gravity of their planets. Stars with low-gravity planets have an average lower chromospheric flux. We propose that such a correlation is due to the absorption by circumstellar matter that comes from the evaporation of the planets. Planets with a lower gravity have a greater mass loss rate that leads to a higher column density of circumstellar absorption thus explaining the lower level of chromospheric emission observed in their host stars. We estimate the required column density and find that planetary evaporation can account for it. A theoretical relationship between the chromospheric emission as measured in the core of the Ca II H&K lines and the planet gravity is derived. We apply our relationship to a sample of transiting systems for which both the stellar Ca II H&K emission and the planetary surface gravity are known and find a good agreement, given the various sources of uncertainties and the intrinsic variability of the stellar emissions and planetary evaporation rates. We consider implications for the radial velocity jitter applied to fit the spectroscopic orbits and for the age estimates of planetary systems based on the chromospheric activity level of their host stars.

[44]  arXiv:1410.8367 [pdf, other]
Title: Jet-induced star formation in 3C 285 and Minkowski Object
Comments: 9 pages, 10 figures, submitted to A&A
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

How efficiently star formation proceeds in galaxies is still an open question. Recent studies suggest that AGN can regulate the gas accretion and thus slow down star formation (negative feedback). However, evidence of AGN positive feedback has also been observed in a few radio galaxies (eg. Centaurus A).
Here we present CO observations of 3C 285 and Minkowski Object (MO), which are examples of jet-induced star formation. A spot (named 09.6) aligned with the 3C 285 radio jet, at a projected distance of ~70 kpc from the galaxy centre, shows star formation, detected in optical emission. MO is located along the jet of NGC 541 and also shows star formation. To know the distribution of molecular gas along the jets is a way to study the physical processes at play in the AGN interaction with the intergalactic medium.
We observed CO lines in 3C 285, NGC 541, 09.6 and MO with the IRAM-30m telescope. In the central galaxies, the spectra present a double-horn profile, typical of a rotation pattern, from which we are able to estimate the molecular gas density profile of the galaxy. The molecular gas appears to be in a compact reservoir. In addition, no kinematic signature of a molecular outflow is detected by the 30m-telescope.
Interestingly, 09.6 and MO are not detected in CO. The cold gas mass upper limits are consistent with a star formation induced by the compression of dense ambient material by the jet. The depletion time scales are of the order of and even smaller than what is found in 3C 285, NGC 541 and local spiral galaxies (10^9 yr). The molecular gas surface density in 09.6 follows a Schmidt-Kennicutt law if the emitting region is very compact, while MO is found to have a much higher SFE (very short depletion time). Higher sensitivity and spatial resolution are necessary to detect CO in the spots of star formation, and map the emission in these jet-induced star forming regions.

[45]  arXiv:1410.8376 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Axisymmetric force-free magnetosphere of a pulsar. II. Transition from the self-consistent two-fluid model
Authors: S.A. Petrova
Comments: 14 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

The self-consistent two-fluid model of the pulsar magnetosphere is considered. We concentrate on the case of vanishingly small inertia of the particles. Our approach allows to obtain the realistic particle distributions sustaining the force-free magnetic field configuration of a monopolar structure. The result differs substantially from the customary picture of the radial speed-of-light motion of massless particles. In our case, the electron and positron constituents follow slightly curved trajectories and are characterized by definite number densities and distinct velocities. The velocity shift is determined by the first-order longitudinal electric field, which appears the necessary ingredient of the self-consistent two-fluid model and implies the parallel conductivity of the order of the inverse particle mass. Our model is believed to be a proper context to describe radiation processes in the pulsar magnetosphere, including both the radio and high-energy emissions. The velocity shift is suggestive of the two-stream instability which may underlie the pulsar radio emission mechanism. The differential rotation of the particle flow may cause the diochotron instability expected to be responsible for the radio subpulse phenomenon. The connection between the radio and high-energy emissions of pulsars is predicted as well.

[46]  arXiv:1410.8378 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The Na-O anticorrelation in horizontal branch stars. V. NGC 6723
Comments: Astronomy and Astrophysics, in press; 15 pages; 11 figures
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We used FLAMES+GIRAFFE (Medusa mode) at the VLT to obtain moderately high resolution spectra for 30 red horizontal branch (RHB) stars, 4 RR Lyrae variables, and 17 blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars in the low-concentration, moderately metal-rich globular cluster NGC6723 ([Fe/H]=-1.22+/-0.08 from our present sample). The spectra were optimized to derive O and Na abundances. In addition, we obtained abundances for other elements, including N, Fe, Mg, Ca, Ni, and Ba. We used these data to discuss the evidence of a connection between the distribution of stars along the horizontal branch (HB) and the multiple populations that are typically present in globular clusters. We found that all RHB and most (13 out of 17) BHB stars are O-rich, Na-poor, and N-poor; these stars probably belong to the first stellar generation in this cluster. Only the four warmest observed stars are (moderately) O-poor, Na-rich, and N-rich, and they probably belong to the second generation. While our sample is not fully representative of the whole HB population in NGC6723, our data suggest that in this cluster only HB stars warmer than ~9000 K, that is one fourth of the total, belong to the second generation, if at all. Since in many other clusters this fraction is about two thirds, we conclude that the fraction of first/second generation in globular clusters may be strongly variable. In addition, the wide range in colour of chemically homogeneous first-generation HB stars requires a considerable spread in mass loss (>0.10 Mo). The reason for this spread is yet to be understood. Finally, we found a high Ba abundance, with a statistically significant radial abundance gradient.

[47]  arXiv:1410.8384 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Supernova dust formation and the grain growth in the early universe: The critical metallicity for low-mass star formation
Comments: 15 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We investigate the condition for the formation of low-mass second-generation stars in the early universe. It has been proposed that gas cooling by dust thermal emission can trigger fragmentation of a low-metallicity star-forming gas cloud. In order to determine the critical condition in which dust cooling induces the formation of low-mass stars, we follow the thermal evolution of a collapsing cloud by a one-zone semi-analytic collapse model. Earlier studies assume the dust amount in the local universe, where all refractory elements are depleted onto grains, and/or assume the constant dust amount during gas collapse. In this paper, we employ the models of dust formation and destruction in early supernovae to derive the realistic dust compositions and size distributions for multiple species as the initial conditions of our collapse calculations. We also follow accretion of heavy elements in the gas phase onto dust grains, i.e., grain growth, during gas contraction. We find that grain growth well alters the fragmentation property of the clouds, and that this still does not approach to the value in the local universe. The critical conditions can be written by the gas metallicity Zcr and the initial depletion efficiency fdep,0 of gas-phase metal onto grains, or dust-to-metal mass ratio, as (Zcr/10^{-5.5} Zsun) = (fdep,0/0.18)^{-0.44} with small scatters in the range of Zcr = [0.06--3.2]x10^{-5} Zsun. We also show that the initial dust composition and size distribution are important to determine Zcr.

[48]  arXiv:1410.8393 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: SN 2012ec: mass of the progenitor from PESSTO follow-up of the photospheric phase
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We present the results of a photometric and spectroscopic monitoring campaign of SN 2012ec, which exploded in the spiral galaxy NGC 1084, during the photospheric phase. The photometric light curve exhibits a plateau with luminosity L= 0.9 times 10 to 42 (erg s to -1) and duration ~90 days; which is shorter than standard Type IIP supernovae. We estimate the nickel mass M(56Ni)= 0.040 pm 0.015 Msun from the luminosity at the beginning of the radioactive tail of the light curve. The explosion parameters of SN 2012ec were estimated from the comparison of the bolometric light curve and temperature and velocity evolution of the ejecta with predications from a hydrodynamical model. We derived an envelope mass of 12.6 Msun, an initial progenitor radius of 1.6 times 10 to 13 (cm) and explosion energy of 1.2 foe. These estimates agree with an independent study of the progenitor star identified in pre-explosion images, for which an initial mass of M=14-22 Msun was determined. We have applied the same analysis to two other type IIP supernovae (SNe 2012aw and 2012A), and carried out a comparison with the properties of SN 2012ec derived in this paper. We find a reasonable agreement between the masses of progenitor obtained from pre-explosion images and the masses derived from hydrodynamical models. We estimate distances to SN 2012ec with Standardized Candle Method (SCM) and compare with other estimates based on other primary and secondary indicators. SNe 2012A, 2012aw and 2012ec all follow the standard relations for SCM for the use of Type IIP SNe as distance indicators.

[49]  arXiv:1410.8394 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Supersolar Ni/Fe production in the Type IIP SN 2012ec
Comments: Submitted to MNRAS
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

SN 2012ec is a Type IIP supernova (SN) with a progenitor detection and comprehensive photospheric-phase observational coverage. Here, we present Very Large Telescope and PESSTO observations of this SN in the nebular phase. We model the nebular [O I] 6300, 6364 lines and find their strength to suggest a progenitor main-sequence mass of 13-15 Msun. SN 2012ec is unique among hydrogen-rich SNe in showing a distinct and unblended line of stable nickel [Ni II] 7378. This line is produced by 58Ni, a nuclear burning ash whose abundance is a sensitive tracer of explosive burning conditions. Using spectral synthesis modelling, we use the relative strengths of [Ni II] 7378 and [Fe II] 7155 (the progenitor of which is 56Ni) to derive a Ni/Fe production ratio of 0.19pm0.07, which is a factor 3.5pm1.2 times the solar value. High production of stable nickel is confirmed by a strong [Ni II] 1.939 micron line. This is the third reported case of a core-collapse supernova producing a Ni/Fe ratio far above the solar value, which has implications for core-collapse explosion theory and galactic chemical evolution models.

[50]  arXiv:1410.8416 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Map-making for large-format detector arrays on CCAT
Authors: Gaelen Marsden (1), Tim Jenness (2), Douglas Scott (1) ((1) University of British Columbia, (2) Cornell University)
Comments: Submitted to Proceedings of ADASS XXIV
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

CCAT is a large submillimetre telescope to be built near the ALMA site in northern Chile. A large-format KID camera, with up to 48,000 detectors at a single waveband sampled at about 1 kHz, will have a data rate about 50 times larger than SCUBA-2, the largest existing submillimetre camera. Creating a map from this volume of data will be a challenge, both in terms of memory and processing time required. We investigate how to extend SMURF, the iterative map-maker used for reducing SCUBA-2 observations, to a distributed-node parallel system, and estimate how the processing time scales with the number of nodes in the system.

[51]  arXiv:1410.8418 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Managing Hardware Configurations and Data Products for the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment
Comments: 4 pages, 3 figures. To appear in the Proceedings of ADASS XXIV (A. R. Taylor & J. M. Stil, eds.), published by the ASP Conf. Ser
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

The Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) is an ambitious new radio telescope project for measuring cosmic expansion and investigating dark energy. Keeping good records of both physical configuration of its 1280 antennas and their analogue signal chains as well as the ~100 TB of data produced daily from its correlator will be essential to the success of CHIME. In these proceedings we describe the database-driven software we have developed to manage this complexity.

[52]  arXiv:1410.8451 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Fast inversion of solar Ca II spectra
Comments: 8 pages, 10 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We present a fast (<< 1 s per profile) inversion code for solar Ca II lines. The code uses an archive of spectra that are synthesized prior to the inversion under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We show that it can be successfully applied to spectrograph data or more sparsely sampled spectra from two-dimensional spectrometers. From a comparison to a non-LTE inversion of the same set of spectra, we derive a first-order non-LTE correction to the temperature stratifications derived in the LTE approach. The correction factor is close to unity up to log tau ~ -3 and increases to values of 2.5 and 4 at log tau = -6 in the quiet Sun and the umbra, respectively.

[53]  arXiv:1410.8452 [pdf, other]
Title: Born-corrections to weak lensing of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarisation anisotropies
Comments: 8 pages, 4 figures. Submitted to MNRAS
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

Many weak lensing calculations make use of the Born approximation where the light ray is approximated by a straight path. We examine the effect of Born-corrections for lensing of the cosmic microwave background in an analytical approach by taking perturbative corrections to the geodesic into account. The resulting extra power in the lensing potential spectrum is comparable to the power generated by nonlinear structure formation and affects especially the polarisation spectra, leading to relative changes of the order of one per cent for the $E$-mode spectrum and up to 10 per cent on all scales to the $B$-mode spectrum. In contrast, there is only little change of spectra involving the CMB temperature. Additionally, the corrections excite one more degree of freedom resulting in a deflection component which can not be described as a gradient of the lensing potential as it is related to image rotation in lens-lens coupling. We estimate the magnitude of this effect on the CMB-spectra and find it to be negligible.

[54]  arXiv:1410.8453 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The density structure of the L1157 molecular outflow
Comments: 11 pages, 10 figures, accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS)
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present a multiline CS survey towards the brightest bow-shock B1 in the prototypical chemically active protostellar outflow L1157. We made use of (sub-)mm data obtained in the framework of the Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions (CHESS) and Astrochemical Surveys at IRAM (ASAI) key science programs. We detected $^{12}$C$^{32}$S, $^{12}$C$^{34}$S, $^{13}$C$^{32}$S, and $^{12}$C$^{33}$S emissions, for a total of 18 transitions, with $E_{\rm u}$ up to $\sim$ 180 K. The unprecedented sensitivity of the survey allows us to carefully analyse the line profiles, revealing high-velocity emission, up to 20 km s$^{-1}$ with respect to the systemic. The profiles can be well fitted by a combination of two exponential laws that are remarkably similar to what previously found using CO. These components have been related to the cavity walls produced by the $\sim$ 2000 yr B1 shock and the older ($\sim$ 4000 yr) B2 shock, respectively. The combination of low- and high-excitation CS emission was used to properly sample the different physical components expected in a shocked region. Our CS observations show that this molecule is highlighting the dense, $n_{\rm H_2}$ = 1--5 $\times$ 10$^{5}$ cm$^{-3}$, cavity walls produced by the episodic outflow in L1157. In addition, the highest excitation (E$_u$ $\geq$ 130 K) CS lines provide us with the signature of denser (1--5 $\times$ 10$^{6}$ cm$^{-3}$) gas, associated with a molecular reformation zone of a dissociative J-type shock, which is expected to arise where the precessing jet impacting the molecular cavities. The CS fractional abundance increases up to $\sim$ 10$^{-7}$ in all the kinematical components. This value is consistent with what previously found for prototypical protostars and it is in agreement with the prediction of the abundances obtained via the chemical code Astrochem.

[55]  arXiv:1410.8455 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Saturation of Zeldovich Stretch-Twist-Fold Map Dynamos
Comments: 17 pages, 14 figures, Submitted to JPP (Special Issue - Zeldovich)
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Plasma Physics (physics.plasm-ph)

Zeldovich's stretch-twist fold (STF) dynamo provided a breakthrough in conceptual understanding of fast dynamos, including fluctuation or small scale dynamos. We study the evolution and saturation behaviour of two types of Baker's map dynamos, which have been used to model Zeldovich's STF dynamo process. Using such maps allows one to analyze dynamos at much higher magnetic Reynolds numbers $R_M$ as compared to direct numerical simulations. In the 2-strip map dynamo there is constant constructive folding while the 4-strip map dynamo also allows the possibility of field reversal. Incorporating a diffusive step parameterised by $R_M$, we find that the magnetic field $B(x)$ is amplified only above a critical $R_M=R_{crit} \sim 4$ for both types of dynamos. We explore the saturation of these dynamos in 3 ways; by a renormalized decrease of the effective $R_M$ (Case I) or due to a decrease in the efficiency of field amplification by stretching (Case II), or a combination of both effects (Case III). For Case I, we show that $B(x)$ in the saturated state, for both types of maps, goes back to the marginal eigenfunction, which is obtained for the critical $R_M=R_{crit}$. This is independent of the initial $R_M=R_{M0}$. On the other hand in Case II, for the 2-strip map, we show that $B(x)$ now saturates preserving the structure of the kinematic eigenfunction. Thus the energy is transferred to larger scales in Case I but remains at the smallest resistive scales in Case II. For the 4-strip map, the $B(x)$ oscillates with time, although with a structure similar to the kinematic eigenfunction. Interestingly, the saturated state for Case III shows an intermediate behaviour, with $B(x)$ now similar to the kinematic eigenfunction for an intermediate $R_M=R_{sat}$, with $R_{M0}>R_{sat}>R_{crit}$. $R_{sat}$ is determined by the relative importance of the increased diffusion versus the reduced stretching.

[56]  arXiv:1410.8474 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: FTS atlas of the Sun's spectrally resolved center-to-limb variation
Authors: Jan Stenflo
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

The Sun's spectrum varies with center-to-limb distance. This variation is governed by the underlying temperature-density structure of the solar atmosphere. To explore the spectrally resolved center-to-limb variation (CLV) we make use of two spectral atlases recorded with the Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at the McMath-Pierce facility at Kitt Peak. One spectral atlas obtained 10 arcsec inside the solar limb was recorded in 1978-79 as part of the first survey of the Second Solar Spectrum, while the other atlas is the well used reference NSO/Kitt Peak FTS atlas for the disk center. Both atlases represent fully resolved spectra without any spectral stray light. We then construct an atlas of the limb/disk-center ratio between the two spectra over the wavelength range 4084-9950 \AA. This ratio spectrum, which expresses the CLV amplitude relative to the continuum, is as richly structured as the intensity spectrum itself, but the line profiles differ greatly in both shape and amplitude. It is as if we are dealing with a new, unfamiliar spectrum of the Sun, distinctly different from both the intensity spectrum (which we here refer to with the acronym SS1) and the linear polarization of the Second Solar Spectrum (for which we use acronym SS2). In analogy we refer to the new ratio spectrum as SS3. While there is hardly any resemblance between SS3 and SS2, we are able to identify a non-linear mapping that can translate SS1 to SS3 in the case of weak to medium-strong spectral lines that are mainly formed in LTE (being directly coupled to the local temperature-density structure). This non-linear mapping is successfully modeled in terms of two free parameters that are found to vary approximately linearly over the entire wavelength range covered. These parameters and the various SS3 line profiles provide a novel, rich set of observational constraints on model atmospheres.

[57]  arXiv:1410.8492 [pdf, other]
Title: Photometry of Delta Scorpii from 1996 to 2013 using SOHO LASCO C3 coronograph
Comments: 9 pages, 10 figures, submitted to JAAVSO
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

The variabile star Delta Scorpii is in conjunction with the Sun at the end of November each year. We studied its magnitude by averaging the observations of 28 Nov - 1 Dec from 1996 to 2013 using the coronograph LASCO C3 on-board the SOHO Satellite and we extended of four years, i.e. 25 % of the total light curve, back to 1996, with respect to the present AAVSO dataset on this star. The 0.2 magnitude scatters of the single measurements have been studied and the sources of such disturbances are vignetting and diffraction patterns from the coronograph. The new data collected on Delta Scorpii show its minimum at mv=2.5 magnitudes for 1996 and 1997, confirming the values observed during the minimum of 2009, and the main periodicity of 11 years in the stellar variability.

[58]  arXiv:1410.8493 [pdf, other]
Title: Jet-induced star formation by a microquasar
Comments: 5 pages, 3 figures. To appear in the Proceedings of the IAU Symposium No. 313: 'Extragalactic jets from every angle', Galapagos, Ecuador, 15-19 September 2014, F. Massaro, C. C. Cheung, E. Lopez, and A. Siemiginowska (Eds.), Cambridge University Press
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Theoretical and observational work show that jets from AGN can trigger star formation. However, in the Milky Way the first -and so far- only clear case of relativistic jets inducing star formation has been found in the surroundings of the microquasar GRS 1915+105. Here we summarize the multiwavelength observations of two compact star formation IRAS sources axisymmetrically located and aligned with the position angle of the sub-arcsec relativistic jets from the stellar black hole binary GRS 1915+105 (Mirabel & Rodriguez 1994). The observations of these two star forming regions at centimeter (Rodriguez & Mirabel 1998), millimeter and infrared (Chaty et al. 2001) wavelengths had suggested -despite the large uncertainties in the distances a decade ago- that the jets from GRS 1915+105 are triggering along the radio jet axis the formation of massive stars in a radio lobe of bow shock structure. Recently, Reid et al.(2014) found that the jet source and the IRAS sources are at the same distance, enhancing the evidence for the physical association between the jets from GRS 1915+105 and star formation in the IRAS sources. We conclude that as jets from AGN, jets from microquasars can trigger the formation of massive stars, but at distances of a few tens of parsecs. Although star formation induced by microquasar jets may not be statistically significant in the Milky Way, jets from stellar black holes may have been important to trigger star formation during the re-ionization epoch of the universe (Mirabel et al. 2011). Because of the relative proximity of GRS 1915+105 and the associated star forming regions, they may serve as a nearby laboratory to gain insight into the physics of jet-trigger star formation elsewhere in the universe.

[59]  arXiv:1410.8495 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: X-ray variability of SS433: effects of the supercritical accretion disc
Comments: 20 pages, 15 figures, to appear in MNRAS
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We study a stochastic variability of SS433 in the $10^{-4} - 5\times 10^{-2}$ Hz frequency range based on RXTE data, and on simultaneous observations with RXTE and optical telescopes. We find that the cross-correlation functions and power spectra depend drastically on the precession phase of the supercritical accretion disc. When the wind funnel of the disc is maximally open to the observer, a flat part emerges in the power spectrum; a break is observed at the frequency $1.7\times10^{-3}$ Hz, with a power-law index $\beta \approx 1.67$ at higher frequencies. The soft emission forming mostly in the jets, lags behind the hard and optical emission. When the observer does not see the funnel and jets (the `edge-on' disc), the power spectrum is described by a single power-law with $\beta \approx 1.34$ and no correlations between X-ray ranges are detected. We investigated two mechanisms to explain the observed variability at the open disc phase, 1) reflection of radiation at the funnel wall (X-rays and optical) and 2) the gas cooling in the jets (X-rays only). The X-ray variability is determined by the contribution of both mechanisms, however the contribution of the jets is much higher. We found that the funnel size is $(2-2.5)\times10^{12}$ cm, and the opening angle is $\vartheta_f\sim 50^\circ$. X-ray jets may consist of three fractions with different densities: $8\times10^{13}$, $3\times10^{13}$ and $5\times10^{11}$ cm$^{-3}$, with most of the jet's mass falling within the latter fraction. We suppose that revealed flat part in the power spectrum may be related to an abrupt change in the disc structure and viscous time-scale at the spherization radius, because the accretion disc becomes thick at this radius, $h/r \sim 1$. The extent of the flat spectrum depends on the variation of viscosity at the spherization radius.

[60]  arXiv:1410.8502 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: MOJAVE XII: Acceleration and Collimation of Blazar Jets on Parsec Scales
Authors: D. C. Homan (Denison U.), M. L. Lister (Purdue U.), Y. Y. Kovalev (ASC Lebedev, MPIfR), A. B. Pushkarev (Pulkovo, CrAO, MPIfR), T. Savolainen (MPIfR), K. I. Kellermann (NRAO), J. L. Richards (Purdue U.), E. Ros (U. Valencia, MPIfR)
Comments: 20 pages, 12 figures, 2 tables, Accepted for Publication in ApJ
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We report on the acceleration properties of 329 features in 95 blazar jets from the MOJAVE VLBA program. Nearly half the features and three-quarters of the jets show significant changes in speed and/or direction. In general, apparent speed changes are distinctly larger than changes in direction, indicating that changes in the Lorentz factors of jet features dominate the observed speed changes rather than bends along the line of sight. Observed accelerations tend to increase the speed of features near the jet base, $\lesssim 10-20$ parsecs projected, and decrease their speed at longer distances. The range of apparent speeds at fixed distance in an individual jet can span a factor of a few, indicating that shock properties and geometry may influence the apparent motions; however, we suggest that the broad trend of jet features increasing their speed near the origin is due to an overall acceleration of the jet flow out to de-projected distances of order $10^2$ parsecs, beyond which the flow begins to decelerate or remains nearly constant in speed. We estimate intrinsic rates of change of the Lorentz factors in the galaxy frame of order $\dot{\Gamma}/\Gamma \simeq 10^{-3}$ to $10^{-2}$ per year which can lead to total Lorentz factor changes of a factor of a few on the length scales observed here. Finally, we also find evidence for jet collimation at projected distances of $\lesssim 10$ parsecs in the form of the non-radial motion and bending accelerations that tend to better align features with the inner jet.

[61]  arXiv:1410.8507 [pdf, other]
Title: External Use of TOPCAT's Plotting Library
Authors: M. B. Taylor
Comments: 4 pages, 1 figure
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM); Mathematical Software (cs.MS)

The table analysis application TOPCAT uses a custom Java plotting library for highly configurable high-performance interactive or exported visualisations in two and three dimensions. We present here a variety of ways for end users or application developers to make use of this library outside of the TOPCAT application: via the command-line suite STILTS or its Jython variant JyStilts, via a traditional Java API, or by programmatically assigning values to a set of parameters in java code or using some form of inter-process communication. The library has been built with large datasets in mind; interactive plots scale well up to several million points, and static output to standard graphics formats is possible for unlimited sized input data.

[62]  arXiv:1410.8514 [pdf, other]
Title: Origin of the Correlations Between Supermassive Black Holes and Their Host Galaxies
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Observations have shown that supermassive black holes in nearby elliptical galaxies correlate tightly with the stellar velocity dispersion (the $\MBH - \sigma$ relation) and the stellar mass (the $\MBH - \Mhost$ relation) of their host spheroids. However, the origin of these correlations remains ambiguous. In a previous paper by Zhu et al., we proposed a model which links the M-$\sigma$ relation to the the dynamical state of the system and the $\MBH - \Mhost$ relation to the self-regulation of galaxy growth. To test this model, we compile a sample of observed galaxies with different properties and examine the dependence of the above correlations on these parameters. We find that galaxies that satisfy the the $\MBH - \sigma$ correlation appear to have reached virial equilibrium, as indicated by the ratio between kinetic energy and gravitational potential, 2K/U $\sim$ 1. Furthermore, the ratio of black hole accretion rate to star formation rate remains nearly constant, BHAR /SFR $\sim$ $10^{-3}$, in active galaxies over a wide range of mass in the redshift range z=0 - 3. These results confirm our theoretical model that the observed correlations have different origins: the $\MBH - \sigma$ relation may result from galaxy relaxation, while the $\MBH$ - $\Mhost$ relation may be due to self-regulated black hole accretion and star formation in galaxies.

[63]  arXiv:1410.8519 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Conditions for Photospherically Driven Alfvenic Oscillations to Heat the Solar Chromosphere by Pedersen Current Dissipation
Comments: 55 pages, 19 figures
Journal-ref: 2011, Astrophysical Journal, 735, 45
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

A magnetohydrodynamic model that includes a complete electrical conductivity tensor is used to estimate conditions for photospherically driven, linear, non-plane Alfvenic oscillations extending from the photosphere to the lower corona to drive a chromospheric heating rate due to Pedersen current dissipation that is comparable to the net chromospheric net radiative loss of $\sim 10^7$ ergs-cm$^{-2}$-sec$^{-1}$. The heating rates due to electron current dissipation in the photosphere and corona are also computed. The wave amplitudes are computed self-consistently as functions of an inhomogeneous background (BG) atmosphere. The effects of the conductivity tensor are resolved numerically using a resolution of 3.33 m. The oscillations drive a chromospheric heating flux $F_{Ch} \sim 10^7 - 10^8$ ergs-cm$^{-2}$-sec$^{-1}$ at frequencies $\nu \sim 10^2 - 10^3$ mHz for BG magnetic field strengths $B \gtrsim 700$ G and magnetic field perturbation amplitudes $\sim 0.01 - 0.1$ $B$. The total resistive heating flux increases with $\nu$. Most heating occurs in the photosphere. Thermalization of Poynting flux in the photosphere due to electron current dissipation regulates the Poynting flux into the chromosphere, limiting $F_{Ch}$. $F_{Ch}$ initially increases with $\nu$, reaches a maximum, and then decreases with increasing $\nu$ due to increasing electron current dissipation in the photosphere. The resolution needed to resolve the oscillations increases from $\sim 10$ m in the photosphere to $\sim 10$ km in the upper chromosphere, and is proportional to $\nu^{-1/2}$. Estimates suggest that these oscillations are normal modes of photospheric flux tubes with diameters $\sim 10-20$ km, excited by magnetic reconnection in current sheets with thicknesses $\sim 0.1$ km.

[64]  arXiv:1410.8520 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: J1649+26: A Grand-Design Spiral with a Large Double-Lobed Radio Source
Comments: 11 pages, 9 figures, Accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We report the discovery of a grand-design spiral galaxy associated with a double-lobed radio source. J1649+2635 (z = 0.0545) is a red spiral galaxy with a prominent bulge that it is associated with a L$_{1.4{\rm GHz}}\sim$10$^{24}$WHz$^{-1}$ double-lobed radio source that spans almost 100kpc. J1649+2635 has a black hole mass of M$_{\rm BH} \sim$ 3--7 $\times$ 10$^8$M$_{\odot}$ and SFR$\sim$ 0.26 -- 2.6M$_{\odot}$year$^{-1}$. The galaxy hosts a $\sim$96kpc diffuse optical halo, which is unprecedented for spiral galaxies. We find that J1649+2635 resides in an overdense environment with a mass of M$_{dyn} = 7.7^{+7.9}_{-4.3} \times 10^{13}$M$_{\odot}$, likely a galaxy group below the detection threshold of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. We suggest one possible scenario for the association of double-lobed radio emission from J1649+2635 is that the source may be similar to a Seyfert galaxy, located in a denser-than-normal environment. The study of spiral galaxies that host large-scale radio emission is important because although rare in the local Universe, these sources may be more common at high-redshifts.

[65]  arXiv:1410.8522 [pdf, other]
Title: The physics inside the scaling relations for X-ray galaxy clusters: gas clumpiness, gas mass fraction and slope of the pressure profile
Authors: S. Ettori (INAF-OA Bologna)
Comments: 11 pages, 4 figures. MNRAS in press
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

In galaxy clusters, the relations between observables in X-ray and millimeter wave bands and the total mass have normalizations, slopes and redshift evolutions that are simple to estimate in a self-similar scenario. We study these scaling relations and show that they can be efficiently expressed, in a more coherent picture, by fixing the normalizations and slopes to the self-similar predictions, and advocating, as responsible of the observed deviations, only three physical mass-dependent quantities: the gas clumpiness $C$, the gas mass fraction $f_g$ and the logarithmic slope of the thermal pressure profile $\beta_P$. We use samples of the observed gas masses, temperature, luminosities, and Compton parameters in local clusters to constrain normalization and mass dependence of these 3 physical quantities, and measure: $C^{0.5} f_g = 0.110 (\pm 0.002 \pm 0.002) \left( E_z M / 5 \times 10^{14} M_{\odot} \right)^{0.198 (\pm 0.025 \pm 0.04)}$ and $\beta_P = -d \ln P/d \ln r = 3.14 (\pm 0.04 \pm 0.02) \left( E_z M / 5 \times 10^{14} M_{\odot} \right)^{0.071 (\pm 0.012 \pm 0.004)}$, where both a statistical and systematic error (the latter mainly due to the cross-calibration uncertainties affecting the \cxo\ and \xmm\ results used in the present analysis) are quoted. The degeneracy between $C$ and $f_g$ is broken by using the estimates of the Compton parameters. Together with the self-similar predictions, these estimates on $C$, $f_g$ and $\beta_P$ define an inter-correlated internally-consistent set of scaling relations that reproduces the mass estimates with the lowest residuals.