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J.P. Magué & B. Ménard

[1]
Title: An Open Catalog for Supernova Data
Authors: James Guillochon (1), Jerod Parrent (1), Raffaella Margutti (2) ((1) Harvard ITC, (2) NYU)
Comments: 24 pages, 6 figures, 1 table. Submitted to ApJ. Catalog available at this http URL
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

We present the Open Supernova Catalog, an online collection of observations and metadata for presently 20,000+ supernovae and related candidates. The catalog is freely available on the web (https://sne.space), with its main interface having been designed to be a user-friendly, rapidly-searchable table accessible on desktop and mobile devices. In addition to the primary catalog table containing supernova metadata, an individual page is generated for each supernova which displays its available metadata, light curves, and spectra spanning X-ray to radio frequencies. The data presented in the catalog is automatically rebuilt on a daily basis and is constructed by parsing several dozen sources, including the data presented in the supernova literature and from secondary sources such as other web-based catalogs. Individual supernova data is stored in the hierarchical, human- and machine-readable JSON format, with the entirety of each supernova's data being contained within a single JSON file bearing its name. The setup we present here, which is based upon open source software maintained via git repositories hosted on GitHub, enables anyone to download the entirety of the supernova data set to their home computer in minutes, and to make contributions of their own data back to the catalog via git. As the supernova data set continues to grow, especially in the upcoming era of all-sky synoptic telescopes which will increase the total number of events by orders of magnitude, we hope that the catalog we have designed will be a valuable tool for the community to analyze both historical and contemporary supernovae.

[2]
Title: Systematic tests for position-dependent additive shear bias
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We present new tests to identify stationary position-dependent additive shear biases in weak gravitational lensing data sets. These tests are important diagnostics for currently ongoing and planned cosmic shear surveys, as such biases induce coherent shear patterns that can mimic and potentially bias the cosmic shear signal. The central idea of these tests is to determine the average ellipticity of all galaxies with shape measurements in a grid in the pixel plane. The distribution of the absolute values of these averaged ellipticities can be compared to randomized catalogues; a difference points to systematics in the data. In addition, we introduce a method to quantify the spatial correlation of the additive bias, which suppresses the contribution from cosmic shear and therefore eases the identification of a position-dependent additive shear bias in the data. We apply these tests to the publicly available shear catalogues from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) and the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS) and find evidence for a small but non-negligible residual additive bias at small scales. As this residual bias is smaller than the error on the shear correlation signal at those scales, it is highly unlikely that it causes a significant bias in the published cosmic shear results of CFHTLenS. In CFHTLenS, the amplitude of this systematic signal is consistent with zero in fields where the number of stars used to model the PSF is higher than average, suggesting that the position-dependent additive shear bias originates from undersampled PSF variations across the image.

[3]
Title: BOND: Bayesian Oxygen and Nitrogen abundance Determinations in giant H II regions using strong and semi-strong lines
Authors: N. Vale Asari (1), G. Stasińska (2), C. Morisset (3), R. Cid Fernandes (1) ((1) UFSC, Brazil, (2) LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, France, (3) UNAM, Mexico)
Comments: MNRAS in press; 21 pages, 22 figures, 2 tables; code, data and results available at this http URL
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present BOND, a Bayesian code to simultaneously derive oxygen and nitrogen abundances in giant H II regions. It compares observed emission lines to a grid of photoionization models without assuming any relation between O/H and N/O. Our grid spans a wide range in O/H, N/O and ionization parameter U, and covers different starburst ages and nebular geometries. Varying starburst ages accounts for variations in the ionizing radiation field hardness, which arise due to the ageing of H II regions or the stochastic sampling of the initial mass function. All previous approaches assume a strict relation between the ionizing field and metallicity. The other novelty is extracting information on the nebular physics from semi-strong emission lines. While strong lines ratios alone ([O III]/Hbeta, [O II]/Hbeta and [N II]/Hbeta) lead to multiple O/H solutions, the simultaneous use of [Ar III]/[Ne III] allows one to decide whether an H II region is of high or low metallicity. Adding He I/Hbeta pins down the hardness of the radiation field. We apply our method to H II regions and blue compact dwarf galaxies, and find that the resulting N/O vs O/H relation is as scattered as the one obtained from the temperature-based method. As in previous strong-line methods calibrated on photoionization models, the BOND O/H values are generally higher than temperature-based ones, which might indicate the presence of temperature fluctuations or kappa distributions in real nebulae, or a too soft ionizing radiation field in the models.

[4]
Title: The Spatially Resolved Dynamics of Dusty Starburst Galaxies in a z ~ 0.4 Cluster: Beginning the Transition from Spirals to S0s
Authors: H. L. Johnson (CEA Durham), C. M. Harrison (CEA Durham), A. M. Swinbank (ICC/CEA Durham), R. G. Bower (ICC/CEA Durham), Ian Smail (CEA/ICC Durham), Y. Koyama (NAOJ), J. E. Geach (Hertfordshire)
Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS. Main paper: 12 pages, 7 figures. Plus appendix
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

To investigate what drives the reversal of the morphology-density relation at intermediate/high redshift, we present a multi-wavelength analysis of 27 dusty starburst galaxies in the massive cluster Cl 0024+17 at z = 0.4. We combine H-alpha dynamical maps from the VLT/FLAMES multi-IFU system with far-infrared imaging using Herschel SPIRE and millimetre spectroscopy from IRAM/NOEMA, in order to measure the dynamics, star formation rates and gas masses of this sample. Most galaxies appear to be rotationally supported, with a median ratio of rotational support to line-of-sight velocity dispersion v/sigma ~ 5 +/- 2, and specific angular momentum lambda_R = 0.83 +/- 0.06 - comparable to field spirals of a similar mass at this redshift. The star formation rates of 3 - 26 M_solar/yr and average 12 CO derived gas mass of 1 x 10^10 M_solar suggest gas depletion timescales of ~ 1Gyr (~ 0.25 of the cluster crossing time). We derive characteristic dust temperatures (mean T_dust = 26 +/- 1 K) consistent with local galaxies of similar far-infrared luminosity, suggesting that the low density gas is yet to be stripped. Taken together, these results suggest that these starbursts have only recently accreted from the field, with star formation rates likely enhanced due to the effects of ram pressure. In order to make the transition to cluster S0s these galaxies must lose ~ 40% of their specific angular momentum. We suggest this must occur > 1 Gyr later, after the molecular gas has been depleted and/or stripped, via multiple tidal interactions with other cluster members.

[5]
Title: Predictions for the Detection and Characterization of a Population of Free-Floating Planets with K2 Campaign 9
Comments: 10 pages, 4 figures, 2 tables. Submitted to AAS Journals
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

K2 Campaign 9 (K2C9) offers the first chance to measure parallaxes and masses of members of the large population of free-floating planets (FFPs) that has previously been inferred from measurements of the rate of short-timescale microlensing events. Using detailed simulations of the nominal campaign (ignoring the loss of events due to Kepler's emergency mode) and ground-based microlensing surveys, we predict the number of events that can be detected if there is a population of 1-Jupiter-mass FFPs matching current observational constraints. Using a Fisher matrix analysis we also estimate the number of detections for which it will be possible to measure the microlensing parallax, angular Einstein radius and FFP mass. We predict that between 1.4 and 7.9 events will be detected in the K2 data, depending on the noise floor that can be reached, but with the optimistic scenario being more likely. For nearly all of these it will be possible to either measure the parallax or constrain it to be probabilistically consistent with only planetary-mass lenses. We expect that for between 0.42 and 0.98 events it will be possible to gain a complete solution and measure the FFP mass. For the emergency mode truncated campaign, these numbers are reduced by 20~percent. We argue that when combined with prompt high-resolution imaging of a larger sample of short-timescale events, K2C9 will conclusively determine if the putative FFP population is indeed both planetary and free-floating.

[6]
Title: Pair Fireball Precursors of Neutron Star Mergers
Comments: 5 pages, 2 figures, submitted to MNRAS Letters
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc)

If at least one neutron star (NS) is magnetized in a binary NS merger, then the orbital motion of the conducting companion through its dipole field during the final inspiral induces a strong voltage and current along the magnetic field lines connecting the two objects. If a modest fraction eta of the electromagnetic power extracted during the inspiral is used to accelerate relativistic particles, the resulting gamma-ray emission in such a compact volume will result in the formation of a thermal electron-positron pair fireball. Applying the steady-state pair wind model of Paczynski (1986), we quantify the luminosities and temperatures of the precursor fireball and its detectability with gamma-ray satellites. Under the assumption that eta ~ 1, the gamma-ray detection horizon of Dmax ~ 20(Bd/1e14 G) is much closer than the Advanced LIGO/Virgo horizon of 200 Mpc, unless the surface magnetic field of the NS is very strong, Bd > 1e15 G. Given the quasi-isotropic nature of the emission, a sub-population of mergers with somewhat weaker NS fields could contribute a nearby population of short gamma-ray bursts, providing a possible explanation for the correlation between the sky positions of BATSE short bursts and local cosmic structure. The fraction 1-eta of the power which is not dissipated close to the binary is carried to infinity along the open field lines by a large scale Poynting flux. Reconnection within this flow, well outside of the pair photosphere, provides a potential site for non-thermal emission, such as a coherent millisecond radio burst.

[7]
Title: Constraining the nature of dark matter with the star formation history of the faintest Local Group dwarf galaxy satellites
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

$\Lambda$-Warm Dark Matter (WDM) has been proposed as alternative scenario to $\Lambda$ cold dark matter (CDM), motivated by discrepancies at the scale of dwarf galaxies, with less small-scale power and realized by collisionless particles with energies in the range $1-3$ keV. We present a new approach to constrain the viability of such WDM models using star formation histories of the dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) in the Local Group. We compare their high time-resolution star formation histories (SFHs) obtained with HST-based color magnitude diagrams with the range of possible collapse redshifts of their dark matter halos expected in CDM and in different WDM scenarios. The collapse redshift is inferred after determining a plausible infall mass of the subhalo. This is based on the current mass of individual dwarf inferred from stellar kinematics combined with results of cosmological simulations providing information on the subhalo evolution. Since WDM subhalos close to the filtering mass scale form significantly later than CDM, we show that they are in the first place difficult to reconcile with a truncation of star formation occurring as early as $z\geq 3$. The Ultra-Faint Dwarfs (UFDs) provide the most stringent constraints. Using 6 UFDs with the best determination of the SFHs, we show that we can exclude a 1 keV warm particle to a 2-$\sigma$ confidence interval consistently with other methods reported in the literature. For some objects the $2$ keV model is also excluded. We discuss the various caveats of the method, most notably the low number of dwarfs with accurately determined star formation histories and the uncertainties in the determination of the infall mass of the subhalos. Our preliminary analysis serves as a pathfinder for future investigations that will combine upcoming accurate SFHs for more local dSphs with direct analysis of WDM cosmological simulations with baryons.

[8]
Title: Intrinsic alignments in redMaPPer clusters -- I. Central galaxy alignments and angular segregation of satellites
Comments: 26 pages, 15 figures, submitted to MNRAS
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

The shapes of cluster central galaxies are not randomly oriented, but rather exhibit coherent alignments with the shapes of their parent clusters as well as with large-scale structure. In this work, we undertake a comprehensive study of the alignments of central galaxies at low redshift. Based on a sample of 8237 clusters and 94817 members in the redMaPPer cluster catalog with 0.1 < z < 0.35, we first quantify the alignment between the projected central galaxy shapes and the distribution of member satellites, to understand what central galaxy and cluster properties most strongly correlate with these alignments. Next, we investigate the angular segregation of satellites with respect to their central galaxy major axis directions, to identify the satellite properties that most strongly predict their angular segregation. We find that central galaxies are more aligned with their member galaxy distributions in clusters that are more elongated and have higher richness, and for central galaxies with larger physical size, higher luminosity and centering probability, and redder color. Satellites with redder color, higher luminosity, located closer to the central galaxy, and with smaller ellipticity show a stronger angular segregation toward their central galaxy major axes. Finally, we provide physical explanations for some of the identified correlations, and discuss the connection to theories of central galaxy alignments, the impact of primordial alignments with tidal fields, and the importance of anisotropic accretion.

[9]
Title: Temperature Structure and Atmospheric Circulation of Dry, Tidally Locked Rocky Exoplanets
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

Next-generation space telescopes will observe the atmospheres of rocky planets orbiting nearby M-dwarfs. Understanding these observations will require well-developed theory in addition to numerical simulations. Here we present theoretical models for the temperature structure and atmospheric circulation of dry, tidally locked rocky exoplanets with grey radiative transfer and test them using a general circulation model (GCM). First, we develop a radiative-convective model that captures surface temperatures of slowly rotating and cool atmospheres. Second, we show that the atmospheric circulation acts as a global heat engine, which places strong constraints on large-scale wind speeds. Third, we develop a radiative-convective-subsiding model which extends our radiative-convective model to hot and thin atmospheres. We find that rocky planets develop large day-night temperature gradients at a ratio of wave-to-radiative timescales up to two orders of magnitude smaller than the value suggested by work on hot Jupiters. The small ratio is due to the heat engine inefficiency and asymmetry between updrafts and subsidence in convecting atmospheres. Fourth, we show using GCM simulations that rotation only has a strong effect on temperature structure if the atmosphere is hot or thin. Our models let us map out atmospheric scenarios for planets such as GJ 1132b and show how thermal phase curves could constrain them. Measuring phase curves of short-period planets will require similar amounts of time on the James Webb Space Telescope as detecting molecules via transit spectroscopy, so future observations should pursue both techniques.

[10]
Title: PRECESSION. Dynamics of spinning black-hole binaries with python
Comments: Code homepage this https URL - Source this https URL - Documentation this http URL - pypi this https URL
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc)

We present the numerical code PRECESSION: a new open-source python module to study the dynamics of precessing black-hole binaries in the post-Newtonian regime. The code provides a comprehensive toolbox to (i) study the evolution of the black-hole spins along their precession cycles, (ii) perform gravitational-wave driven binary inspirals using both orbit-averaged and precession-averaged integrations, and (iii) predict the properties of the merger remnant through fitting formulae obtained from numerical-relativity simulations. PRECESSION is a ready-to-use tool to add the black-hole spin dynamics to larger-scale numerical studies such as gravitational-wave parameter estimation codes, population synthesis models to predict gravitational-wave event rates, galaxy merger trees and cosmological simulations of structure formation. PRECESSION provides fast and reliable integration methods to propagate statistical samples of black-hole binaries from/to large separations where they form to/from small separations where they become detectable, thus linking gravitational-wave observations of spinning black-hole binaries to their astrophysical formation history. The code is also a useful tool to compute initial parameters for numerical-relativity simulations targeting specific precessing systems. PRECESSION can be installed from the Python Package Index and it is freely distributed under version control on Github, where further documentation is provided.

[11]
Title: Cosmology with photometric weak lensing surveys: constraints with redshift tomography of convergence peaks and moments
Authors: Andrea Petri (Columbia University, BNL), Morgan May (BNL), Zoltán Haiman (Columbia University)
Comments: 12 pages, 6 figures, submitted to PRD
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

Weak gravitational lensing is becoming a mature technique for constraining cosmological parameters, and future surveys will be able to constrain the dark energy equation of state $w$. When analyzing galaxy surveys, redshift information has proven to be a valuable addition to angular shear correlations. We forecast parameter constraints on the triplet $(\Omega_m,w,\sigma_8)$ for an LSST-like photometric galaxy survey, using tomography of the shear-shear power spectrum, convergence peak counts and higher convergence moments. We find that redshift tomography with the power spectrum reduces the area of the $1\sigma$ confidence interval in $(\Omega_m,w)$ space by a factor of 8 with respect to the case of the single highest redshift bin. We also find that adding non-Gaussian information from the peak counts and higher-order moments of the convergence field and its spatial derivatives further reduces the constrained area in $(\Omega_m,w)$ by a factor of 3 and 4, respectively. When we add cosmic microwave background parameter priors from Planck to our analysis, tomography improves power spectrum constraints by a factor of 3. Adding moments yields an improvement by an additional factor of 2, and adding both moments and peaks improves by almost a factor of 3, over power spectrum tomography alone. We evaluate the effect of uncorrected systematic photometric redshift errors on the parameter constraints. We find that different statistics lead to different bias directions in parameter space, suggesting the possibility of eliminating this bias via self-calibration.

[12]
Title: Connecting local and global star formation via molecular cloud complex
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

To link the physical and star formation properties of structures ranging from Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs), to Molecular Cloud Complexes (MCCs), and to Galaxies, we compare the mutual relations between their masses $M$, mass surface densities $\Sigma_{M_{\rm gas}}$, radii $R$, velocity dispersions $\sigma$, star formation rates $SFR$, and SFR densities $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ using data from the $^{12}$CO 1-0 CfA survey and from the literature. We derive universal scaling relations for a comprehensive compilation of molecular cloud structures, spanning 8 orders of magnitudes in size and 13 orders of magnitudes in mass:
$\sigma\sim R^{0.47}$, $M\sim R^{1.96}$, $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}\sim \Sigma_{M_{\rm gas}}^{1.37}$, ${SFR}\sim {M}^{0.87}$, and ${SFR}\sim {\sigma}^{2.66}$.
We also find that the slopes and the coefficients are different for individual scales. Additionally, there is a break at the MCC scale in the $\sigma-R$ relation and breaks between the starburst and the normal star-forming objects in the $SFR-M$ and $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$-$\Sigma_{\rm M_{\rm gas}}$ relations.
The Schmidt-Kennicutt diagram is used to distinguish starburst from normal star-forming structures by applying a $\Sigma_{M_{\rm gas}}$ threshold of $100\,M_\odot$ pc$^{-2}$ and a $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ threshold of $1\,M_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ kpc$^{-2}$. Mini-starburst complexes are MCCs that have enhanced $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ ($>1\,M_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ kpc$^{-2}$), probably caused by dynamic events such as radiation pressure, colliding flows, or spiral arm gravitational instability which compress material within the MCCs. Because of the dynamical evolution, gravitational boundedness does not play a significant role in characterizing the star formation activity of MCC, especially the mini-starburst complex, which leads to the conclusion that the formation of massive stars and clusters is dynamic.

[13]
Title: The Formation and Early Evolution of a Coronal Mass Ejection and its Associated Shock Wave on 2014 January 8
Comments: 11 pages, 7 figures, accepted by ApJ
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

In this paper, we study the formation and early evolution of a limb coronal mass ejection (CME) and its associated shock wave that occurred on 2014 January 8. The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board \textit{Solar Dynamics Observatory} disclose that the CME first appears as a bubble-like structure. Subsequently, its expansion forms the CME and causes a quasi-circular EUV wave. Interestingly, both the CME and the wave front are clearly visible at all of the AIA EUV passbands. Through a detailed kinematical analysis, it is found that the expansion of the CME undergoes two phases: a first phase with a strong but transient lateral over-expansion followed by a second phase with a self-similar expansion. The temporal evolution of the expansion velocity coincides very well with the variation of the 25--50 keV hard X-ray flux of the associated flare, which indicates that magnetic reconnection most likely plays an important role in driving the expansion. Moreover, we find that, when the velocity of the CME reaches $\sim$600 km s$^{-1}$, the EUV wave starts to evolve into a shock wave, which is evidenced by the appearance of a type II radio burst. The shock's formation height is estimated to be $\sim$0.2$R_{sun}$, which is much lower than the height derived previously. Finally, we also study the thermal properties of the CME and the EUV wave. We find that the plasma in the CME leading front and the wave front has a temperature of $\sim$2 MK, while that in the CME core region and the flare region has a much higher temperature of $\ge$8 MK.

[14]
Title: Tracing the Milky Way Nuclear Wind with 21cm Atomic Hydrogen Emission
Comments: 22 pages, 7 figures. To appear in ApJ
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

There is evidence in 21cm HI emission for voids several kpc in size centered approximately on the Galactic centre, both above and below the Galactic plane. These appear to map the boundaries of the Galactic nuclear wind. An analysis of HI at the tangent points, where the distance to the gas can be estimated with reasonable accuracy, shows a sharp transition at Galactic radii $R\lesssim 2.4$ kpc from the extended neutral gas layer characteristic of much of the Galactic disk, to a thin Gaussian layer with FWHM $\sim 125$ pc. An anti-correlation between HI and $\gamma$-ray emission at latitudes $10^{\circ} \leq |b| \leq 20^{\circ}$ suggests that the boundary of the extended HI layer marks the walls of the Fermi Bubbles. With HI we are able to trace the edges of the voids from $|z| > 2$ kpc down to $z\approx0$, where they have a radius $\sim 2$ kpc. The extended HI layer likely results from star formation in the disk, which is limited largely to $R \gtrsim 3$ kpc, so the wind may be expanding into an area of relatively little HI. Because the HI kinematics can discriminate between gas in the Galactic center and foreground material, 21cm HI emission may be the best probe of the extent of the nuclear wind near the Galactic plane.

[15]
Title: Hyperons in neutron stars within Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld theory of gravity
Comments: 10 pages,11 figures, Phys. Rev. D (accepted)
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We investigate the mass-radius relation of neutron star (NS) with hyperons inside its core by using the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) theory of gravity. The equation of state of the star is calculated by using the relativistic mean field model under which the standard SU(6) prescription and hyperons potential depths are used to determine the hyperon coupling constants. We found that, for $4\times 10^{6}~\rm{m^2}~\lesssim~\kappa \lesssim~6\times 10^{6}~\rm{m^2}$, the corresponding NS mass and radius predicted by the EiBI theory of gravity is compatible with observational constraints of maximum NS mass and radius. The corresponding $\kappa$ value is also compatible with the $\kappa$ range predicted by the astrophysical-cosmological constraints. We also found that the parameter $\kappa$ could control the size and the compactness of a neutron star.

[16]
Title: Photometric variability of the nova-like object V380 Oph in 1976-2016
Comments: 4 pages, 3 figures, in proceedings of the AstroPlate workshop, Prague, Villa Lanna, March 14-18, 2016
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We combined photographic, photoelectric and CCD observations of the nova-like variable V380 Oph to get a light curve spanning the time range of 40 years. While the typical high-state brightness of V380 Oph was R~14.5, two low-brightness episodes identified in 1979 (B_pg~17.5) and 2015 (R~19) confirm its classification as a VY Scl-type "anti-dwarf nova". The Fourier period analysis of photoelectric and CCD V and B observations obtained in 2002-16 revealed the presence of two periods 0.148167d and 4.287d, that may be associated with negative superhumps and disc precession. We also compared measurements obtained with the iris micro-photometer and flatbed scanner at the same plates and found an agreement within the expected accuracy of photographic photometry.

[17]
Title: On the relationship between sunspot structure and magnetic field changes associated with solar flares
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Many previous studies have shown that magnetic fields as well as sunspot structures present rapid and irreversible changes associated with solar flares. In this paper we first use five X-class flares observed by SDO/HMI to show that not only the magnetic fields and sunspot structures do show rapid, irreversible changes but also these changes are closely related, both spatially and temporally. The magnitudes of the correlation coefficients between the temporal variations of horizontal magnetic field and sunspot intensity are all larger than 0.90, with a maximum value of 0.99 and an average value of 0.96. Then using four active regions in quiescent times, three observed and one simulated, we show that in sunspot penumbra regions there also exists a close correlation between sunspot intensity and horizontal magnetic field strength, in addition to the well-known one between sunspot intensity and normal magnetic field strength. Connecting these two observational phenomena, we show that the sunspot structure change and the magnetic field change are the two facets of the same phenomena of solar flares, one change might be induced by the change of the other due to a linear correlation between sunspot intensity and magnetic field strength out of a local force balance.

[18]
Title: Estimating stellar effective temperatures and detected angular parameters using stochastic particle swarm optimization
Comments: 14 pages, 12 figures, this http URL
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Considering features of stellar spectral radiation and survey explorers, we established a computational model for stellar effective temperatures, detected angular parameters, and gray rates. Using known stellar flux data in some band, we estimated stellar effective temperatures and detected angular parameters using stochastic particle swarm optimization (SPSO). We first verified the reliability of SPSO, and then determined reasonable parameters that produced highly accurate estimates under certain gray deviation levels. Finally, we calculated 177,860 stellar effective temperatures and detected angular parameters using the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) catalog data. These derived stellar effective temperatures were accurate when we compared them to known values from literatures. This research made full use of catalog data and presented an original technique for studying stellar characteristics. It proposed a novel method for calculating stellar effective temperatures and detected angular parameters, and provided theoretical and practical data support for finding radiation flow information for any band.

[19]
Title: On the magnetism and dynamics of prominence legs hosting tornadoes
Comments: accepted for publication in ApJ
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Solar tornadoes are dark vertical filamentary structures observed in the extreme ultraviolet associated with prominence legs and filament barbs. Their true nature and relationship to prominences requires understanding their magnetic structure and dynamic properties. Recently, a controversy has arisen: is the magnetic field organized forming vertical, helical structures or is it dominantly horizontal? And concerning their dynamics, are tornadoes really rotating or is it just a visual illusion? Here, we analyze four consecutive spectropolarimetric scans of a prominence hosting tornadoes on its legs which help us shed some light on their magnetic and dynamical properties. We show that the magnetic field is very smooth in all the prominence, probably an intrinsic property of the coronal field. The prominence legs have vertical helical fields that show slow temporal variation probably related to the motion of the fibrils. Concerning the dynamics, we argue that 1) if rotation exists, it is intermittent, lasting no more than one hour, and 2) the observed velocity pattern is also consistent with an oscillatory velocity pattern (waves).

[20]
Title: A search for ionized jets towards massive young stellar objects
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Radio continuum observations using the Australia telescope compact array at 5.5, 9.0, 17.0 and 22.8 GHz have detected free-free emission associated with 45 of 49 massive young stellar objects and HII regions. Of these, 26 sources are classified as ionized jets (12 of which are candidates), 2 as ambiguous jets or disc winds, 1 as a disc-wind, 14 as HII regions and 2 were unable to be categorised. Classification as ionized jets is based upon morphology, radio flux and spectral index, in conjunction with previous observational results at other wavelengths. Radio-luminosity and momentum are found to scale with bolometric luminosity in the same way as low-mass jets, indicating a common mechanism for jet production across all masses. In 13 of the jets, we see associated non-thermal/optically-thin lobes resulting from shocks either internal to the jet and/or at working surfaces. Ten jets display non-thermal (synchrotron emission) spectra in their lobes, with an average spectral index of -0.55 consistent with Fermi acceleration in shocks. This shows that magnetic fields are present, in agreement with models of jet formation incorporating magnetic fields. Since the production of collimated radio jets is associated with accretion processes, the results presented in this paper support the picture of disc-mediated accretion for the formation of massive stars with an upper-limit on the jet phase lasting approximately $6.5 \times 10^4 yr$. Typical mass loss rates in the jet are found to be $1.4 \times 10^{-5} M_\odot yr^{-1}$ with associated momentum rates of the order $(1-2) \times 10^{-2} M_\odot km s^{-1} yr^{-1}$.

[21]
Title: Revised predictions of neutrino fluxes from Pulsar Wind Nebulae
Comments: Submitted to ApJ, 12 pages, 3 figures
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

Several Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe) have been detected in the TeV band in the last decade.The TeV emission is typically interpreted in a purely leptonic scenario, but this usually requires that the magnetic field in the Nebula be much lower than the equipartition value and the assumption of an enhanced target radiation at IR frequencies. In this work we consider the possibility that, in addition to the relativistic electrons, also relativistic hadrons are present in these nebulae. Assuming that part of the emitted TeV photons are of hadronic origin, we compute the associated flux of $\sim 1-100$ TeV neutrinos. We use the IceCube non detection to put constraints on the fraction of TeV photons that might be contributed by hadrons and estimate the number of neutrino events that can be expected from these sources in ANTARES and in KM3Net.

[22]
Title: HELP-ing Extragalactic Surveys : The Herschel Extragalactic Legacy Project and The Coming of Age of Multi-Wavelength Astrophysics
Authors: Mattia Vaccari
Comments: Refereed Proceedings of the SALT Science Conference 2015 (SSC2015), 1-5 June 2015, Stellenbosch Institute of Advanced Study, South Africa. Published Version Freely Available at this http URL arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1508.06444
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

How did galaxies form and evolve? This is one of the most challenging questions in astronomy to- day. Answering it requires a careful combination of observational and theoretical work to reliably determine the observed properties of cosmic bodies over large portions of the distant Universe on the one hand, and accurately model the physical processes driving their evolution on the other. Most importantly, it requires bringing together disparate multi-wavelength and multi-resolution spectro-photometric datasets in an homogeneous and well-characterized manner so that they are suitable for a rigorous statistical analysis. The Herschel Extragalactic Legacy Project (HELP) funded by the EC FP7 SPACE program aims to achieve this goal by combining the expertise of optical, infrared and radio astronomers to provide a multi-wavelength database for the dis- tant Universe as an accessible value-added resource for the astronomical community. It will do so by bringing together multi-wavelength datasets covering the 1000 deg2 mapped by Herschel extragalactic surveys and thus creating a joint lasting legacy from several ambitious sky surveys.

[23]
Title: Indirect Dark Matter searches in the light of the recent AMS-02 observations
Authors: Pierre Salati
Comments: 8 pages, 3 figures, Proceedings of the 17th Lomonosov Conference on Elementary Particle Physics held from 20 to 26 August, 2015 at MSU, Moscow
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

If the astronomical dark matter is made of weakly interacting, massive and stable species, it should annihilate on itself into particles. This process should produce rare antimatter cosmic rays and lead to distortions in their energy distributions. The AMS-02 spectrometer has been measuring them with unprecedented accuracy. It is timely to investigate if anomalies have been found in the positron and antiproton spectra and if so, if they indirectly point toward the presence of DM particles annihilating inside the Milky Way.

[24]
Title: Star Formation and Feedback: A Molecular Outflow-Prestellar Core Interaction in L1689N
Comments: Accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal, 20 pages, 10 figures, 2 tables
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present Herschel, ALMA Compact Array (ACA), and Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) observations of the prestellar core in L1689N, which has been suggested to be interacting with a molecular outflow driven by the nearby solar type protostar IRAS 16293-2422. This source is characterized by some of the highest deuteration levels seen in the interstellar medium. The change in the NH2D line velocity and width across the core provides clear evidence of an interaction with the outflow, traced by the high-velocity water emission. Quiescent, cold gas, characterized by narrow line widths is seen in the NE part of the core, while broader, more disturbed line profiles are seen in the W/SW part. Strong N2D+ and ND3 emission is detected with the ACA, extending S/SW from the peak of the single-dish NH2D emission. The ACA data also reveal the presence a compact dust continuum source, with a mean size of ~1100 au, a central density of (1-2) 10^7 cm-3, and a mass of 0.2-0.4 Msun. The dust emission peak is displaced ~5" to the south with respect to the N2D+ and ND3 emission, as well as the single-dish dust continuum peak, suggesting that the northern, quiescent part of the core is characterized by spatially extended continuum emission, which is resolved out by the interferometer. We see no clear evidence of fragmentation in this quiescent part of the core, which could lead to a second generation of star formation, although a weak dust continuum source is detected in this region in the ACA data.

[25]
Title: $f$-mode interaction with models of sunspot : near-field scattering and multi-frequency effects
Comments: 9 pages, 7 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We use numerical simulations to investigate the interaction of an $f$-mode wave packet with small and large models of a sunspot in a stratified atmosphere. While a loose cluster model has been largely studied before, we focus in this study on the scattering from an ensemble of tightly compact tubes. We showed that the small compact cluster produces a slight distorted scattered wave field in the transverse direction, which can be attributed to the simultaneous oscillations of the pairs of tubes within the cluster aligned in a perpendicular direction to the incoming wave. However, no signature of a multiple-scattering regime has been observed from this model, while it has been clearly observable for the large compact cluster model. Furthermore, we pointed out the importance of the geometrical shape of the monolithic model on the interaction of $f$-mode waves with a sunspot in a high frequency range ($\nu =$ 5 mHz). These results are a contribution to the observational effort to distinguish seismically between different configurations of magnetic flux tubes within sunspots and plage.

[26]
Title: A molecular line study towards massive extended green object clumps in the southern sky: chemical properties
Journal-ref: 2015, MNRAS, 451, 2507
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present a molecular line study towards 31 extended green object (EGO) clumps in the southern sky using data from MALT90 (Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz). According to previous multiwavelength observations, we divide our sample into two groups: massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and HII regions. Our results seem to support that N2H+ and C2H emissions mainly come from the gas inside quiescent clumps. In addition, we also find that the [N2H+]/[H13CO+] and [C2H]/[H13CO+] relative abundance ratios decrease from MYSOs to HII regions. These results suggest depletion of N2H+ and C2H in the late stages of massive-star formation, probably caused by the formation of HII regions inside. N2H+ and C2H might be used as chemical clocks for massive-star formation by comparing with other molecules such as H13CO+ and HC3N.

[27]
Title: Peculiar compact stellar systems in the Fornax cluster
Comments: Accepted by MNRAS, 19 pages, 10 figures
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We search for hints to the origin and nature of compact stellar systems in the magnitude range of ultracompact dwarf galaxies in deep wide-field imaging data of the Fornax cluster core. We visually investigate a large sample of 355 spectroscopically confirmed cluster members with V-band equivalent magnitudes brighter than -10 mag for faint extended structures. Our data reveal peculiar compact stellar systems, which appear asymmetric or elongated from their outer light distribution. We characterize the structure of our objects by quantifying their core concentration, as well as their outer asymmetry and ellipticity. For the brighter objects of our sample we also investigate their spatial and phase-space distribution within the cluster. We argue that the distorted outer structure alone that is seen for some of our objects, is not sufficient to decide whether these systems have a star cluster or a galaxy origin. However, we find that objects with low core concentration and high asymmetry (or high ellipticity) are primarily located at larger cluster-centric distances as compared to the entire sample. This supports the hypothesis that at least some of these objects may originate from tidally stripped galaxies.

[28]
Title: Atmospheres and radiating surfaces of neutron stars with strong magnetic fields
Comments: 27 pages, 5 figures, invited review at the conference "The Modern Physics of Compact Stars 2015" (Yerevan, Armenia, Sept. 30 - Oct. 3, 2015), edited by R. Avagyan, A. Saharian, and A. Sedrakian
Journal-ref: Proceedings of Science, PoS(MPCS2015)016 (2016)
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We review the current status of the theory of thermal emission from the surface layers of neutron stars with strong magnetic fields $B\sim 10^{10}-10^{15}$ G, including formation of the spectrum in a partially ionized atmosphere and at a condensed surface. In particular, we describe recent progress in modeling partially ionized atmospheres of central compact objects in supernova remnants, which may have moderately strong fields $B\sim 10^{10}-10^{11}$ G. Special attention is given to polarization of thermal radiation emitted by a neutron star surface. Finally, we briefly describe applications of the theory to observations of thermally emitting isolated neutron stars.

[29]
Title: Expanding molecular bubble surrounding Tycho's supernova remnant (SN 1572) observed with IRAM 30 m telescope: evidence for a single-degenerate progenitor
Comments: 7 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Whether the progenitors of Type-Ia Supernovae, single degenerate or double-degenerate white dwarf (WD) systems, is a highly debated topic. To address the origin of the Type Ia Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR), SN 1572, we have carried out a 12CO J=1-0 mapping and a 3-mm line survey towards the remnant using the IRAM 30 m telescope. We show that Tycho is surrounded by a clumpy molecular bubble at the local standard of rest velocity $\sim 61$ km s$^{-1}$ which expands at a speed $\sim 4.5$ km s$^{-1}$ and has a mass of $\sim 220$ $M_\odot$ (at the distance of 2.5 kpc). Enhanced 12CO J=2-1 line emission relative to 12CO J=1-0 emission and possible line broadenings (in velocity range -64-- -60 km s$^{-1}$) are found at the northeastern boundary of the SNR where the shell is deformed and decelerated. These features, combined with the morphological correspondence between the expanding molecular bubble and Tycho, suggest that the SNR is associated with the bubble at velocity range -66-- -57 km s$^{-1}$. The most plausible origin for the expanding bubble is the fast outflow (with velocity $> 100$ km s$^{-1}$) driven from the vicinity of a WD as it accreted matter from a non-degenerate companion star. The SNR has been expanding in the low-density wind-blown bubble and the shock wave has just reached the molecular cavity wall. This is the first unambiguous detection of the expanding bubble driven by the progenitor of the Type-Ia SNR, which constitutes evidence for a single degenerate progenitor for this Type-Ia supernova.

[30]
Title: Gamma Ray Burst reverse shock emission in early radio afterglows
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

Reverse shock (RS) emission from Gamma Ray Bursts is an important tool in investigating the nature of the ejecta from the central engine. If the ejecta magnetization is not high enough to suppress the RS, a strong RS emission component, usually peaking in the optical/IR band early on, would give important contribution to early afterglow light curves. In the radio band, synchrotron self-absorption may suppress early RS emission, and also delay the RS peak time. In this paper, we calculate the self-absorbed RS emission in the radio band for different dynamical conditions. In particular, we stress that the RS radio emission is subject to self-absorption in both reverse and forward shocks. We calculate the ratio between the reverse to forward shock flux at the RS peak time for different frequencies, which is a measure of the detectability of the RS emission component. We then constrain the range of physical parameters for a detectable RS, in particular the role of magnetization. We notice that unlike optical RS emission which is enhanced by moderate magnetization, a moderately magnetized ejecta does not necessarily produce a brighter radio RS due to the self-absorption effect. For typical parameters, the RS emission component would not be detectable below 1 GHz unless the medium density is very low (e.g. $n < 10^{-3} ~{\rm cm^{-3}}$ for ISM and $A_* < 5\times 10^{-4}$ for wind). These predictions can be tested with the afterglow observations with current and upcoming radio facilities such as JVLA, LOFAR, FAST, and SKA.

[31]
Title: Relativistic X-ray reverberation modelling of the combined time-averaged and lag-energy spectra in AGN
Comments: 14 pages, 13 figures, 2 tables, accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

General relativistic ray tracing simulations of the time-averaged spectrum and energy-dependent time delays in AGN are presented. We model the lamp-post geometry in which the accreting gas is illuminated by an X-ray source located on the rotation axis of the black hole. The spectroscopic features imprinted in the reflection component are modelled using REFLIONX. The associated time delays after the direct continuum, known as reverberation lags, are computed including the full effects of dilution and ionization gradients on the disc. We perform, for the first time, simultaneous fitting of the time-averaged and lag-energy spectra in three AGN: Mrk 335, IRAS 13224-3809 and Ark 564 observed with XMM-Newton. The best fitting source height and central mass of each AGN partly agree with those previously reported. We find that including the ionization gradient in the model naturally explains lag-energy observations in which the 3 keV and 7-10 keV bands precede other bands. To obtain the clear 3 keV and 7-10 keV dips in the lag-energy profile, the model requires either a source height > 5$r_g$, or a disc that is highly ionized at small radii and is colder further out. We also show that fitting the lag or the mean spectra alone can lead to different results and interpretations. This is therefore important to combine the spectral and timing data in order to find the plausible but self-consistent fits which is achievable with our model.

[32]
Title: Investigating the impact of optical selection effects on observed rest frame prompt GRB properties
Comments: 41 pages, 10 figures, 7 tables. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1503.02760
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

Measuring gamma-ray burst (GRB) properties in their rest-frame is crucial to understand the physics at work in gamma-ray bursts. This can only be done for GRBs with known redshift. Since redshifts are usually measured from the optical spectrum of the afterglow, correlations between prompt and afterglow emissions may introduce biases in the distribution of rest-frame properties of the prompt emission. Our analysis is based on a sample of 90 GRBs with good optical follow-up and well measured prompt emission. 76 of them have a measure of redshift and 14 have no redshift. We estimate their optical brightness with their R magnitude measured two hours after the trigger and compare the rest frame prompt properties of different classes of GRB afterglow brightness. We find that the optical brightness of GRBs in our sample is mainly driven by their intrinsic afterglow luminosity. We show that GRBs with low and high afterglow optical fluxes have similar Epi , Eiso , Liso , indicating that the rest-frame distributions computed from GRBs with a redshift are not significantly distorted by optical selection effects. However we found that the rest frame T90 distribution is not immune to optical selection effect, which favor the selection of GRBs with longer durations. Finally, we note that GRBs in the upper part of the Epi-Eiso plane have fainter optical afterglows and we show that optical selection effects strongly favor the detection of GRBs with bright afterglows located close or below the best-fit Epi-Eiso relation, whose redshift is easily measurable.

[33]
Title: The Search for HI Emission at z $\approx0.4$ in Gravitationally Lensed Galaxies with the Green Bank Telescope
Comments: Accepted to Astronomical Journal, 9 pages, 6 figures
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Neutral Hydrogen (HI) provides a very important fuel for star formation, but is difficult to detect at high redshift due to weak emission, limited sensitivity of modern instruments, and terrestrial radio frequency interference (RFI) at low frequencies. We the first attempt to use gravitational lensing to detect HI line emission from three gravitationally lensed galaxies behind the cluster Abell 773, two at redshift of 0.398 and one at z=0.487, using the Green Bank Telescope. We find a 3 sigma upper limit for a galaxy with a rotation velocity of 200 km/s is M_HI=6.58x10^9 and 1.5x10^10 M_solar at z=0.398 and z=0.487. The estimated HI masses of the sources at z=0.398 and z=0.487 are a factor of 3.7 and ~30 times lower than our detection limits at the respective redshifts. To facilitate these observations we have used sigma clipping to remove both narrow- and wide-band RFI but retain the signal from the source. We are able to reduce the noise of the spectrum by ~25% using our routine instead of discarding observations with too much RFI. The routine is most effective when ~10 of the integrations or fewer contains RFI. These techniques can be used to study HI in highly magnified distant galaxies that are otherwise too faint to detect.

[34]
Title: Studying Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence with Synchrotron Polarization Dispersion
Comments: 31 pages, 18 figures, Accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We test a new technique of studying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence suggested by Lazarian \& Pogosyan, using synthetic synchrotron polarization observations. This paper focuses on a one-point statistics, which is termed the polarization frequency analysis, that is characterized by the variance of polarized emission as a function of the square of wavelengths along a single line of sight. We adopt a ratio $\eta$ of the standard deviation of the line-of-sight turbulent magnetic field to the line-of-sight mean magnetic field to depict the level of turbulence. When this ratio is either large ($\eta\gg1$), which characterizes a turbulent field dominated region, or small ($\eta\lesssim0.2$), which characterizes a mean field dominated region, we obtain the polarization variance $\left<P^2\right>\propto\lambda^{-2}$ and $\left<P^2\right>\propto\lambda^{-2-2m}$, respectively. At small $\eta$, i.e., the mean field dominated region, we successfully recover the turbulent spectral index by the polarization variance. We find that our simulations agree well with the theoretical prediction of Lazarian \& Pogosyan. With existing and upcoming data cubes from the Low-Frequency Array for Radio astronomy (LOFAR) and Square Kilometer Array (SKA), this new technique can be applied to study the magnetic turbulence in the Milky Way and other galaxies.

[35]
Title: V470 Cas and GSC 2901-00089, Two New Double-mode Cepheids
Comments: 16 pages, 14 figures, 5 tables
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We present a photometric study of two new double-mode Cepheids, pulsating in the first and second overtones modes: V470 Cas and GSC 2901-00089. For the search of the double-mode variability, we used all available observations from the ROTSE-I/NSVS and SuperWASP online public archives. Our multicolour CCD observations in the B, V and R bands in Johnson's system confirm the double periodicity of these variables. We study period variations of the two stars; variations of the first overtone periods were reliably detected. In addition, we consider the Petersen diagram for the Galactic 1O/2O Cepheids.

[36]
Title: Secondary cosmic ray nuclei in the light of the Single Source Model
Comments: 8 pages, 2 figures, accepted by Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

Evidence for a local 'Single Source' of cosmic rays is amassing by way of the recent precise measurements of various cosmic ray energy spectra from the AMS-02 instrument. To observations of individual cosmic ray nuclei, electrons, positrons and antiprotons must now be added the determination of the boron-to-carbon ratio and the energy spectrum of lithium to 2000 GV with high precision. Our analysis leads us to claim that, with certain assumptions about the propagation in the Galaxy, the results confirm our arguments regarding the presence of a local single source, perhaps, a supernova remnant (SNR). An attempt is made to determine some of the properties of this SNR and its progenitor star.

[37]
Title: Survival of habitable planets in unstable planetary systems
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

Many observed giant planets lie on eccentric orbits. Such orbits could be the result of strong scatterings with other giant planets. The same dynamical instability that produces giant planet scatterings can also alter the orbits of terrestrial planets. For example, a habitable rocky planet in the system can be ejected or transported to an orbit outside the habitable zone. Therefore, there is a link between observed giant planets and the habitability of smaller planets in the system. We say that a habitable planet has resilient habitability if it is able to avoid ejections and collisions and its orbit remains inside the habitable zone. Here we model the orbital evolution of rocky planets in planetary systems where giant planets become dynamically unstable. We measure the resilience of habitable planets as a function of the observed, present-day masses and orbits of the giant planets. We find that the survival rate of habitable planets depends strongly on the giant planet architecture. Systems with three Jupiters (3J) are far more destructive than systems with four giant planets of unequal masses (4G), akin to the architecture of the solar system. In terms of observables, we find that giant planets with eccentricity above 0.4 originate only in 3J systems and very rarely have habitable interior planets. For a giant planet with an present-day eccentricity of 0.2 and semimajor axis of 5 AU orbiting a Sun-like star, 50% of the orbits in the habitable zone are resilient to the instability. As semimajor axis increases and eccentricity decreases, a higher fraction of habitable planets survive and remain habitable. However, if the habitable planet has rocky siblings, there is a significant risk of rocky planet collisions that would sterilize the planet.

[38]
Title: Imprints of Electron-positron Winds on the Multi-wavelength Afterglows of Gamma-ray Bursts
Comments: 31 pages, 8 figures, ApJ accepted
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

Optical re-brightenings in the afterglows of some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are unexpected within the framework of the simple external shock model. While it has been suggested that the central engines of some GRBs are newly born magnetars, we aim to relate the behaviors of magnetars to the optical re-brightenings. A newly born magnetar will lose its rotational energy in the form of Poynting-flux, which may be converted into a wind of electron-positron pairs through some magnetic dissipation processes. As proposed by Dai (2004), this wind will catch up with the GRB outflow and a long-lasting reverse shock would form. By applying this scenario to GRB afterglows, we find that the reverse shock propagating back into the electron-positron wind can lead to an observable optical re-brightening and a simultaneous X-ray plateau (or X-ray shallow decay). In our study, we select four GRBs, i.e., GRB 080413B, GRB 090426, GRB 091029, and GRB 100814A, of which the optical afterglows are well observed and show clear re-brightenings. We find that they can be well interpreted. In our scenario, the spin-down timescale of the magnetar should be slightly smaller than the peak time of the re-brightening, which can provide a clue to the characteristics of the magnetar.

[39]
Title: Age of old objects constraints on cosmic opacity
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

In this paper, it is proposed a cosmological model independent method to constrain the cosmic opacity. As an approach never seen before in literature, we use the ages of 32 old passive galaxies distributed over the redshift interval $0.11 < z < 1.84$ and of 9 extremely old globular clusters in M31 galaxy to obtain opacity free luminosity distance. By comparing them to the 580 distance moduli of supernovae from the so-called Union 2.1 compilation we put limits on the cosmic opacity parametrized by $\tau(z) = \epsilon z/(1+z)$ (for $\epsilon =0$ the transparent universe is recovered). Considering the cosmic background radiation constraints on the spatial curvature of the Universe no significant deviation from transparency is verified.

[40]
Title: Measurement of the Black Hole Mass in NGC 1332 from ALMA Observations at 0.044 Arcsecond Resolution
Comments: 5 pages, 3 figures. Accepted for publication in ApJ Letters
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 3 observations of CO(2-1) emission from the circumnuclear disk in the E/S0 galaxy NGC 1332 at 0.044" resolution. The disk exhibits regular rotational kinematics and central high-velocity emission (+/-500 km/s) consistent with the presence of a compact central mass. We construct models for a thin, dynamically cold disk in the gravitational potential of the host galaxy and black hole, and fit the beam-smeared model line profiles directly to the ALMA data cube. Model fits successfully reproduce the disk kinematics out to r=200 pc. Fitting models just to spatial pixels within projected r=50 pc of the nucleus (two times larger than the black hole's gravitational radius of influence), we find M_BH=6.64(-0.63,+0.65)*10^8 solar masses. This observation demonstrates ALMA's powerful capability to determine the masses of supermassive black holes by resolving gas kinematics on small angular scales in galaxy nuclei.

[41]
Title: HD 35502: a hierarchical triple system with a magnetic B5IVpe primary
Comments: 24 pages, 14 figures, Accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We present our analysis of HD~35502 based on high- and medium-resolution spectropolarimetric observations. Our results indicate that the magnetic B5IVsnp star is the primary component of a spectroscopic triple system and that it has an effective temperature of $18.4\pm0.6\,{\rm kK}$, a mass of $5.7\pm0.6\,M_\odot$, and a polar radius of $3.0^{+1.1}_{-0.5}\,R_\odot$. The two secondary components are found to be essentially identical A-type stars for which we derive effective temperatures ($8.9\pm0.3\,{\rm kK}$), masses ($2.1\pm0.2\,M_\odot$), and radii ($2.1\pm0.4\,R_\odot$). We infer a hierarchical orbital configuration for the system in which the secondary components form a tight binary with an orbital period of $5.66866(6)\,{\rm d}$ that orbits the primary component with a period of over $40\,{\rm yrs}$. Least-Squares Deconvolution (LSD) profiles reveal Zeeman signatures in Stokes $V$ indicative of a longitudinal magnetic field produced by the B star ranging from approximately $-4$ to $0\,{\rm kG}$ with a median uncertainty of $0.4\,{\rm kG}$. These measurements, along with the line variability produced by strong emission in H$\alpha$, are used to derive a rotational period of $0.853807(3)\,{\rm d}$. We find that the measured $v\sin{i}=75\pm5\,{\rm km\,s}^{-1}$ of the B star then implies an inclination angle of the star's rotation axis to the line of sight of $24^{+6}_{-10}\degree$. Assuming the Oblique Rotator Model, we derive the magnetic field strength of the B star's dipolar component ($14^{+9}_{-3}\,{\rm kG}$) and its obliquity ($63\pm13\degree$). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the calculated Alfv\'{e}n radius ($41^{+17}_{-6}\,R_\ast$) and Kepler radius ($2.1^{+0.4}_{-0.7}\,R_\ast$) place HD~35502's central B star well within the regime of centrifugal magnetosphere-hosting stars.

[42]
Title: The Chromospheric Solar Limb Brightening at Radio, Millimeter, Sub-millimeter, and Infrared Wavelengths
Authors: Victor De la Luz
Comments: Accepted by The Astrophysical Journal
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Observations of the emission at radio, millimeter, sub-millimeter, and infrared wavelengths in the center of the solar disk validate the auto-consistence of semi-empirical models of the chromosphere. Theoretically, these models must reproduce the emission at the solar limb. In this work, we tested both the VALC and the C7 semi-empirical models by computing their emission spectrum in the frequency range from 2 GHz to 10 THz, at solar limb altitudes. We calculate the Sun's theoretical radii as well as their limb brightening. Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) was computed for hydrogen, electron density, and H-. In order to solve the radiative transfer equation a 3D geometry was employed to determine the ray paths and Bremsstrahlung, H-, and inverse Bremsstrahlung opacity sources were integrated in the optical depth. We compared the computed solar radii with high resolution observations at the limb obtained by Clark (1994). We found that there are differences between observed and computed solar radii of 12000 km at 20 GHz, 5000 km at 100 GHz, and 1000 km at 3 THz for both semi-empirical models. A difference of 8000 km in the solar radii was found comparing our results against heights obtained from H{\alpha} observations of spicules-off at the solar limb. We conclude that the solar radii can not be reproduced by VALC and C7 semi-empirical models at radio - infrared wavelengths. Therefore, the structures in the high chromosphere provides a better measurement of the solar radii and their limb brightening as shown in previous investigations.

[43]
Title: Fermi Reveals New Light on Novae in Gamma rays
Authors: C.C. Cheung, P. Jean, S.N. Shore, J.E. Grove, M. Leising (on behalf of the Fermi-LAT Collaboration)
Comments: 9 pages, 5 figures. The 34th International Cosmic Ray Conference, 30 July - 6 August 2015 (The Hague, The Netherlands), PoS(ICRC2015) 880
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

Novae are now firmly established as a high-energy (>100 MeV) gamma-ray source class by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). In symbiotic binary systems such as V407 Cyg 2010, there is a firm theoretical framework for the production of shock-accelerated particles in the nova ejecta from interactions with the dense wind of the red giant companion. Yet, the high-energy gamma-ray emission detected in classical novae involving less evolved stellar companions cannot be explained in the same way and could instead be produced in internal shocks in the ejecta. We summarize the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray observations of novae, highlighting the main properties that will guide further studies. Additionally, we report on the soft gamma-ray (~0.1 MeV) continuum detection of the oxygen-neon type classical nova V382 Vel 1999 with the OSSE detector aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory in light of its Fermi-era analog, V959 Mon 2012.

[44]
Title: An Empirical Determination of the Intergalactic Background Light from UV to FIR Wavelengths Using FIR Deep Galaxy Surveys and the Gamma-ray Opacity of the Universe
Authors: Floyd W. Stecker (NASA/GSFC, UCLA), Sean T. Scully (JMU), Matthew A. Malkan (UCLA)
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We have previously calculated the intergalactic background light (IBL) as a function of redshift in the far ultraviolet to near infrared range, based purely on data from deep galaxy surveys. Here we utilize similar methods to determine the mid- and far infrared IBL out to a wavelength of 850 microns. Our approach enables us to constrain the range of photon densities, based on the uncertainties from observationally determined luminosity densities and colors. By also including the effect of the 2.7 K cosmic background photons, we determine 68% confidence upper and lower limits on the opacity of the universe to gamma-rays up to PeV energies. Our direct results on the IBL are consistent with those from complimentary gamma-ray analyses using observations from the Fermi $\gamma$-ray space telescope and the H.E.S.S. air Cherenkov telescope. Thus, we find no evidence of previously suggested processes for the modification of gamma-ray spectra other than that of absorption by pair production alone.

[45]
Title: A bias to CMB lensing measurements from the bispectrum of large-scale structure
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

The rapidly improving precision of measurements of gravitational lensing of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) also requires a corresponding increase in the precision of theoretical modeling. A commonly made approximation is to model the CMB deflection angle or lensing potential as a Gaussian random field. In this paper, however, we analytically quantify the influence of the non-Gaussianity of large-scale structure lenses, arising from nonlinear structure formation, on CMB lensing measurements. In particular, evaluating the impact of the non-zero bispectrum of large-scale structure on the relevant CMB four-point correlation functions, we find that there is a bias to estimates of the CMB lensing power spectrum. For temperature-based lensing reconstruction with CMB Stage-III and Stage-IV experiments, we find that this lensing power spectrum bias is negative and is of order one percent of the signal. This corresponds to a shift of multiple standard deviations for these upcoming experiments. We caution, however, that our numerical calculation only evaluates two of the largest bias terms and thus only provides an approximate estimate of the full bias. We conclude that further investigation into lensing biases from nonlinear structure formation is required and that these biases should be accounted for in future lensing analyses.

[46]
Title: The Last Minutes of Oxygen Shell Burning in a Massive Star
Authors: Bernhard Müller (1,2,6), Maxime Viallet (3), Alexander Heger (2,4,5,6), Hans-Thomas Janka (3) ((1) Queen's University Belfast, (2) Monash University, (3) Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, (4) University of Minnesota, (5) Shanghai Jiao-Tong University, (6) JINA-CEE University of Notre Dame)
Comments: 20 pages, 17 figures, submitted to ApJ
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We present the first 3D simulation of the last minutes of oxygen shell burning in an 18 solar mass supernova progenitor up to the onset of core collapse. A moving inner boundary is used to accurately model the contraction of the silicon and iron core according to a 1D stellar evolution model with a self-consistent treatment of core deleptonization and nuclear quasi-equilibrium. The simulation covers the full solid angle to allow the emergence of large-scale convective modes. Due to core contraction and the concomitant acceleration of nuclear burning, the convective Mach number increases to ~0.1 at collapse, and an l=2 mode emerges shortly before the end of the simulation. Aside from a growth of the oxygen shell from 0.51 to 0.56 solar masses due to entrainment from the carbon shell, the convective flow is reasonably well described by mixing length theory, and the dominant scales are compatible with estimates from linear stability analysis. We deduce that artificial changes in the physics, such as accelerated core contraction, can have precarious consequences for the state of convection at collapse. We argue that scaling laws for the convective velocities and eddy sizes furnish good estimates for the state of shell convection at collapse and develop a simple analytic theory for the impact of convective seed perturbations on shock revival in the ensuing supernova. We predict a reduction of the critical luminosity for explosion by 12--24% due to seed asphericities for our 3D progenitor model relative to the case without large seed perturbations.

[47]
Title: The Influence of Temperature Anisotropies in Controlling the Development of Magnetospheric Substorms