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55 new articles

--  arXiv:1807.07069v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
A Deficit of Dark Matter from Jeans Modeling of the Ultra-diffuse Galaxy NGC 1052-DF2
Comments: Submitted to ApJ Letter, version posted is after the initial referee report

The discovery of the ultra-diffuse galaxy NGC 1052-DF2 and its peculiar population of star clusters has raised new questions about the connections between galaxies and dark matter halos at the extremes of galaxy formation. In light of debates over the measured velocity dispersion of its star clusters and the associated mass estimate, we constrain mass models of DF2 using its observed kinematics with a range of priors on the halo mass. Models in which the galaxy obeys a standard stellar-halo mass relation are in tension with the data and also require a large central density core. Better fits are obtained when the halo mass is left free, even after accounting for increased model complexity. The dynamical mass-to-light ratio for our model with a weak prior on the halo mass is $1.7^{+0.7}_{-0.5} \ M_\odot / L_{\odot, V}$, consistent with the stellar population estimate for DF2. We use tidal analysis to find that the low-mass models are consistent with the undisturbed isophotes of DF2. Finally we compare with Local Group dwarf galaxies and demonstrate that DF2 is an outlier in both its spatial extent and its relative dark matter deficit.


--  arXiv:1807.07072v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Modeling projection effects in optically-selected cluster catalogues
Comments: 16 pages, 11 figures

The cosmological utility of galaxy cluster catalogues is primarily limited by our ability to calibrate the relation between halo mass and observable mass proxies such as cluster richness, X-ray luminosity or the Sunyaev-Zeldovich signal. Projection effects are a particularly pernicious systematic effect that can impact observable mass proxies; structure along the line of sight can both bias and increase the scatter of the observable mass proxies used in cluster abundance studies. In this work, we develop an empirical method to characterize the impact of projection effects on redMaPPer cluster catalogues. We use numerical simulations to validate our method and illustrate its robustness. We demonstrate that modeling of projection effects is a necessary component for cluster abundance studies capable of reaching $\approx 5\%$ mass calibration uncertainties (e.g. the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 sample). Specifically, ignoring the impact of projection effects in the observable--mass relation --- i.e. marginalizing over a log-normal model only --- biases the posterior of the cluster normalization condition $S_8 \equiv \sigma_8 (\Omega_{\rm m}/0.3)^{1/2}$ by $\Delta S_8 =0.05$, more than twice the uncertainty in the posterior for such an analysis.


--  arXiv:1807.07073v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
A sextet of clusters in the Vela OB2 region revealed by Gaia
Comments: Accepted for publication as MNRAS letter. 5 pages and 2 figures

Using Gaia DR2 data, combined with OmegaCAM ground-based optical photometry from the AD-HOC survey, and detailed Radial Velocity measurements from ESO-Gaia, we analyse in detail a 10x5 deg region around the Wolf-Rayet star $\gamma^2$ Vel, including the previously known clusters Gamma Vel and NGC2547. Using clustering analysis that considers positions, proper motions and parallax, we discover 6 clusters or associations -- 4 of which appear new. Analysis of the colour-magnitude diagram for these clusters show that 4 of them formed coevally from the same molecular clouds 10 Myr ago, while NGC 2547 formed together with a newly discovered cluster 30 Myr ago. This study shows the incredible wealth of data provided by Gaia for the study of young stellar clusters.


--  arXiv:1807.07074v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
The Molecular and Ionized Gas Phases of an AGN-driven Outflow in a Typical Massive Galaxy at z=2
Comments: 20 pages, 14 figures. Submitted to ApJ

Nuclear outflows driven by accreting massive black holes are one of the main feedback mechanisms invoked at high-z to reproduce the distinct separation between star-forming, disk galaxies and quiescent spheroidal systems. Yet, our knowledge of feedback at high-z remains limited by the lack of observations of the multiple gas phases in galaxy outflows. In this work we use new deep, high-spatial resolution ALMA CO(3-2) and archival VLT/SINFONI H$\alpha$ observations to study the molecular and ionized components of the AGN-driven outflow in zC400528 ---a massive, main sequence galaxy at z=2.3 in the process of quenching. We detect a powerful molecular outflow that shows a positive velocity gradient and extends for at least ~10 kpc from the nuclear region, about three times the projected size of the ionized wind. The molecular gas in the outflow does not reach velocities high enough to escape the galaxy and is therefore expected to be reaccreted. Keeping in mind the various assumptions involved in the analysis, we find that the mass and energetics of the outflow are dominated by the molecular phase. The AGN-driven outflow in zC400528 is powerful enough to deplete the molecular gas reservoir on a timescale at least twice shorter than that needed to exhaust it by star formation. This suggests that the nuclear outflow is one of the main quenching engines at work in the observed suppression of the central star-formation activity in zC400528.


--  arXiv:1807.07076v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Cosmological information in the redshift-space bispectrum
Comments: 22 pages, 14 figures, comments welcome

We use the Fisher-matrix formalism to investigate whether the galaxy bispectrum in redshift space, $B$, contains additional cosmological information with respect to the power spectrum, $P$. We focus on a $\rm \textit{Euclid}$-like survey and consider cosmological models dominated by dark energy and cold dark matter with Gaussian primordial perturbations. After discussing the phenomenology of redshift-space distortions for the bispectrum, we derive an expression for the cross-covariance between $B$ and $P$ at leading order in perturbation theory. Our equation generalizes previous results that did not consider binning in the orientation of wavevector triangles with respect to the line of sight. By considering Fourier modes with wavenumber $k<0.15 \,h$ Mpc$^{-1}$, we find that $B$ and $P$ set similar constraints on the cosmological parameters. Generally, error bars only moderately improve when the two probes are combined together. The parameters that describe a dynamical dark-energy equation of state, however, form an interesting exception: their joint 68.3 per cent credible region shrinks by a factor of 2.6 with respect to only using the power spectrum. Regrettably, this improvement is canceled out when the clustering analysis is combined with priors based on current studies of the cosmic microwave background. In this case, combining $B$ and $P$ does not give any appreciable benefit other than allowing a precise determination of galaxy bias. Finally, we discuss how results depend on the binning strategy for the clustering statistics as well as on the maximum wavenumber. We also show that only considering the bispectrum monopole leads to a significant loss of information.


--  arXiv:1807.07077v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Theory of multiple-stellar population synthesis in a non-Hamiltonian setting
Comments: Accepted for publication on New Astronomy; 15 pages, 2 figures

We aim to investigate the connections existing between the density profiles of the stellar populations used to define a gravitationally bound stellar system and their star formation history: we do this by developing a general framework accounting for both classical stellar population theory and classical stellar dynamics. We extend the work of Pasetto et al. (2012) on a single composite-stellar population (CSP) to multiple CSPs, including also a phase-space description of the CSP concept. In this framework, we use the concept of distribution function to define the CSP in terms of mass, metallicity, and phase-space in a suitable space of existence $\mathbb{E}$ of the CSP. We introduce the concept of foliation of $\mathbb{E}$ to describe formally any CSP as sum of disjointed Simple Stellar Populations (SSP), with the aim to offer a more general formal setting to cast the equations of stellar populations theory and stellar dynamics theory. In doing so, we allow the CSP to be object of dissipation processes thus developing its dynamics in a general non-Hamiltonian framework. Furthermore, we investigate the necessary and sufficient condition to realize a multiple CSP consistent with its mass-metallicity and phase-space distribution function over its temporal evolution, for a collisionless CSP. Finally, analytical and numerical examples show the potential of the result obtained.


--  arXiv:1807.07080v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Far-infrared Herschel SPIRE spectroscopy of lensed starbursts reveals physical conditions of ionised gas
Comments: 39 pages, 19 figures, Accepted for publication in MNRAS. For extra pptx slides prepared for this work, please see http://www.eso.org/~zzhang/download/FTS_SMG_survey_ZhiyuZhang.pdf

The most intensively star-forming galaxies are extremely luminous at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths, highly obscured at optical and ultraviolet wavelengths, and lie at $z\ge 1-3$. We present a programme of ${\it Herschel}$ FIR spectroscopic observations with the SPIRE FTS and photometric observations with PACS, both on board ${\it Herschel}$, towards a sample of 45 gravitationally lensed, dusty starbursts across $z\sim 1-3.6$. In total, we detected 27 individual lines down to 3-$\sigma$, including nine $[\rm C{\small II}]$ 158-$\mu$m lines with confirmed spectroscopic redshifts, five possible $[\rm C{\small II}]$ lines consistent with their far-infrared photometric redshifts, and in some individual sources a few $[\rm O{\small III}]$ 88-$\mu$m, $[\rm O{\small III}]$ 52-$\mu$m, $[\rm O{\small I}]$ 145-$\mu$m, $[\rm O{\small I}]$ 63-$\mu$m, $[\rm N{\small II}]$ 122-$\mu$m, and OH 119-$\mu$m (in absorption) lines. To derive the typical physical properties of the gas in the sample, we stack all spectra weighted by their intrinsic luminosity and by their 500-$\mu$m flux densities, with the spectra scaled to a common redshift. In the stacked spectra, we detect emission lines of $[\rm C{\small II}]$ 158-$\mu$m, $[\rm N{\small II}]$ 122-$\mu$m, $[\rm O{\small III}]$ 88-$\mu$m, $[\rm O{\small III}]$ 52-$\mu$m, $[\rm O{\small I}]$ 63-$\mu$m, and the absorption doublet of OH at 119-$\mu$m, at high fidelity. We find that the average electron densities traced by the $[\rm N{\small II}]$ and $[\rm O{\small III}]$ lines are higher than the average values in local star-forming galaxies and ULIRGs, using the same tracers. From the $[\rm N{\small II}]/[\rm C{\small II}]$ and $[\rm O{\small I}]/[\rm C{\small II}]$ ratios, we find that the $[\rm C{\small II}]$ emission is likely dominated by the photo-dominated regions (PDR), instead of by ionised gas or large-scale shocks.


--  arXiv:1807.07084v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
A Quantification of the Butterfly Effect in Cosmological Simulations and Implications for Galaxy Scaling Relations
Comments: Key figures: 9 & 10

We study the chaotic-like behavior of cosmological simulations by quantifying how minute perturbations grow over time and manifest as macroscopic differences in galaxy properties. When we run the same setup multiple times, the results produced by our code, Arepo, are binary identical. However, when we run pairs of 'shadow' simulations that are identical except for random minute initial displacements to particle positions (e.g. of order 10^-7pc), the results diverge from each other at the individual galaxy level (while the statistical properties of the ensemble of galaxies are unchanged). After cosmological times, the global properties of pairs of 'shadow' galaxies that are matched between the simulations differ from each other generally at a level of ~2-25%, depending on the considered physical quantity. We perform these experiments using cosmological volumes of (25-50Mpc/h)^3 evolved either purely with dark matter, or with baryons and star-formation but no feedback, or using the full feedback model of the IllustrisTNG project. The runs cover four resolution levels spanning a factor of 512 in mass. We find that without feedback the differences between shadow galaxies generally become smaller as the resolution increases, but with the IllustrisTNG model the results are mostly converging towards a 'floor'. This hints at the role of feedback in setting the chaotic properties of galaxy formation. Importantly, we compare the macroscopic differences between shadow galaxies to the overall scatter in various galaxy scaling relations, and conclude that for the star formation-mass and the Tully-Fisher relations the chaotic behavior of our simulations contributes significantly to the overall scatter. We discuss the implications for galaxy formation theory in general and for cosmological simulations in particular.


--  arXiv:1807.07089v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Distances to the globular clusters 47 Tucanae and NGC 362 using Gaia DR2 parallaxes
Comments: 15 pages, 8 figures, submitted to ApJ

Using parallaxes from Gaia DR2, we estimate the distance to the globular clusters 47 Tuc and NGC 362, taking advantage of the background stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud and quasars to account for various parallax systematics. We found the parallax to be dependent on the Gaia DR2 g apparent magnitude for stars with $13<\textrm{g}<18$ , where brighter stars have a lower parallax zero point than fainter stars. The distance to 47 Tuc was found to be $4.45\pm0.01\pm0.12$ kpc, and for NGC 362 $8.54\pm0.20\pm0.44$ kpc with random and systematic errors listed respectively. This is the first time a precise distance measurement directly using parallaxes has been done for either of these two globular clusters.


--  arXiv:1807.07093v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Abundance matching with the mean star formation rate: there is no missing satellites problem in the Milky Way
Comments: 13 pages, 7 figures. Submitted to MNRAS. Comments welcome!

Classical abundance matching has been shown to produce mass estimates, $M^{\rm abund}_{200}$, that agree well with independent dynamical estimates, $M^{\rm dyn}_{200}$, for isolated dwarfs. However, for satellite galaxies, it is expected to fail. This is because tidal stripping lowers $M_*$ and $M^{\rm dyn}_{200}$, causing satellites to scatter above the $M_*-M_{200}$ relation for isolated dwarfs, while ram-pressure stripping quenches star formation on infall, causing satellites to scatter below the relation. In this paper, we introduce a novel abundance matching technique that produces a more accurate estimate of $M_{200}$ for satellite galaxies. To achieve this, we abundance match with the mean star formation rate, averaged over the time when a galaxy was forming stars, $\langle {\rm SFR}\rangle$, instead of $M_*$. Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Bolshoi simulation, we obtain a statistical $\langle {\rm SFR}\rangle-{\rm M}_{200}$ relation in $\Lambda{\rm CDM}$. We then compare $M^{\rm abund}_{200}$ derived from this relation with $M^{\rm dyn}_{200}$ for 21 nearby dSph and dIrr galaxies, finding a good agreement between the two. As a first application, we use our new $\langle {\rm SFR}\rangle-{\rm M}_{200}$ relation to empirically measure the cumulative mass function of a volume-complete sample of bright Milky Way satellites within 280 kpc of the Galactic centre. We compare this with a suite of cosmological 'zoom' simulations of Milky Way-mass halos that account for subhalo depletion by the Milky Way disc. Including a conservative lower bound on the number of 'ultra-faint' dwarfs in this same volume, we find no missing satellites problem above $M_{200} \sim 10^9$M$_\odot$ in the Milky Way. We discuss how this empirical method can be applied to a larger sample of spiral galaxies in the Local Volume.


--  arXiv:1807.07094v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
ARC: Adaptive Ray-tracing with CUDA, a New Ray Tracing Code for Parallel GPUs
Comments: 18 pages, 13 figures

We present the methodology of a photon-conserving, spatially-adaptive, ray-tracing radiative transfer algorithm, designed to run on multiple parallel Graphic Processing Units (GPUs). Each GPU has thousands computing cores, making them ideally suited to the task of tracing independent rays. This ray-tracing implementation has speed competitive with approximate momentum methods, even with thousands of ionization sources, without sacrificing accuracy and resolution. Here, we validate our implementation with the selection of tests presented in the "cosmological radiative transfer codes comparison project," to demonstrate the correct behavior of the code. We also present a selection of benchmarks to demonstrate the performance and computational scaling of the code. As expected, our method scales linearly with the number of sources and with the square of the dimension of the 3D computational grid. Our current implementation is scalable to an arbitrary number of nodes possessing GPUs, but is limited to a uniform resolution 3D grid. Cosmological simulations of reionization with tens of thousands of radiation sources and intergalactic volumes sampled with 1024$^3$ grid points take about 30 days on 64 GPUs to reach complete reionization.


--  arXiv:1807.07098v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
The first super-Earth Detection from the High Cadence and High Radial Velocity Precision Dharma Planet Survey
Comments: 13 pages, 17 figures, Accepted for publication in MNRAS

The Dharma Planet Survey (DPS) aims to monitor about 150 nearby very bright FGKM dwarfs (within 50 pc) during 2016$-$2020 for low-mass planet detection and characterization using the TOU very high resolution optical spectrograph (R$\approx$100,000, 380-900nm). TOU was initially mounted to the 2-m Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope at Fairborn Observatory in 2013-2015 to conduct a pilot survey, then moved to the dedicated 50-inch automatic telescope on Mt. Lemmon in 2016 to launch the survey. Here we report the first planet detection from DPS, a super-Earth candidate orbiting a bright K dwarf star, HD 26965. It is the second brightest star ($V=4.4$ mag) on the sky with a super-Earth candidate. The planet candidate has a mass of 8.47$\pm0.47M_{\rm Earth}$, period of $42.38\pm0.01$ d, and eccentricity of $0.04^{+0.05}_{-0.03}$. This RV signal was independently detected by Diaz et al. (2018), but they could not confirm if the signal is from a planet or from stellar activity. The orbital period of the planet is close to the rotation period of the star (39$-$44.5 d) measured from stellar activity indicators. Our high precision photometric campaign and line bisector analysis of this star do not find any significant variations at the orbital period. Stellar RV jitters modeled from star spots and convection inhibition are also not strong enough to explain the RV signal detected. After further comparing RV data from the star's active magnetic phase and quiet magnetic phase, we conclude that the RV signal is due to planetary-reflex motion and not stellar activity.


--  arXiv:1807.07100v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Review of high-contrast imaging systems for current and future ground-based and space-based telescopes III. Technology opportunities and pathways
Comments: No comment found

The Optimal Optical CoronagraphWorkshop at the Lorentz Center in September 2017 in Leiden, the Netherlands gathered a diverse group of 25 researchers working on exoplanet instrumentation to stimulate the emergence and sharing of new ideas. This contribution is the final part of a series of three papers summarizing the outcomes of the workshop, and presents an overview of novel optical technologies and systems that are implemented or considered for high-contrast imaging instruments on both ground-based and space telescopes. The overall objective of high contrast instruments is to provide direct observations and characterizations of exoplanets at contrast levels as extreme as 10^-10. We list shortcomings of current technologies, and identify opportunities and development paths for new technologies that enable quantum leaps in performance. Specifically, we discuss the design and manufacturing of key components like advanced deformable mirrors and coronagraphic optics, and their amalgamation in "adaptive coronagraph" systems. Moreover, we discuss highly integrated system designs that combine contrast-enhancing techniques and characterization techniques (like high-resolution spectroscopy) while minimizing the overall complexity. Finally, we explore extreme implementations using all-photonics solutions for ground-based telescopes and dedicated huge apertures for space telescopes.


--  arXiv:1807.07113v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
A search for annual and diurnal rate modulations in the LUX experiment
Comments: 12 pages, 9 figures

Various dark matter models predict annual and diurnal modulations of dark matter interaction rates in Earth-based experiments as a result of the Earth's motion in the halo. Observation of such features can provide generic evidence for detection of dark matter interactions. In this paper, we report a search for both annual and diurnal rate modulations in the LUX dark matter experiment using over 20 calendar months of data acquired between 2013 and 2016. This search focuses on electron recoil events at low energies, where leptophilic dark matter interactions are expected to occur and where the DAMA experiment has observed a strong rate modulation for over two decades. By using the innermost volume of the LUX detector and developing robust cuts and corrections, we obtained a stable event rate of 2.3$\pm$0.2 cpd/keV$_{\text{ee}}$/tonne, which is among the lowest in all dark matter experiments. No statistically significant annual modulation was observed in energy windows up to 26 keV$_{\text{ee}}$. Between 2 and 6 keV$_{\text{ee}}$, this analysis demonstrates the most sensitive annual modulation search up to date, with 9.2 $\sigma$ tension with the DAMA/LIBRA result. We also report no observation of diurnal modulations above 0.2 cpd/keV$_{\text{ee}}$/tonne amplitude between 2 and 6 keV$_{\text{ee}}$.


--  arXiv:1807.07140v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Experimental validation of joint phase and amplitude wave-front sensing with coronagraphic phase diversity for high-contrast imaging
Comments: Reproduced with permission from Astronomy & Astrophysics, Copyright ESO

Context. The next generation of space-borne instruments dedicated to the direct detection of exoplanets requires unprecedented levels of wavefront control precision. Coronagraphic wavefront sensing techniques for these instruments must measure both the phase and amplitude of the optical aberrations using the scientific camera as a wavefront sensor. Aims. In this paper, we develop an extension of coronagraphic phase diversity to the estimation of the complex electric field, that is, the joint estimation of phase and amplitude. Methods. We introduced the formalism for complex coronagraphic phase diversity. We have demonstrated experimentally on the Tr\`es Haute Dynamique testbed at the Observatoire de Paris that it is possible to reconstruct phase and amplitude aberrations with a subnanometric precision using coronagraphic phase diversity. Finally, we have performed the first comparison between the complex wavefront estimated using coronagraphic phase diversity (which relies on time-modulation of the speckle pattern) and the one reconstructed by the self-coherent camera (which relies on the spatial modulation of the speckle pattern). Results. We demonstrate that coronagraphic phase diversity retrieves complex wavefront with subnanometric precision with a good agreement with the reconstruction performed using the self-coherent camera. Conclusions. This result paves the way to coronagraphic phase diversity as a coronagraphic wave-front sensor candidate for very high contrast space missions.


--  arXiv:1807.07145v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Upgrading the Gemini Planet Imager: GPI 2.0
Comments: 14 pages, 6 figures, 1 table

The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is the dedicated high-contrast imaging facility, located on Gemini South, designed for the direct detection and characterization of young Jupiter mass exoplanets. In 2019, Gemini is considering moving GPI from Gemini South to Gemini North. Analysis of GPI's as-built performance has highlighted several key areas of improvement to its detection capabilities while leveraging its current capabilities as a facility class instrument. We present the proposed upgrades which include a pyramid wavefront sensor, broadband low spectral resolution prisms and new apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph designs all of which will enhance the current science capabilities while enabling new science programs.


--  arXiv:1807.07146v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
The Gemini Planet Imager: Looking back over five years and forward to the future
Comments: To appear in Proceedings of the SPIE 10703 (Adaptive Optics Systems VI)

The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), a coronagraphic adaptive optics instrument designed for spectroscopy of extrasolar planets, had first light in 2013[13]. After five years, GPI has observed more than 500 stars, producing an extensive library of science images and associated telemetry that can be analyzed to determine performance predictors. We will present a summary of on-sky performance and lessons learned. The two most significant factors determining bright star contrast performance are atmospheric coherence time and the presence of dome seeing. With a possible move to Gemini North, we are planning potential upgrades including a pyramid-sensor based AO system with predictive control; we will summarize upgrade options and the science they would enable.


--  arXiv:1807.07153v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Mining the GPIES database
Comments: 15 pages, 11 Figures. Presented at SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation, 2018, Austin, Texas, United States. Adaptive Optics Systems VI, 107030H (10 July 2018)

The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey (GPIES) is a direct imaging campaign designed to search for young, self-luminous, giant exoplanets. To date, GPIES has observed nearly 500 targets, and generated over 30,000 individual exposures using its integral field spectrograph (IFS) instrument. The GPIES team has developed a campaign data system with a database incorporating all of the metadata for all individual raw data products, including environmental conditions and instrument performance metrics. The same database also indexes metadata associated with multiple levels of reduced data products, including contrast measures for individual images and combined image sequences, which serve as the primary metric of performance for the final science products. The database is also used to track telemetry products from the adaptive optics subsystem, and associate these with corresponding IFS data. Here, we discuss several data exploration and visualization projects enabled by the GPIES database. Of particular interest are any correlations between instrument performance and environmental or operating conditions. We show single and multiple-parameter fits of single-image and observing sequence contrast as functions of various seeing measures, and discuss automated outlier rejection and other fitting concerns. Supervised learning techniques are employed in order to partition the space of raw (single image) to final (full sequence) contrast in order to better predict the value of the final data set from the first few completed observations. Finally, we discuss the particular features of the database design that aid in performing these analyses, and suggest potential future upgrades and refinements.


--  arXiv:1807.07157v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Air, Telescope, and Instrument Temperature Effects on the Gemini Planet Imager's Image Quality
Comments: 6 pages, 6 figures, 2018 SPIE Proceedings (10703-267)

The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a near-infrared instrument that uses Adaptive Optics (AO), a coronagraph, and advanced data processing techniques to achieve very high contrast images of exoplanets. The GPI Exoplanet Survey (GPIES) is a 600 stars campaign aiming at detecting and characterizing young, massive and self-luminous exoplanets at large orbital distances >5 au. Science observations are taken simultaneously with environmental data revealing information about the turbulence in the telescope environment as well as limitations of GPI's AO system. Previous work has shown that the timescale of the turbulence, Tau0, is a strong predictor of AO performance, however an analysis of the dome turbulence on AO performance has not been done before. Here, we study correlations between image contrast and residual wavefront error (WFE) with temperature measurements from multiple locations inside and outside the dome. Our analysis revealed GPI's performance is most correlated with the temperature difference between the primary mirror of the telescope and the outside air. We also assess the impact of the current temperature control and ventilation strategy at Gemini South (GS).


--  arXiv:1807.07160v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Possible GeV counterpart at the ground level associated with Fermi LAT gamma-ray bursts
Comments: 25 pages, 14 figures. Accepted in J. Phys. Commun

From June 2014 to February 2017, the Fermi LAT detected 46 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with photon energies above 20 MeV, and the trigger coordinates of seven of them were within the FoV of New-Tupi detector located in the central region of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). We show in this paper that two of these seven GRBs have a probable GeV counterpart observed at ground level by New-Tupi detector. The first is GRB 160609A, a short duration GRB with a bright emission of photons over a broad energy range extending up to GeV energies. The second is GRB 160625B, a very long duration GRB, for which the Fermi LAT detected more than 300 photons with energies above 100 MeV in the $\sim$ 1 ks interval after the GBM trigger. In the first case, the signal at New-Tupi has a nominal significance of $3.5\sigma$ in the counting rate time profiles, within the T90($=5.6$ s) duration on Fermi GBM. However, the effective significance is only $3.0\sigma$. In the second case, New-Tupi detector registered at least two excess (peaks) with a nominal statistical significance of $4.8\sigma$ and $5.0\sigma$ at 438 s and 558 s after the trigger. The first is within the $T90(=460$ s) on Fermi GBM. Even so, the effective significance is only $\sim 2.0\sigma$. In addition, from a Monte Carlo analysis, we show that the expected signal-to-noise ratio is compatible with the observation of GRB 160709A, only if the differential index of the GRB energy spectrum be equal or higher than -2.2 (a non-steep spectrum).


--  arXiv:1807.07164v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
A novel single-pulse search approach to detection of dispersed radio pulses using clustering and supervised machine learning
Comments: 22 pages, accepted for publication in MNRAS, ref. MN-17-3830-MJ.R2

We present a novel two-stage approach which combines unsupervised and supervised machine learning to automatically identify and classify single pulses in radio pulsar search data. In the first stage, we identify astrophysical pulse candidates in the data, which were derived from the Pulsar Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (PALFA) survey and contain 47,042 independent beams, as trial single-pulse event groups (SPEGs) by clustering single-pulse events and merging clusters that fall within the expected DM and time span of astrophysical pulses. We also present a new peak scoring algorithm, to identify astrophysical peaks in S/N versus DM curves. Furthermore, we group SPEGs detected at a consistent DM for they were likely emitted by the same source. In the second stage, we create a fully labelled benchmark data set by selecting a subset of data with SPEGs identified (using stage 1 procedures), their features extracted and individual SPEGs manually labelled, and then train classifiers using supervised machine learning. Next, using the best trained classifier, we automatically classify unlabelled SPEGs identified in the full data set. To aid the examination of dim SPEGs, we develop an algorithm that searches for an underlying periodicity among grouped SPEGs. The results showed that RandomForest with SMOTE treatment was the best learner, with a recall of 95.6% and a false positive rate of 2.0%. In total, besides all 60 known pulsars from the benchmark data set, the model found 32 additional (i.e., not included in the benchmark data set) known pulsars, and several potential discoveries.


--  arXiv:1807.07169v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
CNO Solar Neutrinos in Next-Generation Dark Matter Experiments
Comments: 8 pages, 5 figures

We study the prospects for measuring the low-energy components of the solar neutrino flux in future direct dark matter detection experiments. We show that for a depletion of $^{136}$Xe by a factor of 100 relative to its natural abundance, and an extension to electron recoil energies of $\sim$ MeV, future xenon experiments with exposure $\sim 200$ ton-yr can detect the CNO component of the solar neutrino flux at $\sim 3 \sigma$ significance. A CNO detection will provide important insight into metallicity of the solar interior. Precise measurement of low-energy solar neutrinos, including as $pp$, $^7$Be, and $pep$ components, will further improve constraints on the "neutrino luminosity" of the Sun, thereby providing constraints on alternative sources of energy production. We find that a measurement of $L_{\nu}/L_{\odot}$ of order one percent is possible with the above exposure, improving on current bounds from a global analysis of solar neutrino data by a factor of about seven.


--  arXiv:1807.07174v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Spectroscopic diagnostics of dust formation and evolution in classical nova ejecta
Comments: 15 pages 14 figures, accepted for publication in A&A, 2018 June 28

A fraction of classical novae form dust during the early stages of their outbursts. The classical CO nova V5668 Sgr (Nova Sgr. 2015b) underwent a deep photometric minimum about 100 days after outburst that was covered across the spectrum. A similar event was observed for an earlier CO nova, V705 Cas (Nova Cas 1993) and a less optically significant event for the more recent CO nova V339 Del (Nova Del 2013). This study provides a "compare and contrast" of these events to better understand the very dynamical event of dust formation. We show the effect of dust formation on multiwavelength high resolution line profiles in the interval 1200\AA\ - 9200\AA\ using a biconical ballistic structure that has been applied in our previous studies of the ejecta. We find that both V5668 Sgr and V339 Del can be modeled using a grey opacity for the dust, indicating fairly large grains (at least 0.1 micron) and that the persistent asymmetries of the line profiles in late time spectra, up to 650 days after the event for V5668 Sgr and 866 days for V339 Del, point to the survival of the dust well into the transparent, nebular stage of the ejecta evolution. This is a general method for assessing the properties of dust forming novae well after the infrared is completely transparent in the ejecta.


--  arXiv:1807.07176v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Axion Cosmology with Early Matter Domination
Comments: 9 pages, 3 figures

The default assumption of early universe cosmology is that the postinflationary universe was radiation dominated until it was about 47000 years old. Direct evidence for the radiation dominated epoch extends back until nucleosynthesis, which began during the first second. However there are theoretical reasons to prefer a period of earlier matter domination, prior to nucleosynthesis, e.g. due to late decaying massive particles needed to explain baryogenesis. Axion cosmology is quantitatively affected by an early period of matter domination, with a different axion mass range preferred and greater inhomogeneity produced on small scales. In this work we show that such increased inhomogeneity can lead to the formation of axion miniclusters in axion parameter ranges that are different from those usually assumed. If the reheating temperature is below $58$ MeV, axion miniclusters can form even if the axion field is present during inflation and has been previously homogenized. The upper bound on the typical initial axion minicluster mass is raised from $10^{-10} M_{\odot}$ to $10^{-7} M_{\odot}$, where $M_{\odot}$ is a solar mass. These results may have consequences for indirect detection of axion miniclusters, and could conceivably probe the thermal history of the universe before nucleosynthesis.


--  arXiv:1807.07178v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
V1369 Cen high resolution panchromatic late nebular spectra in the context of a unified picture for nova ejecta
Comments: No comment found

Nova Cen 2013 (V1369 Cen) is the fourth bright nova observed panchromatically through high resolution UV+optical multi epoch spectroscopy. It is also the nova with the richest set of spectra (both in terms of data quality and number of epochs) thanks to its exceptional brightness. Here, we use the late nebular spectra taken between day ~250 and day ~837 after outburst to derive the physical, geometrical and kinematical properties of the nova. We compare the results with those determined for the other panchromatic studies in this series: T Pyx, V339 Del (nova Del 2013), and V959 Mon (nova Mon 2012). From this we conclude that in all these novae the ejecta geometry and phenomenology can be consistently explained by clumpy gas expelled during a single, brief ejection episode and in ballistic expansion, and not by a wind. For V1369 Cen the ejecta mass (about 1E-4 solar masses) and filling factor (0.1<=f<=0.2) are consistent with those of classical novae but larger (by at least an order of magnitude) than those of T Pyx and the recurrent novae. V1369 Cen has an anomalously high relative to solar N/C ratio that is beyond the range currently predicted for a CO nova, and the Ne emission line strengths are dissimilar to those of typical ONe or CO white dwarfs.


--  arXiv:1807.07179v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Characterization of lemniscate atmospheric aberrations in Gemini Planet Imager data
Comments: 13 pages, 8 figures, Proceedings of SPIE 10703-230

A semi analytic framework for simulating the effects of atmospheric seeing in Adaptive Optics systems on an 8-m telescope is developed with the intention of understanding the origin of the wind-butterfly, a characteristic two-lobed halo in the PSF of AO imaging. Simulations show that errors in the compensated phase on the aperture due to servo-lag have preferential direction orthogonal to the direction of wind propagation which, when Fourier Transformed into the image plane, appear with their characteristic lemniscate shape along the wind direction. We develop a metric to quantify the effect of this aberration with the fractional standard deviation in an annulus centered around the PSF, and use telescope pointing to correlate this effect with data from an atmospheric models, the NOAA GFS. Our results show that the jet stream at altitudes of 100-200 hPa (equivalently 10-15 km above sea level) is highly correlated (13.2$\sigma$) with the strong butterfly, while the ground wind and other layers are more or less uncorrelated.


--  arXiv:1807.07182v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Simulating an Isolated Dwarf Galaxy with Multi-Channel Feedback and Chemical Yields from Individual Stars
Comments: 21 pages, 13 figures (plus 5 page, 6 figure appendix). Re-submitted to MNRAS after first revisions

In order to better understand the relationship between feedback and galactic chemical evolution, we have developed a new model for stellar feedback at grid resolutions of only a few parsecs in global disk simulations, using the adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamics code Enzo. For the first time in galaxy scale simulations, we simulate detailed stellar feedback from individual stars including asymptotic giant branch winds, photoelectric heating, Lyman-Werner radiation, ionizing radiation tracked through an adaptive ray-tracing radiative transfer method, and core collapse and Type Ia supernovae. We furthermore follow the star-by-star chemical yields using tracer fields for 15 metal species: C, N, O, Na, Mg, Si, S, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, As, Sr, Y, and Ba. We include the yields ejected in massive stellar winds, but greatly reduce the winds' velocities due to computational constraints. We describe these methods in detail in this work and present the first results from 500 Myr of evolution of an isolated dwarf galaxy with properties similar to a Local Group, low-mass dwarf galaxy. We demonstrate that our physics and feedback model is capable of producing a dwarf galaxy whose evolution is consistent with observations in both the Kennicutt-Schmidt relationship and extended Schmidt relationship. Effective feedback drives outflows with a greater metallicity than the ISM, leading to low metal retention fractions consistent with observations. Finally, we demonstrate that these simulations yield valuable information on the variation in mixing behavior of individual metal species within the multi-phase interstellar medium.


--  arXiv:1807.07195v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
A catalog of merging dwarf galaxies in the local universe
Comments: 26 Pages, Accepted for publication in ApJS

We present the largest publicly available catalog of interacting dwarf galaxies. It includes 177 nearby merging dwarf galaxies of stellar mass M$_{*}$ $<$ 10$^{10}$M$_{\sun}$ and redshifts z $<$ 0.02. These galaxies are selected by visual inspection of publicly available archival imaging from two wide-field optical surveys (SDSS III and the Legacy Survey), and they possess low surface brightness features that are likely the result of an interaction between dwarf galaxies. We list UV and optical photometric data which we use to estimate stellar masses and star formation rates. So far, the study of interacting dwarf galaxies has largely been done on an individual basis, and lacks a sufficiently large catalog to give statistics on the properties of interacting dwarf galaxies, and their role in the evolution of low mass galaxies. We expect that this public catalog can be used as a reference sample to investigate the effects of the tidal interaction on the evolution of star-formation, morphology/structure of dwarf galaxies. Our sample is overwhelmingly dominated by star-forming galaxies, and they are generally found significantly below the red-sequence in the color-magnitude relation. The number of early-type galaxies is only 3 out of 177. We classify them, according to observed low surface brightness features, into various categories including shells, stellar streams, loops, antennae or simply interacting. We find that dwarf-dwarf interactions tend to prefer the low density environment. Only 41 out of the 177 candidate dwarf-dwarf interaction systems have giant neighbors within a sky projected distance of 700 kpc and a line of sight radial velocity range $\pm$700 km/s and, compared to the LMC-SMC, they are generally located at much larger sky-projected distances from their nearest giant neighbor.


--  arXiv:1807.07211v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Subband Image Reconstruction using Differential Chromatic Refraction
Comments: No comment found

Refraction by the atmosphere causes the positions of sources to depend on the airmass through which an observation was taken. This shift is dependent on the underlying spectral energy of the source and the filter or bandpass through which it is observed. Wavelength-dependent refraction within a single passband is often referred to as differential chromatic refraction (DCR). With a new generation of astronomical surveys undertaking repeated observations of the same part of the sky over a range of different airmasses and parallactic angles, DCR should be a detectable and measurable astrometric signal. In this paper we introduce a novel procedure that takes this astrometric signal and uses it to infer the underlying spectral energy distribution of a source; we solve for multiple latent images at specific wavelengths via a generalized deconvolution procedure built on robust statistics. We demonstrate the utility of such an approach for estimating a partially deconvolved image, at higher spectral resolution than the input images, for surveys such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST).


--  arXiv:1807.07245v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Young radio jets breaking free: molecular and HI outflows in their centers
Comments: Proceedings of IAU-S342 -- Perseus in Sicily: from black hole to cluster outskirts -- K. Asada, E. de Gouveia dal Pino, H. Nagai, R. Nemmen, M. Giroletti, eds - 6 pages, 3 figures

Our view of the central regions of AGN has been enriched by the discovery of fast and massive outflows of HI and molecular gas. Here we present a brief summary of results obtained for young (and restarted) radio AGN. We find that HI outflows tend to be particularly common in this group of objects. This supports the idea that the jet, expanding in a clumpy medium, plays a major role in driving these outflows. The clumpiness of the medium is confirmed by VLBI and ALMA observations. The HI observations reveal that, at least part of the gas, is distributed in clouds with sizes up to a few tens of pc and mass ~10^4 Msun. A change of the conditions in the outflow, with an increasing fraction of diffuse components, as the radio jets grow, is suggested by the high resolution HI observations. The molecular gas completes the picture, showing that the radio plasma jet can couple well with the ISM, strongly affecting the kinematics, but also the physical conditions of the molecular gas. This is confirmed by numerical simulations reproducing, to first order, the kinematics of the gas.


--  arXiv:1807.07251v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
ASASSN-14dq: A fast-declining type II-P Supernova in a low-luminosity host galaxy
Comments: 28 pages, 29 figures, Accepted in MNRAS

Optical broadband (UBVRI) photometric and low-resolution spectroscopic observations of the type II-P supernova (SN) ASASSN-14dq are presented. ASASSN-14dq exploded in a low-luminosity/metallicity host galaxy UGC 11860, the signatures of which are present as weak iron lines in the photospheric phase spectra. The SN has a plateau duration of $\sim\,$90 d, with a plateau decline rate of 1.38 $\rm mag\ (100 d)^{-1}$ in V-band which is higher than most type II-P SNe. ASASSN-14dq is a luminous type II-P SN with a peak $V$-band absolute magnitude of -17.7$\,\pm\,$0.2 mag. The light curve of ASASSN-14dq indicates it to be a fast-declining type II-P SN, making it a transitional event between the type II-P and II-L SNe. The empirical relation between the steepness parameter and $\rm ^{56}Ni$ mass for type II SNe was rebuilt with the help of well-sampled light curves from the literature. A $\rm ^{56}Ni$ mass of $\sim\,$0.029 M$_{\odot}$ was estimated for ASASSN-14dq, which is slightly lower than the expected $\rm ^{56}Ni$ mass for a luminous type II-P SN. Using analytical light curve modelling, a progenitor radius of $\rm \sim3.6\times10^{13}$ cm, an ejecta mass of $\rm \sim10\ M_{\odot}$ and a total energy of $\rm \sim\,1.8\times 10^{51}$ ergs was estimated for this event. The photospheric velocity evolution of ASASSN-14dq resembles a type II-P SN, but the Balmer features (H$\alpha$ and H$\beta$) show relatively slow velocity evolution. The high-velocity H$\alpha$ feature in the plateau phase, the asymmetric H$\alpha$ emission line profile in the nebular phase and the inferred outburst parameters indicate an interaction of the SN ejecta with the circumstellar material (CSM).


--  arXiv:1807.07252v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Exploring the Nature of the 2016 γ-ray Emission in the Blazar 1749+096
Comments: 11 pages, 7 figures, 2 tables. To appear in MNRAS (submitted: 2018 May 9; accepted: 2018 July 15)

Recent Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) light curves indicate an active $\gamma$-ray state spanning about five months from 2016 June to 2016 October in the BL Lac object 1749+096 (OT 081). During this period, we find two notable $\gamma$-ray events: an exceptionally strong outburst followed by a significant enhancement (local peak). In this study, we analyze multi-waveband light curves (radio, optical, X-ray, and $\gamma$-ray) plus very-long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data to investigate the nature of the $\gamma$-ray events. The $\gamma$-ray outburst coincides with flux maxima at longer wavelengths. We find a spectral hardening of the $\gamma$-ray photon index during the $\gamma$-ray outburst. The photon index shows a transition from a softer-when-brighter to a harder-when-brighter trend at around 1.8 $\times$ $10^{-7}$ ph cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. We see indication that both the $\gamma$-ray outburst and the subsequent enhancement precede the propagation of a polarized knot in a region near the VLBI core. The highest polarized intensity, 230\,mJy, and an electric vector position angle rotation, by $\sim$32$^{\circ}$, are detected about 12 days after the $\gamma$-ray outburst. We conclude that both $\gamma$-ray events are caused by the propagation of a disturbance in the mm-wave core.


--  arXiv:1807.07269v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
The metal-rich halo component extended in z: a characterization with Gaia DR2 and APOGEE
Comments: 16 pages, 12 figures, paper submitted to MNRAS

We report an analysis of the metal-rich tail ([Fe/H] $> -0.75$) of halo stars located at distances from the Galactic plane $z$ up to $|z| \sim 10$ kpc, observed by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). We examine the chemistry, kinematics, and dynamics of this metal-rich halo sample using chemical abundances and radial velocities provided by the fourteenth APOGEE data release (DR14) and proper motions from the second Gaia data release (DR2). The analysis reveals three chemically different stellar populations in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] space -- the two distinct halo populations already reported in the literature, and a third group with intermediate [Mg/Fe] $\sim$+0.1. We derive the $U$, $V$ and $W$ velocity components with respect to the Local Standard of Rest, as well as orbits for the three stellar groups, and find that they differ also in their kinematical and dynamical properties. The high-[Mg/Fe] population exhibits a mean prograde rotation, as well as orbits that are more bound and closer to the plane, whereas the low-[Mg/Fe] population has $<V>$ closer to 0, and stars that move in less-bound orbits reaching larger distances from the centre and the Galactic plane. The intermediate-Mg stars exhibit different orbital characteristics, moving with a strong prograde rotation and low excentricity, but in less-bound orbits. This stellar population resembles the two stellar overdensities lying about $|z| \sim 5$ kpc recently reported in the literature, for which a disc origin has been claimed.


--  arXiv:1807.07272v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
High-resolution observations of the symbiotic system R Aqr. Direct imaging of the gravitational effects of the secondary on the stellar wind
Comments: Accepted by Astronomy & Astrophysics. 7 pages, 6 figures

We have observed the symbiotic stellar system R Aqr, aiming to describe the gravitational interaction between the white dwarf (WD) and the wind from the Mira star, the key phenomenon driving the symbiotic activity and the formation of nebulae in such systems. We present high-resolution ALMA maps of the 12CO and 13CO J=3-2 lines, the 0.9 mm continuum distribution, and some high-excitation molecular lines in R Aqr. The maps, which have resolutions ranging between 40 milliarcsecond (mas) and less than 20 mas, probe the circumstellar regions at suborbital scales as the distance between the stars is ~ 40 mas. Our observations show the gravitational effects of the secondary on the stellar wind. The AGB star was identified in our maps from the continuum and molecular line data, and we estimated the probable position of the secondary from a new estimation of the orbital parameters. The (preliminary) comparison of our maps with theoretical predictions is surprisingly satisfactory and the main expected gravitational effects are directly mapped for the first time. We find a strong focusing in the equatorial plane of the resulting wind, which shows two plumes in opposite directions that have different velocities and very probably correspond to the expected double spiral due to the interaction. Our continuum maps show the very inner regions of the nascent bipolar jets, at scales of some AU. Continuum maps obtained with the highest resolution show the presence of a clump that very probably corresponds to the emission of the ionized surroundings of the WD and of a bridge of material joining both stars, which is likely material flowing from the AGB primary to the accretion disk around the WD secondary.


--  arXiv:1807.07274v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Finding closure: approximating Vlasov-Poisson using finitely generated cumulants
Comments: 17 pages, 1 figure

Since dark matter almost exclusively interacts gravitationally, the phase-space dynamics is described by the Vlasov-Poisson equation. A key characteristic is its infinite cumulant hierarchy, a tower of coupled evolution equations for the cumulants of the phase-space distribution. While on large scales the matter distribution is well described as a fluid and the hierarchy can be truncated, smaller scales are in the multi-stream regime in which all higher-order cumulants are sourced through nonlinear gravitational collapse. This regime is crucial for the formation of bound structures and the emergence of characteristic properties such as their density profiles. We present a novel closure strategy for the cumulant hierarchy that is inspired by finitely generated cumulants and hence beyond truncation. This constitutes a constructive approach for reducing nonlinear phase-space dynamics of Vlasov-Poisson to a closed system of equations in position space. Using this idea, we derive Schr\"odinger-Poisson as approximate quantal method for solving classical dynamics of Vlasov-Poisson with cold initial conditions. Our deduction complements the common reverse inference of the Schr\"odinger-Vlasov relation using a semi-classical limit of quantum dynamics and provides a clearer picture of the correspondence between classical and quantal dynamics. Our framework outlines an essential first step towards constructing approximate methods for Vlasov-like systems in cosmology and plasma physics with different initial conditions and potentials.


--  arXiv:1807.07280v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
The duty cycle of the radio galaxy B2 0258+35
Comments: 13 pages, 4 figures, 6 tables, A&A accepted

Radio loud Active Galactic Nuclei are episodic in nature, cycling through periods of activity and quiescence. In this work we investigate the duty cycle of the radio galaxy B2~0258+35, which was previously suggested to be a restarted radio galaxy based on its morphology. The radio source consists of a pair of kpc-scale jets embedded in two large-scale lobes (~240 kpc) with relaxed shape and very low surface brightness, which resemble remnants of a past AGN activity. We combine new LOFAR data at 145 MHz and new SRT data at 6600 MHz with available WSRT data at 1400 MHz to investigate the spectral properties of the outer lobes and derive their age. Interestingly, the spectrum of both the outer Northern and Southern lobes is not ultra-steep as expected for an old ageing plasma with spectral index values equal to $\rm \alpha_{1400}^{145}=0.48\pm0.11$ and $\rm \alpha_{6600}^{1400}=0.69\pm0.20$ in the outer Northern lobe, and $\rm \alpha_{1400}^{145}=0.73\pm0.07$ in the outer Southern lobe. Moreover, despite the wide frequency coverage available for the outer Northern lobe (145-6600~MHz), we do not identify a significant spectral curvature (SPC$\simeq$0.2$\pm0.2$). While mechanisms such as in-situ particle reacceleration, mixing or compression can temporarily play a role in preventing the spectrum from steepening, in no case seem the outer lobes to be compatible with being very old remnants of past activity as previously suggested (with age $\gtrsim$ 80 Myr). We conclude that either the large-scale lobes are still fuelled by the nuclear engine or the jets have switched off no more than a few tens of Myr ago. Our study shows the importance of combining morphological and spectral properties to reliably classify the evolutionary stage of low surface brightness, diffuse emission that low frequency observations are revealing around a growing number of radio sources.


--  arXiv:1807.07287v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Probing modified gravity in cosmic filaments
Comments: 11 pages, 17 figures, submitted to A&A

Multiple modifications of general relativity (GR) have been proposed in the literature in order to understand the nature of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. However, thus far all the predictions of GR have been confirmed with constantly increasing accuracy. In this work, we study the imprints of a particular class of models -- `screened' modified gravity theories -- on cosmic filaments. We utilize the $N$-body code ISIS/RAMSES to simulate the symmetron model and the Hu-Sawicky $f(R)$ model, and we post-process the output with DisPerSE to identify the filaments of the cosmic web. We investigate how the global properties of the filaments -- such as their lengths, masses, and thicknesses -- as well as their radial density and speed profiles change under different gravity theories. We find that filaments are, on average, shorter and denser in modified gravity models compared to in $\Lambda$CDM. We also find that the speed profiles of the filaments are enhanced, consistent with theoretical expectations. Overall, our results suggest that cosmic filaments can be an effective complementary probe of screened modified gravity theories on Mpc scales.


--  arXiv:1807.07294v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
The variability of the warm absorber in I Zwicky 1 as seen by XMM-Newton
Comments: 10 pages, 7 figures. Accepted for publication in MNRAS

We present new XMM-Newton observations of the intriguing warm absorber in I Zwicky 1. This luminous and nearby narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy shows ionized absorption by two components of outflowing gas; a low and a high-ionization phase with log $\xi$~0 and log $\xi$~2 respectively. Detailed modelling of these data reveal a complex and variable multi-phase warm absorber. However, we find the changes in the ionization state of the gas not to be straightforwardly correlated with the variability of the intrinsic continuum source, in apparent contrast with photoionization equilibrium. The observed variability hints instead at a close connection between the two gas components, possibly both directly connected to the accretion disc activity. We thus suggest a phenomenological model capable of explaining these observations, consisting of a clumpy outflow where the high and the low-ionization components are closely linked. Changes in ionization over the years are mainly driven by the different densities of the clumps crossing the observer's line-of-sight, in which the `skin' layer facing the source accounts for the more ionized component.


--  arXiv:1807.07324v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Foreground Biases on Primordial Non-Gaussianity Measurements from the CMB Temperature Bispectrum: Implications for Planck and Beyond
Comments: 18 pages, 10 figures, abstract slightly abridged, comments welcome

The cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature bispectrum is currently the most precise tool for constraining primordial non-Gaussianity (NG). The Planck temperature data tightly constrain the amplitude of local-type NG: $f_{\rm NL}^{\rm loc} = 2.5 \pm 5.7$. Here, we compute previously-neglected foreground biases in temperature-based $f_{\rm NL}^{\rm loc}$ measurements. We consider the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect, gravitational lensing, the thermal (tSZ) and kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effects, and the cosmic infrared background (CIB). In standard analyses, a significant foreground bias arising from the ISW-lensing bispectrum is subtracted from the $f_{\rm NL}^{\rm loc}$ measurement. However, many other terms sourced by the ISW, lensing, tSZ, kSZ, and CIB fields are also present in the temperature bispectrum. We compute the dominant biases on $f_{\rm NL}^{\rm loc}$ arising from these signals. Most of the biases are non-blackbody, and are thus reduced by multifrequency component separation methods; however, recent analyses have found that extragalactic foregrounds are present at non-negligible levels in the Planck component-separated maps. Moreover, the Planck FFP8 simulations do not include the correlations amongst components that are responsible for these biases. We compute the biases for individual frequencies, finding that some are comparable to the statistical error bar on $f_{\rm NL}^{\rm loc}$, even for the main CMB channels (100, 143, and 217 GHz). For future experiments, they can greatly exceed the statistical error bar (considering temperature only). A full assessment will require calculations in tandem with component separation, ideally using simulations. Similar biases will also afflict measurements of equilateral and orthogonal NG, as well as trispectrum NG. We conclude that the search for primordial NG using Planck data may not yet be over.


--  arXiv:1807.07334v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Giant burst of methanol maser in S255IR-NIRS3
Comments: 9 pages, 9 figures

Context: High-mass young stellar objects (HMYSOs) can undergo accretion episodes that strongly affect the star evolution, the dynamics of the disk, and its chemical evolution. Recently reported extraordinary bursts in the methanol maser emission may be the observational signature of accretion events in deeply embedded HMYSOs. Aims: We analyze the light curve of 6.7 GHz methanol masers in S255IR-NIRS3 during the 2015-2016 burst. Methods: 8.5-year monitoring data with an average sampling interval of 5 days were obtained with the Torun 32 m radio telescope. Archival data were added, extending the time series to ~27 years. Results: The maser emission showed moderate (25-30%) variability on timescales of months to years over ~23 years since its discovery. The main burst was preceded by a one-year increase of the total flux density by a factor of 2.5, then it grew by a factor of 10 over ~0.4 years and declined by a factor of 8 during the consecutive 2.4 years. The peak maser luminosity was a factor of 24.5 higher than the pre-burst quiescent value. The light curves of individual features showed considerable diversity but indicated a general trend of suppression of the maser emission at blueshifted (<4.7 km s$^{-1}$) velocities when the redshifted emission rapidly grew and new emission features appeared at velocities >5.8 km s$^{-1}$. This new emission provided a contribution of about 80% to the maser luminosity around the peak of the burst. Conclusions: The onset of the maser burst exactly coincides with that of the infrared burst estimated from the motion of the light echo. This strongly supports the radiative pumping scheme of the maser transition. The growth of the maser luminosity is the result of an increasing volume of gas where the maser inversion is achieved.


--  arXiv:1807.07359v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
UVIT imaging of WLM : Demographics of star forming regions in the nearby dwarf irregular galaxy
Comments: Accepted for publication in AJ

We present a study of star forming regions and its demographics in the nearby dwarf irregular galaxy WLM using the Ultra-Violet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) multi band observations in three filters F148W, N245M and N263M. We find that the UV emission is extended at least up to 1.7 kpc, with the NUV emission more extended than the FUV. We create UV color maps ((F148W$-$N245M) and (F148W$-$N263M)) to study the temperature morphology of young stellar complexes with the help of theoretical models. We identify several complexes with temperature T $>$ 17500 K which are likely to be the OB associations present in the galaxy. These complexes show good spatial correlation with the H$\alpha$ emitting regions, H$~$I distribution and HST detected hot stars. The hot star forming regions are found to be clumpy in nature and show a hierarchical structure, with sizes in the range of 4 - 50 pc, with a large number with sizes $<$ 10 pc. The south western part of the galaxy shows many hot star forming regions, high level of H$\alpha$ emission and low column density of H$~$I which altogether denote a vigorous recent star formation. WLM is likely to have a large fraction of low mass compact star forming regions with mass M $< 10^3 M_{\odot}$, in agreement with the size and mass of the CO clouds. We estimate the star formation rate of WLM to be $\sim$ 0.008 $M_{\odot}/yr$, which is similar to the average value measured for nearby dwarf irregular galaxies.


--  arXiv:1807.07375v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
The $γ$-ray spectrum of the core of Centaurus A as observed with H.E.S.S. and Fermi-LAT
H. E. S. S. Collaboration, H. Abdalla, A. Abramowski, F. Aharonian, F. Ait Benkhali, E. O. Angüner, M. Arakawa, C. Armand, M. Arrieta, M. Backes, A. Balzer, M. Barnard, Y. Becherini, J. Becker Tjus, D. Berge, S. Bernhard, K. Bernlöhr, R. Blackwell, M. Böttcher, C. Boisson, J. Bolmont, S. Bonnefoy, P. Bordas, J. Bregeon, F. Brun, P. Brun, M. Bryan, M. Büchele, T. Bulik, M. Capasso, S. Caroff, A. Carosi, S. Casanova, M. Cerruti, N. Chakraborty, R. C. G. Chaves, A. Chen, J. Chevalier, S. Colafrancesco, B. Condon, J. Conrad, I. D. Davids, J. Decock, C. Deil, J. Devin, P. deWilt, L. Dirson, A. Djannati-Ataï, A. Donath, L. O'C. Drury, J. Dyks, T. Edwards, K. Egberts, G. Emery, J. -P. Ernenwein, S. Eschbach, C. Farnier, S. Fegan, M. V. Fernandes, A. Fiasson, G. Fontaine, S. Funk, M. Füßling, S. Gabici, Y. A. Gallant, T. Garrigoux, F. Gaté, G. Giavitto, D. Glawion, J. F. Glicenstein, D. Gottschall, M. -H. Grondin, J. Hahn, M. Haupt, J. Hawkes, G. Heinzelmann, G. Henri, G. Hermann, J. A. Hinton, W. Hofmann, C. Hoischen, T. L. Holch, M. Holler, D. Horns, A. Ivascenko, H. Iwasaki, A. Jacholkowska, M. Jamrozy, D. Jankowsky, F. Jankowsky, M. Jingo, L. Jouvin, I. Jung-Richardt, M. A. Kastendieck, K. Katarzyński, M. Katsuragawa, U. Katz, D. Kerszberg, D. Khangulyan, B. Khélifi, J. King, S. Klepser, D. Klochkov, W. Kluźniak, Nu. Komin, K. Kosack, S. Krakau, M. Kraus, P. P. Krüger, H. Laffon, G. Lamanna, J. Lau, J. Lefaucheur, A. Lemière, M. Lemoine-Goumard, J. -P. Lenain, E. Leser, T. Lohse, M. Lorentz, R. Liu, R. López-Coto, I. Lypova, D. Malyshev, V. Marandon, A. Marcowith, C. Mariaud, R. Marx, G. Maurin, N. Maxted, M. Mayer, P. J. Meintjes, M. Meyer, A. M. W. Mitchell, R. Moderski, M. Mohamed, L. Mohrmann, K. Morå, E. Moulin, T. Murach, S. Nakashima, M. de Naurois, H. Ndiyavala, F. Niederwanger, J. Niemiec, L. Oakes, P. O'Brien, H. Odaka, S. Ohm, M. Ostrowski, I. Oya, M. Padovani, M. Panter, R. D. Parsons, N. W. Pekeur, G. Pelletier, C. Perennes, P. -O. Petrucci, B. Peyaud, Q. Piel, S. Pita, V. Poireau, D. A. Prokhorov, H. Prokoph, G. Pühlhofer, M. Punch, A. Quirrenbach, S. Raab, R. Rauth, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, M. Renaud, R. de los Reyes, F. Rieger, L. Rinchiuso, C. Romoli, G. Rowell, B. Rudak, C. B. Rulten, V. Sahakian, S. Saito, D. A. Sanchez, A. Santangelo, M. Sasaki, R. Schlickeiser, F. Schüssler, A. Schulz, U. Schwanke, S. Schwemmer, M. Seglar-Arroyo, A. S. Seyffert, N. Shafi, I. Shilon, K. Shiningayamwe. R. Simoni, H. Sol, F. Spanier, M. Spir-Jacob, Ł. Stawarz, R. Steenkamp, C. Stegmann, C. Steppa, I. Sushch, T. Takahashi, J. -P. Tavernet, T. Tavernier, A. M. Taylor, R. Terrier, L. Tibaldo, D. Tiziani, M. Tluczykont, C. Trichard, M. Tsirou, N. Tsuji, R. Tuffs, Y. Uchiyama, D. J. van der Walt, C. van Eldik, C. van Rensburg, B. van Soelen, G. Vasileiadis, J. Veh, C. Venter, A. Viana, P. Vincent, J. Vink, F. Voisin, H. J. Völk, T. Vuillaume, Z. Wadiasingh, S. J. Wagner, P. Wagner, R. M. Wagner, R. White, A. Wierzcholska, P. Willmann, A. Wörnlein, D. Wouters, R. Yang, D. Zaborov, M. Zacharias, R. Zanin, A. A. Zdziarski, A. Zech, F. Zefi, A. Ziegler, J. Zorn, N. Żywucka, Fermi-LAT collaboration, J. D. Magill, S. Buson, C. C. Cheung, J. S. Perkins, Y. Tanaka,
Comments: Accepted for publication in A&A, Abstract abridged for arXiv submission

Centaurus A (Cen A) is the nearest radio galaxy discovered as a very-high-energy (VHE; 100 GeV-100 TeV) $\gamma$-ray source by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). It is a faint VHE $\gamma$-ray emitter, though its VHE flux exceeds both the extrapolation from early Fermi-LAT observations as well as expectations from a (misaligned) single-zone synchrotron-self Compton (SSC) description. The latter satisfactorily reproduces the emission from Cen A at lower energies up to a few GeV. New observations with H.E.S.S., comparable in exposure time to those previously reported, were performed and eight years of Fermi-LAT data were accumulated to clarify the spectral characteristics of the $\gamma$-ray emission from the core of Cen A. The results allow us for the first time to achieve the goal of constructing a representative, contemporaneous $\gamma$-ray core spectrum of Cen A over almost five orders of magnitude in energy. Advanced analysis methods, including the template fitting method, allow detection in the VHE range of the core with a statistical significance of 12$\sigma$ on the basis of 213 hours of total exposure time. The spectrum in the energy range of 250 GeV-6 TeV is compatible with a power-law function with a photon index $\Gamma=2.52\pm0.13_{\mathrm{stat}}\pm0.20_{\mathrm{sys}}$. An updated Fermi-LAT analysis provides evidence for spectral hardening by $\Delta\Gamma\simeq0.4\pm0.1$ at $\gamma$-ray energies above $2.8^{+1.0}_{-0.6}$ GeV at a level of $4.0\sigma$. The fact that the spectrum hardens at GeV energies and extends into the VHE regime disfavour a single-zone SSC interpretation for the overall spectral energy distribution (SED) of the core and is suggestive of a new $\gamma$-ray emitting component connecting the high-energy emission above the break energy to the one observed at VHE energies.


--  arXiv:1807.07402v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
The MICADO first light imager for ELT: its astrometric performance
Comments: 5 pages, submitted to SPIE 2018 Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation

We report on our ongoing efforts to ensure that the MICADO NIR imager reaches differential absolute (often abbreviated: relative) astrometric performance limited by the SNR of typical observations. The exceptional 39m diameter collecting area in combination with a powerful multi-conjugate adaptive optics system (called MAORY) brings the nominal centroiding error, which scales as FWHM/SNR, down to a few 10 uas. Here we show that an exceptional effort is needed to provide a system which delivers adequate and calibrateable astrometric performance over the full field of view (up to 53 arcsec diameter).


--  arXiv:1807.07421v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Observational constraints on the tilted spatially-flat and the untilted nonflat $φ$CDM dynamical dark energy inflation models
Comments: 21 pages, 14 figures, 5 tables. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1803.05522, arXiv:1801.00213

We constrain tilted spatially-flat and untilted nonflat scalar field ($\phi$) dynamical dark energy inflation ($\phi$CDM) models by using Planck 2015 cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements and recent baryonic acoustic oscillation distances data, Type Ia supernovae apparent magnitude observations, Hubble parameter measurements, and growth rate data. We assume an inverse power-law scalar field potential energy density $V(\phi)=V_0 \phi^{-\alpha}$. We find that the combination of the CMB data with the four non-CMB data sets significantly improves parameter constraints, including strengthening the evidence for nonflatness in the untilted nonflat $\phi$CDM model from $1.8\sigma$ for the CMB data alone to more than $3.1\sigma$ for the combined data. In the untilted nonflat $\phi$CDM model current observations favor a spatially closed universe in which spatial curvature contributes about two-thirds of a percent of the current cosmological energy budget. The tilted flat $\phi$CDM model is a 0.4$\sigma$ better fit to the data than is the standard tilted flat $\Lambda$CDM model: current data is unable to rule out dynamical dark energy. The tilted nonflat $\phi$CDM model is more consistent with the Dark Energy Survey constraints on the current value of the rms amplitude of mass fluctuations ($\sigma_8$) as a function of the current value of the nonrelativistic matter density parameter ($\Omega_m$) but does not provide as good a fit to the smaller-angle CMB anisotropy data as does the standard tilted flat $\Lambda$CDM model. Some measured cosmological parameter values differ significantly when determined using the tilted flat and the untilted nonflat $\phi$CDM models, including the cold dark matter density parameter and the reionization optical depth.


--  arXiv:1807.07435v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
A multimessenger view of galaxies and quasars from now to mid-century
Comments: 43 pages, 8 figures. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1801.03298 by other authors

In the next 30 years, a new generation of space and ground-based telescopes will permit to obtain multi-frequency observations of faint sources and, for the first time in human history, to achieve a deep, almost synoptical monitoring of the whole sky. Gravitational wave observatories will detect a Universe of unseen black holes in the merging process over a broad spectrum of mass. Computing facilities will permit new high-resolution simulations with a deeper physical analysis of the main phenomena occurring at different scales. Given these development lines, we first sketch a panorama of the main instrumental developments expected in the next thirty years, dealing not only with electromagnetic radiation, but also from a multi-messenger perspective that includes gravitational waves, neutrinos, and cosmic rays. We then present how the new instrumentation will make it possible to foster advances in our present understanding of galaxies and quasars. We focus on selected scientific themes that are hotly debated today, in some cases advancing conjectures on the solution of major problems that may become solved in the next 30 years.


--  arXiv:1807.07456v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
An atlas of cool supergiants from the Magellanic Clouds and typical interlopers: Atlas of cool supergiants in the Magellanic Clouds
Comments: Accepted for publication in A&A. The atlas of spectra and the complete list of targets will be available at CDS, once the paper is published

We present an atlas composed of more than 1500 spectra of late-type stars (spectral types from G to M) observed simultaneously in the optical and calcium triplet spectral ranges. These spectra were obtained as part of a survey to search for cool supergiants in the Magellanic Clouds and were taken over four epochs. We provide the spectral and luminosity classification for each spectrum (71% are supergiants, 13% are giants or luminous giants, 4% are carbon or S stars, and the remaining 12% are foreground stars of lesser luminosities). We also provide a detailed guide for the spectral classification of luminous late-type stars, the result of the extensive classification work done for the atlas. Although this guide is based on classical criteria, we have put them together and re-elaborated them for modern CCD-spectra as these criteria were scattered among many different works and mainly conceived for use with photographic plate spectra. The result is a systematic, well-tested process for identifying and classifying luminous late-type stars, illustrated with CCD spectra of standard stars and the classifications of our own catalogue.


--  arXiv:1807.07459v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
High-velocity hot CO emission close to Sgr A*: Herschel/HIFI submillimeter spectral survey toward Sgr A*
Comments: Accepted for publication in A&A Letters (English not edited)

The properties of molecular gas (the fuel to form stars) inside the cavity of the circumnuclear disk (CND) are not well constrained. We present results of a velocity-resolved submillimeter (submm) scan (~480 to 1250 GHz) and of [CII]158um line observations carried out with Herschel/HIFI toward Sgr A*, and complemented with a ~2'x2' 12CO (J=3-2) map taken with the IRAM 30m telescope at ~7" resolution. We report the presence of high-positive velocity emission (up to about +300 km/s) detected in the wings of 12CO J=5-4 to 10-9 lines. This wing component is also seen in H2O (1_{1,0}-1_{0,1}) (a tracer of hot molecular gas), in [CII]158um (an unambiguous tracer of UV radiation), but not in [CI] 492,806 GHz lines. This first measurement of the high-velocity 12CO rotational ladder toward Sgr A* adds more evidence that hot molecular gas exists inside the cavity of the CND, relatively close to the super-massive black hole (< 1 pc). Observed by ALMA, this velocity range appears as a collection of 12CO (J=3-2) cloudlets (Goicoechea et al. 2018a) lying in a very harsh environment: pervaded by intense UV radiation fields, shocks, and affected by strong gravitational shears. We constrain the physical conditions of the high-positive velocity CO gas component by comparing with non-LTE excitation and radiative transfer models. We infer Tk ~400 K to 2000 K (for n_H ~ (0.2-1.0)x10^5 cm^-3). These results point toward an important role of stellar UV radiation, but we show that radiative heating alone can not explain the excitation of this ~10-60 M_Sun component of hot molecular gas inside the central cavity. Instead, strongly irradiated shocks are promising candidates.


--  arXiv:1807.07462v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Mid-infrared variability of the neutrino source blazar TXS 0506$+$056
Comments: 3 pages, 1 figure; accepted by the Research Notes of the American Astronomical Society

The IceCube instrument detected a high-energy cosmic neutrino event on 2017 September 22 (IceCube_170922A, IceCube Collaboration 2018), which the electromagnetic follow-up campaigns associated with the flaring $\gamma$-ray blazar TXS 0506$+$056 (e.g., Padovani et al., 2018). We investigated the mid-infrared variability of the source by using the available single exposure data of the WISE satellite at $3.4$ and $4.6\mu$m. TXS 0506$+$056 experienced a $\sim 30$% brightening in both of these bands a few days prior to the neutrino event. Additional intraday infrared variability can be detected in 2010. Similar behaviour seen previously in $\gamma$-ray bright radio-loud AGN has been explained by their jet emission (e.g., Jiang et al. 2012).


--  arXiv:1807.07467v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Hi-5: a potential high-contrast thermal near-infrared imager for the VLTI
Comments: 15 pages, 3 figures, SPIE proceedings, based on arXiv:1801.04148

Hi-5 is a high-contrast (or high dynamic range) infrared imager project for the VLTI. Its main goal is to characterize young extra-solar planetary systems and exozodiacal dust around southern main-sequence stars. In this paper, we present an update of the project and key technology pathways to improve the contrast achieved by the VLTI. In particular, we discuss the possibility to use integrated optics, proven in the near-infrared, in the thermal near-infrared (L and M bands, 3-5~$\mu$m) and advanced fringe tracking strategies. We also address the strong exoplanet science case (young exoplanets, planet formation, and exozodiacal disks) offered by this wavelength regime as well as other possible science cases such as stellar physics (fundamental parameters and multiplicity) and extragalactic astrophysics (active galactic nuclei and fundamental constants). Synergies and scientific preparation for other potential future instruments such as the Planet Formation Imager are also briefly discussed.


--  arXiv:1807.07477v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Enhancing the cross-correlations between magnetic fields and scalar perturbations through parity violation
Comments: 20 pages, 4 figures. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1807.05530

One often resorts to a non-minimal coupling of the electromagnetic field in order to generate magnetic fields during inflation. The coupling is expected to depend on a scalar field, possibly the same as the one driving inflation. At the level of three-point functions, such a coupling leads to a non-trivial cross-correlation between the perturbation in the scalar field and the magnetic field. This cross-correlation has been evaluated analytically earlier for the case of non-helical electromagnetic fields. In this work, we numerically compute the cross-correlation for helical magnetic fields. Non-Gaussianities are often generated as modes leave the Hubble radius. The helical electromagnetic modes evolve strongly (when compared to the non-helical case) around Hubble exit and one type of polarization is strongly amplified immediately after Hubble exit. We find that helicity considerably boosts the amplitude of the dimensionless non-Gaussianity parameter that characterizes the amplitude and shape of the cross-correlation between the perturbations in the scalar field and the magnetic field. We discuss the implications of the enhancement in the non-Gaussianity parameter due to parity violation.


--  arXiv:1807.07479v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Statistics of Photospheric Supergranular Cells Observed by SDO/HMI
Comments: 13 pages, 9 figures

Aims: The statistics of the photospheric granulation pattern are investigated using continuum images observed by Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO)/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) taken at 6713~\AA. Methods: The supergranular boundaries can be extracted by tracking photospheric velocity plasma flows. The local ball-tracking method is employed to apply on the HMI data gathered over the years 2011-2015 to estimate the boundaries of the cells. The edge sharpening techniques are exerted on the output of ball-tracking to precisely identify the cells borders. To study the fractal dimensionality (FD) of supergranulation, the box counting method is used. Results: We found that both the size and eccentricity follow the log-normal distributions with peak values about 330 Mm$^2$ and 0.85, respectively. The five-year mean value of the cells number appeared in half-hour sequences is obtained to be about 60 $\pm$ 6 within an area of $350^{\prime\prime}\times350^{\prime\prime}$. The cells orientation distribution presents the power-law behavior. Conclusions: The orientation of supergranular cells ($O$) and their size ($S$) follows a power-law function as $|O| \propto S^{9.5}$. We found that the non-roundish cells with smaller and larger sizes than 600 Mm$^2$ are aligned and perpendicular with the solar rotational velocity on the photosphere, respectively. The FD analysis shows that the supergranular cells form the self-similar patterns.


--  arXiv:1807.07493v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
The Carnegie RR Lyrae Program: Mid-infrared Period-Luminosity relations of RR Lyrae stars in Reticulum
Comments: 17 pages, 10 figures. Accepted for publication in MNRAS

We analysed 30 RR Lyrae stars (RRLs) located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) globular cluster Reticulum that were observed in the 3.6 and 4.5 $\mu$m passbands with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on board of the Spitzer Space Telescope. We derived new mid-infrared (MIR) period-luminosity PL relations. The zero points of the PL relations were estimated using the trigonometric parallaxes of five bright Milky Way (MW) RRLs measured with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and, as an alternative, we used the trigonometric parallaxes published in the first Gaia data release (DR1) which were obtained as part of the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) and the parallaxes of the same stars released with the second Gaia data release (DR2). We determined the distance to Reticulum using our new MIR PL relations and found that distances calibrated on the TGAS and DR2 parallaxes are in a good agreement and, generally, smaller than distances based on the HST parallaxes, although they are still consistent within the respective errors. We conclude that Reticulum is located ~3 kpc closer to us than the barycentre of the LMC.


--  arXiv:1807.07496v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
Advanced ACTPol TES Device Parameters and Noise Performance in Fielded Arrays
Comments: Accepted for publication in Journal of Low Temperature Physics for LTD-17 special issue

The Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) upgrade to the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) features arrays of aluminum manganese transition-edge sensors (TESes) optimized for ground-based observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Array testing shows highly responsive detectors with anticipated in-band noise performance under optical loading. We report on TES parameters measured with impedance data taken on a subset of TESes. We then compare modeled noise spectral densities to measurements. We find excess noise at frequencies around 100 Hz, nearly outside of the signal band of CMB measurements. In addition, we describe full-array noise measurements in the laboratory and in the field for two new AdvACT mid-frequency arrays, sensitive at bands centered on 90 and 150 GHz, and data for the high-frequency array (150/230 GHz) as deployed.


--  arXiv:1807.07548v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
The Maximum Angular-Diameter Distance in Cosmology
Comments: 10 pages, 5 figures, 2 tables. Accepted for publication in MNRAS

Unlike other observational signatures in cosmology, the angular-diameter distance d_A(z) uniquely reaches a maximum (at z_max) and then shrinks to zero towards the big bang. The location of this turning point depends sensitively on the model, but has been difficult to measure. In this paper, we estimate and use z_max inferred from quasar cores: (1) by employing a sample of 140 objects yielding a much reduced dispersion due to pre-constrained limits on their spectral index and luminosity, (2) by reconstructing d_A(z) using Gaussian processes, and (3) comparing the predictions of seven different cosmologies and showing that the measured value of z_max can effectively discriminate between them. We find that z_max=1.70 +\- 0.20---an important new probe of the Universe's geometry. The most strongly favoured model is R_h=ct, followed by Planck LCDM. Several others, including Milne, Einstein-de Sitter and Static tired light are strongly rejected. According to these results, the R_h=ct universe, which predicts z_max=1.718, has a ~92.8% probability of being the correct cosmology. For consistency, we also carry out model selection based on d_A(z) itself. This test confirms that R_h=ct and Planck LCDM are among the few models that account for angular-size data better than those that are disfavoured by z_max. The d_A(z) comparison, however, is less discerning than that with z_max, due to the additional free parameter, H_0. We find that H_0=63.4 +\- 1.2 km/s/Mpc for R_h=ct, and 69.9 +\- 1.5 km/s/Mpc for LCDM. Both are consistent with previously measured values in each model, though they differ from each other by over 4 sigma. In contrast, model selection based on z_max is independent of H_0.


--  arXiv:1807.07557v1 [pdf, other] Score: T: Unrated, C: Unrated, A: Unrated
WASP-128b: a transiting brown dwarf in the dynamical-tide regime
Comments: 7 pages, 3 figures. Submitted to MNRAS. Comments welcome

Massive companions in close orbits around G dwarfs are thought to undergo rapid orbital decay due to runaway tidal dissipation. We report here the discovery of WASP-128b, a brown dwarf discovered by the WASP survey transiting a G0V host on a $2.2\,\mathrm{d}$ orbit, where the measured stellar rotation rate places the companion in a regime where tidal interaction is dominated by dynamical tides. Under the assumption of dynamical equilibrium, we derive a value of the stellar tidal quality factor $\log{Q_\star'} = 6.96 \pm 0.19$. A combined analysis of ground-based photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy reveals a mass and radius of the host, $M_\star = 1.16 \pm 0.04\,M_\odot$, $R_\star = 1.16 \pm 0.02\,R_\odot$, and for the companion, $M_\mathrm{b} =37.5 \pm 0.8\,M_\mathrm{Jup}$, $R_\mathrm{b} = 0.94 \pm 0.02\,R_\mathrm{Jup}$, placing WASP-128b in the driest parts of the brown dwarf desert, and suggesting a mild inflation for its age. We estimate a remaining lifetime for WASP-128b similar to that of some ultra-short period massive hot Jupiters.