48 articles on Thursday, December 13


arXiv:1812.04624v1 [pdf, other]
Persistence of the Color-Density Relation and Efficient Environmental Quenching to $z\sim1.4$
Comments: 25 pages, 8 Figures, 4 Tables. Submitted to MNRAS, comments welcome

Using ~5000 spectroscopically-confirmed galaxies drawn from the Observations of Redshift Evolution in Large Scale Environments (ORELSE) survey we investigate the relationship between color and galaxy density for galaxy populations of various stellar masses in the redshift range $0.55 \le z \le 1.4$. The fraction of galaxies with colors consistent with no ongoing star formation ($f_q$) is broadly observed to increase with increasing stellar mass, increasing galaxy density, and decreasing redshift, with clear differences observed in $f_q$ between field and group/cluster galaxies at the highest redshifts studied. We use a semi-empirical model to generate a suite of mock group/cluster galaxies unaffected by environmentally-specific processes and compare these galaxies to observed populations to constrain the environmental quenching efficiency ($\Psi_{convert}$). High-density environments from $0.55 \le z \le 1.4$ appear capable of efficiently quenching galaxies with $\log(M_{\ast}/M_{\odot})>10.45$, though fail at quenching lower stellar mass galaxies at the highest redshifts. Quenching efficiencies, combined with simulated group/cluster accretion histories and results on the star formation rate-density relation from a companion ORELSE study, are used to constrain the average time from group/cluster accretion to quiescence and the time between accretion and the inception of quenching. These timescales were constrained to be <$t_{convert}$>=$2.4\pm0.3$ and <$t_{delay}$>=$1.3\pm0.4$ Gyr, respectively, for galaxies with $\log(M_{\ast}/M_{\odot})>10.45$ and <$t_{convert}$>=$3.3\pm0.3$ and <$t_{delay}$>=$2.2\pm0.4$ Gyr for lower stellar mass galaxies. These quenching efficiencies and associated timescales are used to rule out certain environmental mechanisms as being the primarily responsible for transforming the star-formation properties of galaxies over this 4 Gyr window in cosmic time.


arXiv:1812.04625v1 [pdf, other]
Detection of the Missing Baryons toward the Sightline of H1821+643
Comments: 12 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal

Based on constraints from Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background, the baryon content of the high-redshift Universe can be precisely determined. However, at low redshift, about one-third of the baryons remain unaccounted for, which poses the long-standing missing baryon problem. The missing baryons are believed to reside in large-scale filaments in the form of warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). In this work, we employ a novel stacking approach to explore the hot phases of the WHIM. Specifically, we utilize the 470 ks Chandra LETG data of the luminous quasar, H1821+643, along with previous measurements of UV absorption line systems and spectroscopic redshift measurements of galaxies toward the quasar's sightline. We repeatedly blueshift and stack the X-ray spectrum of the quasar corresponding to the redshifts of the 17 absorption line systems. Thus, we obtain a stacked spectrum with $8.0$ Ms total exposure, which allows us to probe X-ray absorption lines with unparalleled sensitivity. Based on the stacked data, we detect an OVII absorption line that exhibits a Gaussian line profile and is statistically significant at the $3.3 \sigma$ level. Since the redshifts of the UV absorption line systems were known a priori, this is the first definitive detection of an X-ray absorption line originating from the WHIM. The equivalent width of the OVII line is $(4.1\pm1.3) \ \mathrm{m\AA}$, which corresponds to an OVII column density of $(1.4\pm0.4)\times10^{15} \ \mathrm{cm^{-2}}$. We constrain the absorbing gas to have a density of $n_{\rm H} = (1-2)\times10^{-6} \ \rm{cm^{-3}}$ for a single WHIM filament. We derive $\Omega_{\rm b} \rm(O\,VII) = (0.0023 \pm 0.0007) \, \left[ f_{O\,VII} \, {Z/Z_{\odot}} \right]^{-1}$ for the cosmological mass density of OVII, assuming that all 17 systems contribute equally.


arXiv:1812.04626v1 [pdf, other]
Optical spectroscopy and demographics of redback millisecond pulsar binaries
Comments: Apj in press. Long/large tables 6 and 7 also included as ancillary machine-readable files

We present the first optical spectroscopy of five confirmed (or strong candidate) redback millisecond pulsar binaries, obtaining complete radial velocity curves for each companion star. The properties of these millisecond pulsar binaries with low-mass, hydrogen-rich companions are discussed in the context of the 14 confirmed and 10 candidate field redbacks. We find that the neutron stars in redbacks have a median mass of 1.78 +/- 0.09 M_sun with a dispersion of sigma = 0.21 +/- 0.09. Neutron stars with masses in excess of 2 M_sun are consistent with, but not firmly demanded by, current observations. Redback companions have median masses of 0.36 +/- 0.04 M_sun with a scatter of sigma = 0.15 +/- 0.04, and a tail possibly extending up to 0.7-0.9 M_sun. Candidate redbacks tend to have higher companion masses than confirmed redbacks, suggesting a possible selection bias against the detection of radio pulsations in these more massive candidate systems. The distribution of companion masses between redbacks and the less massive black widows continues to be strongly bimodal, which is an important constraint on evolutionary models for these systems. Among redbacks, the median efficiency of converting the pulsar spindown energy to gamma-ray luminosity is ~10%.


arXiv:1812.04627v1 [pdf, other]
ETHOS - an effective theory of structure formation: formation of the first haloes and their stars
Comments: 17 pages, 18 figures. To be submitted to MNRAS. Highlights: Figs. 3, 6, 14, 15. Comments: lovell@hi.is

A cutoff in the linear matter power spectrum at dwarf galaxy scales has been shown to affect the abundance, formation mechanism and age of dwarf haloes and their galaxies at high and low redshift. We use hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation within the ETHOS framework in a benchmark model that has such a cutoff, and that has been shown to be an alternative to the cold dark matter (CDM) model that alleviates its dwarf-scale challenges. We show how galaxies in this model form differently to CDM on a halo-by-halo basis, at redshifts $z\ge6$. We show that ETHOS haloes at the half-mode mass scale form with 50~per~cent less mass than their CDM counterparts due to their later formation times, yet they retain more of their gas reservoir due to the different behaviour of gas and dark matter during the monolithic collapse of the first haloes in models with a galactic-scale cutoff. As a result, galaxies in ETHOS haloes near the cutoff scale grow rapidly between $z=10-6$ and by $z=6$ end up having very similar stellar masses, higher gas fractions and higher star formation rates relative to their CDM counterparts. We highlight these differences by making predictions for how the number of galaxies with old stellar populations is suppressed in ETHOS for both $z=6$ galaxies and for gas-poor Local Group fossil galaxies. Interestingly, we find an age gradient in ETHOS between galaxies that form in high and low density environments.


arXiv:1812.04629v1 [pdf, other]
Fast and energetic AGN-driven outflows in simulated dwarf galaxies
Comments: submitted to MNRAS, 22 pages, 11 figures

The systematic analysis of optical large-scale surveys has revealed a population of dwarf galaxies hosting AGN, which have been confirmed by X-ray follow-up observations. Recently, the MaNGA survey identified six dwarf galaxies that appear to have an AGN that is preventing on-going star formation. It is therefore timely to study the physical properties of dwarf galaxies, in particular whether the presence of an AGN can affect their evolution. Using the moving mesh code AREPO, we have investigated different models of AGN activity, ranging from simple energy-driven spherical winds to collimated, mass-loaded, bipolar outflows in high resolution simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies hosting an active black hole. Our simulations also include a novel implementation of star formation and mechanical supernova (SN) feedback. We find that AGN outflows have a small but systematic effect on the central star formation rates (SFRs) for all set-ups explored, while substantial effects on the global SFR are only obtained with strong SNe and a sustained high-luminosity AGN with an isotropic wind. This suggests that AGN feedback in dwarf galaxies is unlikely to directly regulate their global SFRs. There is, however, a significant effect on outflow properties, which are notably enhanced by the AGN to much higher outflow temperatures and velocities, in agreement with kinematic signatures from the MaNGA survey. This indicates that AGN may play an indirect role in regulating the baryon cycle in dwarf galaxies by hindering cosmic gas inflows.


arXiv:1812.04631v1 [pdf, other]
Bayesian emulator optimisation for cosmology: application to the Lyman-alpha forest
Comments: 23 pages, 4 figures

The Lyman-alpha forest provides strong constraints on both cosmological parameters and intergalactic medium astrophysics, which are forecast to improve further with the next generation of surveys including eBOSS and DESI. As is generic in cosmological inference, extracting this information requires a likelihood to be computed throughout a high-dimensional parameter space. Evaluating the likelihood requires a robust and accurate mapping between the parameters and observables, in this case the 1D flux power spectrum. Cosmological simulations enable such a mapping, but due to computational time constraints can only be evaluated at a handful of sample points; "emulators" are designed to interpolate between these. The problem then reduces to placing the sample points such that an accurate mapping is obtained while minimising the number of expensive simulations required. To address this, we introduce an emulation procedure that employs Bayesian optimisation of the training set for a Gaussian process interpolation scheme. Starting with a Latin hypercube sampling (other schemes with good space-filling properties can be used), we iteratively augment the training set with extra simulations at new parameter positions which balance the need to reduce interpolation error while focussing on regions of high likelihood. We show that smaller emulator error from the Bayesian optimisation propagates to smaller widths on the posterior distribution. Even with fewer simulations than a Latin hypercube, Bayesian optimisation shrinks the 95% credible volume by 90% and, e.g., the 1 sigma error on the amplitude of small-scale primordial fluctuations by 38%. This is the first demonstration of Bayesian optimisation applied to large-scale structure emulation, and we anticipate the technique will generalise to many other probes such as galaxy clustering, weak lensing and 21cm.


arXiv:1812.04633v1 [pdf, other]
Conditional Quenching: A detailed look at the SFR-Density Relation at z ~ 0.9 from ORELSE
Comments: 17 pages, 7 figures

We present a study of the star-formation rate (SFR)-density relation at z ~ 0.9 using data drawn from the Observations of Redshift Evolution in Large Scale Environments (ORELSE) survey. We find that SFR does depend on environment, but only for intermediate-stellar mass galaxies (10^10.1 < M* / Msol < 10^10.8) wherein the median SFR at the highest densities is 0.2-0.3 dex less than at lower densities at a significance of 4 sigma. Interestingly, mass does not drive SFR; galaxies that are more/less massive have SFRs that vary at most by ~20% across all environments showing no statistically significant dependence. We further split galaxies into low-redshift (z ~ 0.8) and high-redshift (z ~ 1.05) subsamples and observe nearly identical behavior. We devise a simple toy model to explore possible star-formation histories (SFHs) for galaxies evolving between these redshifts. The key assumption in this model is that star-forming galaxies in a given environment-stellar mass bin can be described as a superposition of two exponential timescales (SFR ~ e^(-t/tau)): a long-tau timescale with tau = 4 Gyr to simulate "normal" star-forming galaxies, and a short-tau timescale with free tau (between 0.3 < tau/Gyr < 2) to simulate galaxies on a quenching trajectory. In general we find that galaxies residing in low/high environmental densities are more heavily weighted to the long-tau/short-tau pathways respectively, which we argue is a signature of environmental quenching. Furthermore, for intermediate-stellar mass galaxies this transition begins at intermediate-density environments suggesting that environmental quenching is relevant in group-like halos and/or cluster infall regions.


arXiv:1812.04635v1 [pdf, other]
Revealing the nonlinear behaviour of the lensed quasar Q0957+561
Comments: 9 pages, 7 figures, Accepted in MNRAS

Knowledge about how the nonlinear behaviour of the intrinsic signal from lensed background sources changes on its path to the observer provides much information, particularly about the matter distribution in lensing galaxies and the physical properties of the current universe, in general. Here, we analyse the multifractal (nonlinear) behaviour of the optical observations of A and B images of Q0957+561 in the $r$ and $g$ bands. AIMS: To verify the presence, or absence, of extrinsic variations in the observed signals of the quasar images and investigate whether extrinsic variations affect the multifractal behaviour of their intrinsic signals. METHOD: We apply a wavelet transform modulus maxima-based multifractality analysis approach. RESULTS: We detect strong multifractal (nonlinear) signatures in the light curves of the quasar images. The degree of multifractality for both images in the $r$ band changes over time in a non-monotonic way, possibly indicating the presence of extrinsic variabilities in the light curves of the images, i.e., the signals of the quasar images are a combination of both intrinsic and extrinsic signals. Additionally, in the r band, in periods of quiescent microlensing activity, we find that the degree of multifractality (nonlinearity) of image A is stronger than that of B, while B has a larger multifractal strength in recent epochs (from day 5564 to day 7527) when it appears to be affected by microlensing. Finally, comparing the optical bands in a period of quiescent microlensing activity, we find that the degree of multifractality is stronger in the $r$ band for both quasar images. In the absence of microlensing, the observed excesses of nonlinearity are most likely generated when the broad-line region (BLR) reprocesses the radiation from the compact sources.


arXiv:1812.04638v1 [pdf, other]
The complex evolution of the X-ray binary transient MAXI J1807+132 along the decay of its discovery outburst
Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS

MAXI J1807+132 is an X-ray transient discovered during the decay of an outburst in 2017. We present optical and X-ray monitoring of the source over more than 125 days, from outburst to quiescence. The outburst decay is characterized by the presence of several re-flares with a quasi-periodic recurrence time of $\sim 6.5$ days. We detect broad H and He emission lines during outburst, characteristic of transient low mass X-ray binaries. These emission lines show strong variability from epoch to epoch and, in particular, during the early stages are found embedded into deep and very broad absorption features. The quiescent spectrum shows H$\alpha$ in emission and no obvious signatures of the donor star. XMM-Newton and Swift spectra can be fitted with standard X-ray models for accreting black-holes and neutron stars, although the obtained spectral parameters favour the latter scenario. Conversely, other observables such as the optical/X-ray flux ratio, the likely systemic velocity ($\gamma \sim -150$ km s$^{-1}$) and the re-flares recurrence time suggest a black hole nature. We discuss all the above possibilities with emphasis on the strong similarities of MAXI J1807+132 with short orbital period systems.


arXiv:1812.04639v1 [pdf, other]
The Extremely Luminous Quasar Survey in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey footprint. III. The South Galactic Cap Sample and the Quasar Luminosity Function at Cosmic Noon
Comments: 30 pages, 11 figures, ApJ accepted

We have designed the Extremely Luminous Quasar Survey (ELQS) to provide a highly complete census of unobscured UV-bright quasars during the cosmic noon, $z=2.8-5.0$. Here we report the discovery of 70 new quasars in the ELQS South Galactic Cap (ELQS-S) quasar sample, doubling the number of known extremely luminous quasars in $4,237.3\,\rm{deg}^2$ of the SDSS footprint. These observations conclude the ELQS and we present the properties of the full ELQS quasar catalog, containing 407 quasars over $11,838.5\,\rm{deg}^2$. Our novel ELQS quasar selection strategy resulted in unprecedented completeness at the bright end and allowed us to discover 109 new quasars in total. This marks an increase of $\sim36\%$ (109/298) to the known population at these redshifts and magnitudes, while we further are able to retain a selection efficiency of $\sim80\%$. On the basis of 166 quasars from the full ELQS quasar catalog, who adhere to the uniform criteria of the 2MASS point source catalog, we measure the bright-end quasar luminosity function (QLF) and extend it one magnitude brighter than previous studies. Assuming a single power law with exponential density evolution for the functional form of the QLF, we retrieve the best fit parameters from a maximum likelihood analysis. We find a steep bright-end slope of $\beta\approx-4.1$ and we can constrain the bright-end slope to $\beta\leq-3.4$ with $99\%$ confidence. The density is well modeled by the exponential redshift evolution, resulting in a moderate decrease with redshift ($\gamma\approx-0.4$).


arXiv:1812.04641v1 [pdf, other]
Imprints of r-process heating on fall-back accretion: distinguishing black hole-neutron star from double neutron star mergers
Comments: 9 pages, 8 figures, submitted to MNRAS

Mergers of compact binaries containing two neutron stars (NS-NS), or a neutron star and a stellar-mass black hole (NS-BH), are likely progenitors of short-duration gamma ray bursts (SGRBs). A fraction >20% of SGRBs are followed by temporally-extended (>~ minute-long), variable X-ray emission, attributed to ongoing activity of the central engine. One source of late-time engine activity is fall-back accretion of bound tidal ejecta; however, observed extended emission light curves do not track the naively-anticipated, uninterrupted ~t^{-5/3} power-law decay, instead showing a lull or gap in emission typically lasting tens of seconds after the burst. Here, we re-examine the impact of heating due to rapid neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis on rate of the fall-back accretion, using ejecta properties obtained from numerical relativity simulations of NS-BH mergers in a toy model for the dynamical influence of nuclear heating. Depending on the mass of the remnant black hole, r-process heating can imprint a variety of fall-back curve shapes, ranging from temporal lulls of up to tens of seconds to complete late-time cut-off in the fall-back rate. This behavior is robust to realistic variations in the nuclear heating experienced by different parts of the ejecta. Central black holes with masses <~ 3 Msun typically experience absolute cut-offs in the fall-back rate, while more massive >6-8 Msun black holes instead show temporal gaps. We thus propose that SGRBs with extended emission arise from NS-BH, rather than NS-NS, mergers. Our model implies a NS-BH merger detection rate by LIGO which, in steady-state, is comparable to or greater than that of NS-NS mergers.


arXiv:1812.04646v1 [pdf, other]
The Spitzer-HETDEX Exploratory Large Area Survey II: Dark Energy Camera and Spitzer/IRAC Multiwavelength Catalog
Comments: 20 pages, 14 figures, accepted by ApJS

We present the $ugriz$-band Dark Energy Camera (DECam) plus 3.6 and 4.5 $\mu$m IRAC catalogs for the Spitzer/HETDEX Exploratory Large-Area (SHELA) survey. SHELA covers $\sim24$ deg$^{2}$ of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 region, with seven bandpasses spanning a wavelength range of 0.35 to 4.5 $\mu$m. SHELA falls within the footprint of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), which will provide spectroscopic redshifts for $\sim200{,}000$ Ly$\alpha$ emitters at $1.9<z<3.5$ and also for $\sim200{,}000$ [OII] emitters at $z<0.5$. SHELA's deep, wide-area multiwavelength images combined with HETDEX's spectroscopic information, will facilitate many extragalactic studies, including measuring the evolution of galaxy stellar mass, halo mass, and environment from $1.5<z<3.5$. Here we present $riz$-band selected $ugriz$-band DECam catalogs that reach a $5\sigma$ depth of $\sim24.5$ AB mag (for point sources with an aperture that encloses $70\%$ of the total flux) and cover $17.5$ deg$^{2}$ of the overall SHELA field. We validate our DECam catalog by comparison to the DECam Legacy Survey (DECaLS) DR5 and the Dark Energy Survey (DES) DR1. We perform IRAC forced photometry with The Tractor image modeling code to measure 3.6 and 4.5 $\mu$m fluxes for all objects within our DECam catalog. We demonstrate the utility of our catalog by computing galaxy number counts and estimating photometric redshifts. Our photometric redshifts recover the available $\left\langle z \right\rangle = 0.33 $ SDSS spectroscopic redshifts with a $1\sigma$ scatter in $\Delta z/(1 +z)$ of 0.04.


arXiv:1812.04653v1 [pdf, other]
Planck's Dusty GEMS. VII. Atomic carbon and molecular gas in dusty starburst galaxies at z=2 to 4
Comments: A&A submitted, version following the first referee's report

The bright [CI] 1-0 and [CI] 2-1 lines of atomic carbon are becoming more and more widely employed tracers of the cold neutral gas in high-redshift galaxies. Here we present observations of these lines in the 11 galaxies of the set of Planck's Dusty GEMS, the brightest gravitationally lensed galaxies on the extragalactic submillimeter sky probed by the Planck satellite. We have [CI] 1-0 measurements for seven, and [CI] 2-1 measurements for eight galaxies, including four galaxies where both lines are measured. We use our observations to constrain the gas excitation mechanism, excitation temperatures, optical depths, atomic carbon and molecular gas masses, and carbon abundances. Ratios of L_CI/L_ FIR are similar to those found in the local Universe, and suggest that the total cooling budget through atomic carbon has not strongly changed in the last 12 Gyr. Both lines are optically thin and trace 1 - 6 x 10^7 M_sun of atomic carbon. Carbon abundance ratios with H_2, X_CI, are between 2.5 and 4 x 10^-5, for a "ULIRG" CO-to-H_2 conversion factor of alpha_CO=0.8 M_sun/ [K km s^-1 pc^2]. Ratios of molecular gas masses derived from [CI] 1-0 and CO agree within the measurement uncertainties for five galaxies, and to better than a factor of 2 for another two with [CI] 1-0 measurements, after taking CO excitation carefully into account. This does not support the idea that intense, high-redshift starburst galaxies host large quantities of "CO-dark" gas. These results also support the common assumptions underlying most molecular gas mass estimates made for massive, dusty, high-redshift starburst galaxies, although the good agreement between the masses obtained with both tracers cannot be taken as an independent confirmation of either alpha_CO or X_CI.


arXiv:1812.04654v1 [pdf, other]
An Emulator for the Lyman-alpha Forest
Comments: 28 pages, 9 figures, submit to JCAP

We present methods for interpolating between the 1-D flux power spectrum of the Lyman-$\alpha$ forest, as output by cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. Interpolation is necessary for cosmological parameter estimation due to the limited number of simulations possible. We construct an emulator for the Lyman-$\alpha$ forest flux power spectrum from $21$ small simulations using Latin hypercube sampling and Gaussian process interpolation. We show that this emulator has a typical accuracy of 1.5% and a worst-case accuracy of 4%, which compares well to the current statistical error of 3 - 5% at $z < 3$ from BOSS DR9. We compare to the previous state of the art, quadratic polynomial interpolation. The Latin hypercube samples the entire volume of parameter space, while quadratic polynomial emulation samples only lower-dimensional subspaces. The Gaussian process provides an estimate of the emulation error and we show using test simulations that this estimate is reasonable. We construct a likelihood function and use it to show that the posterior constraints generated using the emulator are unbiased. We show that our Gaussian process emulator has lower emulation error than quadratic polynomial interpolation and thus produces tighter posterior confidence intervals, which will be essential for future Lyman-$\alpha$ surveys such as DESI.


arXiv:1812.04667v1 [pdf, other]
Possible Evidence of the Radio AGN Quenching of Neighboring Galaxies at z $\sim$ 1
Comments: submitted to MNRAS, 15 pages, 2 tables and 6 figures, comments welcome

Using 57 Radio Active Galactic nuclei (RAGN) at 0.55 $\leq$ z $\leq$ 1.3 drawn from five fields of the Observations of Redshift Evolution in Large Scale Environments (ORELSE) survey, we study the effect of injection of energy from outbursts of RAGN on their spectroscopically-confirmed neighboring galaxies (SNGs). We observe an elevated fraction of quenched neighbors (fq) within 500 kpc projected radius of RAGN in the most dense local environments compared to those of non-RAGN control samples matched to the RAGN population in colour, stellar mass, and local environment at 2$\sigma$ significance. Further analyses show that there are offsets at similar significance between fqs of RAGN-SNGs and the appropriate control samples for galaxies specifically in cluster environments and those hosted by most massive cluster galaxies, which tentatively suggests that some negative feedback from the RAGN is occurring in these dense environments. In addition, we find that the median radio power of RAGN increases with increasing local overdensity, an effect which may lend itself to the quenching of neighboring galaxies. Furthermore, we find that, in the highest local overdensities, the fq of the sub-sample of lower stellar mass RAGN-SNGs is larger than that of the higher stellar mass RAGN-SNGs sub-sample, which indicates a more pronounced effect from RAGN on lower stellar mass galaxies. We propose a scenario in which RAGN residing within clusters might heat the intracluster medium (ICM) affecting both in situ star formation and any inflowing gas that remains in their neighboring galaxies.


arXiv:1812.04674v1 [pdf, other]
Measuring the absolute total intrinsic redshifts (surface gravity plus the convective blueshift) of the main sequence stars and red giants using GAIA data
Comments: 6 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal

We analyze the GAIA release II data to demonstrate how one can measure the absolute total intrinsic redshifts of the main sequence stars and red giants. We remove the relative velocity components of the stars' motion with respect to the sun by doing the analysis in the local standard of rest (LSR) frame defined by the average stars' motion. We provide results for four different types of stars. F, G and K types of stars have about the same value of intrinsic redshift, which is however much smaller than the expected gravitational redshift. This indicates that the GAIA's data include convective blueshift effect of a several hundreds m/s magnitude. The red giants' intrinsic redshifts are negative, which implies that their convective blueshift is stronger than the gravitational redshift. This is expected since red giants are far less compact than other types.


arXiv:1812.04684v1 [pdf, other]
A new, clean catalogue of extragalactic non-nuclear X-ray sources in nearby galaxies
Comments: 20 pages, 14 figures, 7 tables. Accepted for publication by MNRAS

We have created a new, clean catalogue of extragalactic non-nuclear X-ray sources by correlating the 3XMM-DR4 data release of the XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue with the Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies and the Catalogue of Neighbouring Galaxies, using an improved version of the method presented in Walton et al. (2011). Our catalogue contains 1,314 sources, of which 384 are candidate ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). The resulting catalogue improves upon previous catalogues in its handling of spurious detections by taking into account XMM-Newton quality flags. We estimate the contamination of ULXs by background sources to be 24 per cent. We define a 'complete' subsample as those ULXs in galaxies for which the sensitivity limit is below $10^{39}$ erg/s and use it to examine the hardness ratio properties between ULX and non-ULX sources, and ULXs in different classes of host galaxy. We find that ULXs have a similar hardness ratio distribution to lower-luminosity sources, consistent with previous studies. We also find that ULXs in spiral and elliptical host galaxies have similar distributions to each other independent of host galaxy morphology, however our results do support previous indications that the population of ULXs is more luminous in star-forming host galaxies than in non-star-forming galaxies. Our catalogue contains further interesting subpopulations for future study, including Eddington Threshold sources and highly variable ULXs. We also examine the highest-luminosity (L$_X$ > $5 \times 10^{40}$ erg/s) ULXs in our catalogue in search of intermediate-mass black hole candidates, and find nine new possible candidates.


arXiv:1812.04685v1 [pdf, other]
IceCube Neutrinos from Hadronically Powered Gamma-Ray Galaxies
Comments: Prepared for submission in PRL

In this work we use a multi-messenger approach to determine if the high energy diffuse neutrino flux observed by the IceCube Observatory can originate from $\gamma$-ray sources powered by Cosmic Rays interactions with gas. Typical representatives of such sources are Starburst and Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies. Using the three most recent calculations of the non-blazar contribution to the extragalactic $\gamma$-ray background measured by the Fermi-LAT collaboration, we find that a hard power-law spectrum with spectral index $\alpha \leq 2.12$ is compatible with all the estimations for the allowed contribution from non-blazar sources, within 1$\sigma$. Using such a spectrum we are able to interpret the IceCube results, showing that various classes of hadronically powered $\gamma$-ray galaxies can provide the dominant contribution to the astrophysical signal. With the addition of neutrinos from the Galactic plane, it is possible to saturate the IceCube signal. Our result reverses previous findings in which evidence was claimed against hadronic sources being the dominant source of IceCube neutrinos.


arXiv:1812.04687v1 [pdf, other]
Enhanced mixing in magnetized fingering convection, and implications for RGB stars
Comments: 8 pages, 4 figures

Double-diffusive convection has been well studied in geophysical contexts, but detailed investigations of the regimes characteristic of stellar or planetary interiors have only recently become feasible. Since most astrophysical fluids are electrically conducting, it is possible that magnetic fields play a role in either enhancing or suppressing double-diffusive convection, but to date there have been no numerical investigations of such possibilities. Here we study the effects of a vertical background magnetic field (aligned with the gravitational axis) on the linear stability and nonlinear saturation of fingering (thermohaline) convection, through a combination of theoretical work and direct numerical simulations (DNSs). We find that a vertical magnetic field rigidifies the fingers along the vertical direction which has the remarkable effect of enhancing vertical mixing. We propose a simple analytical model for mixing by magnetized fingering convection, and argue that magnetic effects may help explain discrepancies between theoretical and observed mixing rates in low-mass red giant branch (RGB) stars. Other implications of our findings are also discussed.


arXiv:1812.04688v1 [pdf, other]
The integrated properties of the molecular clouds from the JCMT CO(3-2) High Resolution Survey
Comments: 58 pages, 46 figure. Accepted for publication in MNRAS. A new, fully documented, version of SCIMES is public available on Github (https://github.com/Astroua/SCIMES). The molecular cloud integrated property catalog is public available on Zenodo (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2207059)

We define the molecular cloud properties of the Milky Way first quadrant using data from the JCMT CO(3-2) High Resolution Survey. We apply the Spectral Clustering for Interstellar Molecular Emission Segmentation (SCIMES) algorithm to extract objects from the full-resolution dataset, creating the first catalog of molecular clouds with a large dynamic range in spatial scale. We identify $>85\,000$ clouds with two clear sub-samples: $\sim35\,500$ well-resolved objects and $\sim540$ clouds with well-defined distance estimations. Only 35% of the cataloged clouds (as well as the total flux encompassed by them) appear enclosed within the Milky Way spiral arms. The scaling relationships between clouds with known distances are comparable to the characteristics of the clouds identified in previous surveys. However, these relations between integrated properties, especially from the full catalog, show a large intrinsic scatter ($\sim0.5$ dex), comparable to other cloud catalogs of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies. The mass distribution of molecular clouds follows a truncated-power law relationship over three orders of magnitude in mass with a form $dN/dM \propto M^{-1.7}$ with a clearly defined truncation at an upper mass of $M_0 \sim 3 \times 10^6~M_\odot$, consistent with theoretical models of cloud formation controlled by stellar feedback and shear. Similarly, the cloud population shows a power-law distribution of size with $dN/dR \propto R^{-2.8}$ with a truncation at $R_0 = 70$ pc.


arXiv:1812.04731v1 [pdf, other]
Compatibility Between Wind Turbines and the Radio Astronomy Service
Comments: 15 pages, 9 figures, Journal of Astronomical Instrumentation (JAI), in press

Modern radio astronomical facilities are able to detect extremely weak electromagnetic signals not only from the universe but also from man-made radio frequency interference of various origins. These range from wanted signals to unwanted out-of-band emission of radio services and applications to electromagnetic interference produced by all kinds of electronic and electric devices. Energy harvesting wind turbines are not only equipped with electric power conversion hardware but also copious amounts of electronics to control and monitor the turbines. A wind turbine in the vicinity of a radio telescope could therefore lead to harmful interference, corrupting the measured astronomical data. Many observatories seek to coordinate placement of new wind farms with wind turbine manufacturers and operators, as well as with the local planning authorities, to avoid such a situation. In our study, we provide examples as well as guidelines for the determination of the separation distances between wind turbines and radio observatories, to enable a benign co-existence for both. The proposed calculations entail three basic steps. At first, the anticipated maximum emitted power level based on the European EN 550011 (CISPR-11) standard, which applies to industrial devices, is determined. Then secondly, the propagation loss along the path to the radio receiver is computed via a model provided by the international telecommunication union. Finally, the received power is compared to the permitted power limit that pertains in the protected radio astronomical observing band under consideration. This procedure may be carried out for each location around a telescope site, in order to obtain a map of potentially problematic wind turbine positions.


arXiv:1812.04739v1 [pdf, other]
Large angular scale multipoles at redshift ~0.8
Comments: 7 pages, 6 figures, submitted

We prepare the full sky radio galaxy map ($|b|>10^{\circ}$) using the north NVSS and south SUMSS galaxy catalogs and study the large scale multipoles anomalies. These galaxies are roughly at redshift $z \sim 0.8$ and therefore tracing the matter distribution at very large scales. The quadruple and octopole from radio galaxy catalog are consistent with $\Lambda$CDM for a reasonable value of galaxy bias and we do not find dipole--quadruple--octopole alignment as seen in CMB temperature maps. The quadrupole direction is roughly $46^{\circ}$ away from dipole, and octopole direction is approximately $33^{\circ}$ from dipole. The angle between quadrupole and octopole is around $70^\circ$ degree. We have large errors in multipole directions due to shot noise, even so with this data we are able to rule out dipole--quadruple and quadruple--octopole alignment. The magnitude of all multipoles, except dipole, are roughly consistent with $\Lambda$CDM for reasonable galaxy bias. The dipole magnitude remains inconsistent with CMB as reported in previous studies. The results may impose stringent constraints on cosmological models with large scale anisotropy features.


arXiv:1812.04752v1 [pdf, other]
The Color and Binarity of (486958) 2014 MU69 and Other Long-Range New Horizons Kuiper Belt Targets
Comments: Resubmitted to Icarus after review and revision

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) measured the colors of eight Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) that will be observed by the New Horizons spacecraft including its 2019 close fly-by target the Cold Classical KBO (486958) 2014 MU69. We find that the photometric colors of all eight objects are red, typical of the Cold Classical dynamical population within which most reside. Because 2014 MU69 has a similar color to that of other KBOs in the Cold Classical region of the Kuiper Belt, it may be possible to use the upcoming high-resolution New Horizons observations of 2014 MU69 to draw conclusions about the greater Cold Classical population. Additionally, HST found none of these KBOs to be binary within separations of ~0.06 arcsec (~2000 km at 44 AU range) and {\Delta}m less than or equal to 0.5. This conclusion is consistent with the lower fraction of binaries found at relatively wide separations. A few objects appear to have significant photometric variability, but our observations are not of sufficient signal-to-noise or time duration for further interpretation.


arXiv:1812.04758v1 [pdf, other]
The HST Lightcurve of (486958) 2014 MU69
Comments: Submitted to Icarus

We report HST lightcurve observations of the New Horizons spacecraft encounter Kuiper Belt object (KBO) (486958) 2014 MU69 acquired near opposition in July 2017. In order to plan the optimum flyby sequence the New Horizons mission planners needed to learn as much as possible about the target in advance of the encounter. Specifically, encounter timing could be adjusted to accommodate a highly elongated, binary, or rapidly rotating target. HST astrometric (Porter et al. 2018) and stellar occultation (Buie et al. 2018) observations constrained MU69's orbit and diameter (21-41 km for an albedo of 0.15-0.04), respectively. Photometry from the astrometric dataset suggested a rotational lightcurve amplitude of ge 0.3 mags, but they did not determine the period or provide shape information. To that end we strategically spaced 24 HST orbits over 9 days to investigate rotation periods from approximately 3-100 hours and to better constrain the lightcurve amplitude. Until New Horizons detected MU69 in its optical navigation images in August 2018, this HST lightcurve campaign provided the most accurate photometry to date. The mean variation in our data is 0.15 magnitudes which suggests that MU69 is either nearly spherical (a:b axis ratio of 1:1.15), or its pole vector is pointed near the line of sight to Earth; this interpretation does not preclude a near-contact binary or bi-lobed object. However, image stacks do conclude that MU69 does not have a binary companion ge 2000km with a sensitivity to 29th magnitude (an object a few km in size). Our data are not of sufficient signal to noise to uniquely determine the period or amplitude so we do over analyze the data, however, they did provide the necessary information for spacecraft planning. We report with confidence that MU69 is not rapidly rotating AND highly elongated (which we define as a lightcurve amplitude ge 0.5 magnitude).


arXiv:1812.04765v1 [pdf, other]
Strong lensing constraints on modified gravity models
Comments: 5 pages, 4 figures

We impose the first strong-lensing constraints on a wide class of modified gravity models where an extra field that modifies gravity also couples to photons (either directly or indirectly through a coupling with baryons) and thus modifies lensing. We use the nonsingular isothermal ellipsoid (NIE) profile as an effective potential, which produces flat galactic rotation curves. If a concrete modified gravity model gives a flat rotation curve, then the parameter $\Gamma$ that characterizes the lensing effect must take some definite value. We find that $\Gamma = 1.24\pm0.65$ at $1\sigma$, consistent with general relativity ($\Gamma = 1$). This constrains the parameter space in some recently proposed models.


arXiv:1812.04773v1 [pdf, other]
Dust formation in embryonic pulsar-aided supernovae
Comments: 17 pages, 10 figures, submitted to MNRAS, comments welcome

We investigate effects of energetic pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) on dust formation and evolution. Dust emission has been observed in many supernova remnants that also have neutron stars as compact remnants. We study the dependence of dust formation time and size on properties of the ejecta and central pulsar. We find that a pulsar with an initial spin period $P \sim 1\mbox{-}10\,\rm ms$ and a dipole magnetic field $B \sim 10^{12\mbox{-}15}\,\rm G$ can either accelerate or delay dust formation, with a timescale of several months to over ten years, and reduce the average size of dust by a factor of $\sim$ 10 or more compared to the non-pulsar case. We also find that infrared dust emission may be detectable in typical superluminous supernovae out to $\sim$ 100-1000 Mpc in 2-5 years after the explosion, although this depends sensitively on the spectral index of nonthermal emission from the nebula. We discuss implications to previous supernova observations. Some discrepancies between dust formation models and observations, such as the formation time in SN1987A or the dust size in the Crab Nebula, could be explained by the influence of a pulsar, and knowledge of the dust emission will be important for future ALMA observations of superluminous supernovae.


arXiv:1812.04803v1 [pdf, other]
Multi-messenger Bayesian parameter inference of a binary neutron-star merger
Comments: No comment found

The combined detection of a binary neutron-star merger in both gravitational waves (GWs) and electromagnetic (EM) radiation spanning the entire spectrum -- GW170817 / AT2017gfo / GRB170817A -- marks a breakthrough in the field of multi-messenger astronomy. Between the plethora of modeling and observations, the rich synergy that exists among the available data sets creates a unique opportunity to constrain the binary parameters, the equation of state of supranuclear density matter, and the physical processes at work during the kilonova and gamma-ray burst. However, previous works use simplified lightcurve models and fits to numerical relativity simulation that do not account for all of the relevant physical processes. We report, for the first time, Bayesian parameter estimation combining information from GW170817, AT2017gfo, GRB170817 to obtain truly multi-messenger constraints on the tidal deformability $\tilde{\Lambda} \in [279,822]$, total binary mass $M \in [2.724,2.752] M_\odot$, the radius of a $1.4$ solar mass neutron star $R \in [11.1,13.4] \rm km$ (with additional $0.2\ \rm km$ systematic uncertainty), and an upper bound on the mass ratio of $q \leq 1.29$, all at 90\% confidence. Our joint novel analysis makes use of new phenomenological descriptions of the dynamical ejecta, debris disk mass, and remnant black hole properties, all derived from a large suite of numerical relativity simulations.


arXiv:1812.04807v1 [pdf, other]
The double blue straggler sequence in NGC 2173: a field contamination artefact?
Comments: 5 pages, 3 figures, extended version of the RNAAS 2:215, 2018

Li et al. (2018) (hereafter L18) detected two apparently distinct populations of blue straggler stars (BSSs) in the young globular cluster NGC 2173, a similar feature as observed in numerous Galactic globular clusters (GCs). Recently, Dalessandro et al. (2018) (D18) compared the observed color--magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of both the cluster and a nearby reference field (although observed with the ACS/WFC instrument). They conclude that the bifurcated pattern of BSSs in NGC 2173 observed by L18 is a field contamination artefact. In this note, we explore the central concentration properties of the removed 'field stars' identified by D18. Our purpose is to examine if these 'field stars' are spatially homogeneously distributed. Employing a Monte Carlo-based approach, we have carefully studied the probability that any such central concentration may be caused by small number statistics. We find that, in most cases of, the 'field stars' removed by D18 exhibit a clear central concentration, which cannot be explained on the basis of small number statistics alone. Therefore, we suggest that D18 may well have overestimated the field contamination level, implying that the bifurcated BSS pattern in NGC 2173 cannot, in fact, be explained by field contamination.


arXiv:1812.04839v1 [pdf, other]
The distinct stellar metallicity populations of simulated Local Group dwarfs
Comments: 18 pages, 17 figures, submitted to MNRAS

A number of Local Group dwarf galaxies are known to have two spatially segregated stellar metallicity populations, a centrally concentrated metal-rich population and a more extended metal-poor population. In this work we discuss mechanisms that lead to the formation of two spatially segregated metallicity populations. Using a set of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations of Local Group-like environments, we select a sample of satellite and field galaxies, spanning the stellar mass range 3x10^6-1x10^9 M_sol, that exhibit bimodality in their metallicity distributions. Among those we identify a subsample with a particularly strong spatial segregation in the two populations. We find three distinct mechanisms for the formation of the two populations, one occurring preferentially in field dwarfs, one that is exclusive to satellite galaxies and one that may occur in both. In field dwarfs and in a small fraction of satellites, a merger causes the metal-poor stars to migrate to larger radii and encourages the available gas to sink to the centre of the dwarf. Most of the gas is subsequently blown out of the halo through star formation feedback, but the remaining gas is consumed in the formation of a metal-rich population. In the exclusive case of satellites that have retained some of their gas at infall, it is the compression of this gas by ram pressure near pericentre that triggers the formation of metal-rich stars. Additionally, in a small number of field and satellite dwarfs, interactions with gaseous cosmic filaments and other galaxies can result in the formation of a metal-rich population through gas compression induced by ram pressure.


arXiv:1812.04854v1 [pdf, other]
Discovery of TeV $γ$-ray emission from the neighbourhood of the supernova remnant G24.7+0.6 by MAGIC
MAGIC Collaboration, V. A. Acciari, S. Ansoldi, L. A. Antonelli, A. Arbet Engels, C. Arcaro, D. Baack, A. Babić, B. Banerjee, P. Bangale, U. Barres de Almeida, J. A. Barrio, J. Becerra González, W. Bednarek, E. Bernardini, A. Berti, J. Besenrieder, W. Bhattacharyya, C. Bigongiari, A. Biland, O. Blanch, G. Bonnoli, R. Carosi, G. Ceribella, A. Chatterjee, S. M. Colak, P. Colin, E. Colombo, J. L. Contreras, J. Cortina, S. Covino, P. Cumani, V. D'Elia, P. Da Vela, F. Dazzi, A. De Angelis, B. De Lotto, M. Delfino, J. Delgado, F. Di Pierro, A. Domínguez, D. Dominis Prester, D. Dorner, M. Doro, S. Einecke, D. Elsaesser, V. Fallah Ramazani, A. Fattorini, A. Fernández-Barral, G. Ferrara, D. Fidalgo, L. Foffano, M. V. Fonseca, L. Font, C. Fruck, D. Galindo, S. Gallozzi, R. J. García López, M. Garczarczyk, M. Gaug, P. Giammaria, N. Godinović, D. Guberman, D. Hadasch, A. Hahn, T. Hassan, J. Herrera, J. Hoang, D. Hrupec, S. Inoue, K. Ishio, Y. Iwamura, H. Kubo, J. Kushida, D. Kuveždić, A. Lamastra, D. Lelas, F. Leone, E. Lindfors, S. Lombardi, F. Longo, M. López, A. López-Oramas, C. Maggio, P. Majumdar, M. Makariev, G. Maneva, M. Manganaro, K. Mannheim, L. Maraschi, M. Mariotti, M. Martínez, S. Masuda, D. Mazin, M. Minev, J. M. Miranda, R. Mirzoyan, E. Molina, A. Moralejo, V. Moreno, E. Moretti, V. Neustroev, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Nievas Rosillo, C. Nigro, K. Nilsson, D. Ninci, K. Nishijima, K. Noda, L. Nogués, S. Paiano, J. Palacio, D. Paneque, R. Paoletti, J. M. Paredes, G. Pedaletti, P. Peñil, M. Peresano, M. Persic, P. G. Prada Moroni, E. Prandini, I. Puljak, J. R. Garcia, W. Rhode, M. Ribó, J. Rico, C. Righi, A. Rugliancich, L. Saha, T. Saito, K. Satalecka, T. Schweizer, J. Sitarek, I. Šnidarić, D. Sobczynska, A. Somero, A. Stamerra, M. Strzys, T. Surić, F. Tavecchio, P. Temnikov, T. Terzić, M. Teshima, N. Torres-Albà, S. Tsujimoto, G. Vanzo, M. Vazquez Acosta, I. Vovk, J. E. Ward, M. Will, D. Zarić, E. de Oña Wilhelmi, D. F. Torres, R. Zanin
Comments: accepted for publication by MNRAS

SNR G24.7+0.6 is a 9.5 kyrs radio and $\gamma$-ray supernova remnant evolving in a dense medium. In the GeV regime, SNR G24.7+0.6 (3FHL\,J1834.1--0706e/FGES\,J1834.1--0706) shows a hard spectral index ($\Gamma$$\sim$2) up to $200$\,GeV, which makes it a good candidate to be observed with Cherenkov telescopes such as MAGIC. We observed the field of view of \snr\ with the MAGIC telescopes for a total of 31 hours. We detect very high energy $\gamma$-ray emission from an extended source located 0.34\degr\ away from the center of the radio SNR. The new source, named \mgc\ is detected up to 5\,TeV, and its spectrum is well-represented by a power-law function with spectral index of $2.74 \pm 0.08$. The complexity of the region makes the identification of the origin of the very-high energy emission difficult, however the spectral agreement with the LAT source and overlapping position at less than 1.5$\sigma$ point to a common origin. We analysed 8 years of \fermi-LAT data to extend the spectrum of the source down to 60\,MeV. \fermi-LAT and MAGIC spectra overlap within errors and the global broad band spectrum is described by a power-law with exponential cutoff at $1.9\pm0.5$\,TeV. The detected $\gamma$-ray emission can be interpreted as the results of proton-proton interaction between the supernova and the CO-rich surrounding.


arXiv:1812.04867v1 [pdf, other]
A connection between accretion states and the formation of ultra-relativistic outflows in a neutron star X-ray binary
Comments: 14 pages, 7 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS

The nearby accreting neutron star binary Sco X-1 is the closest example of ongoing relativistic jet production at high Eddington ratios. Previous radio studies have revealed that alongside mildly relativistic, radio-emitting ejecta, there is at times a much faster transfer of energy from the region of the accretion flow along the jet. The nature of this ultrarelativistic flow remains unclear and while there is some evidence for a similar phenomenon in other systems which might contain neutron stars, it has never been observed in a confirmed black hole system. We have compared these previous radio observations with a new analysis of simultaneous X-ray observations which were performed with the RXTE mission. We find that the ejection of the ultra-relativistic flow seems to be associated with the simultaneous appearance of two particular types of quasi-periodic oscillations in the X-ray power spectrum. In contrast, the mildly relativistic, radio-emitting outflows may be associated with flat-topped broad band noise in the X-ray power spectrum. This is the first time a link, albeit tentative, has been found between these mysterious unseen flows and the accretion flow from which they are launched.


arXiv:1812.04885v1 [pdf, other]
Statistical analysis of the new catalogue of CP stars
Comments: 5 pages, 1 figure, 1 table; in press: proceedings of the conference "Instability Phenomena and Evolution of the Universe", Communications of Byurakan Astrophys. Obs., Vol. 65, Is. 2, Dec. 2018

This talk is devoted to the statistical analysis of the new catalogue of Chemically Peculiar stars compiled from papers, where chemical abundances of those stars were given. The catalogue contains chemical abundances and physical parameters of 428 stars based on high-resolution spectroscopy data. Spearman's rank correlation test was applied for 416 CP (108 HgMn, 188 ApBp and 120 AmFm) stars and the correlation between chemical abundances and different physical parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity and rotational velocity) was checked. From dozens interesting cases we secluded four cases: the Mn peculiarities in HgMn stars, the Ca correlation with respect to effective temperature in AmFm stars, the case of helium and iron in ApBp stars. We applied also Anderson-Darling (AD) test on ApBp stars to check if multiplicity is a determinant parameter for abundance peculiarities.


arXiv:1812.04897v1 [pdf, other]
LSST Cadence Optimization White Paper in Support of Observations of Unresolved Tidal Stellar Streams in Galaxies beyond the Local Group
Comments: 13 pages, 2 figures, submitted to Call for White Papers on LSST Cadence Optimization

Deep observations of faint surface brightness stellar tidal streams in external galaxies with LSST are addressed in this White Paper contribution. We propose using the Wide--Fast--Deep survey that contains several nearby galaxies (at distances where the stars themselves are not resolved, i.e., beyond 20 Mpc). In the context of hierarchical galaxy formation, it is necessary to understand the prevalence and properties of tidal substructure around external galaxies based on integrated (i.e., unresolved) diffuse light. This requires collecting observations on much larger samples of galaxies than the Milky Way and M31. We will compare the observed structures to the predictions of cosmological models of galactic halo formation that inform us about the number and properties of streams around Milky Way-like galaxies. The insight gained from these comparisons will allow us to infer the properties of stream progenitors (masses, dynamics, metallicities, stellar populations). The changes in the host galaxies caused by the interactions with the dissolving companion galaxies will be another focus of our studies. We conclude by discussing synergies with WFIRST and Euclid, and also provide concrete suggestions for how the effects of scattered light could be minimized in LSST images to optimize the search for low surface brightness features, such as faint unresolved stellar tidal streams.


arXiv:1812.04972v1 [pdf, other]
Classical and relativistic evolution of an extra-galactic jet with back-reaction
Comments: 19 pages and 11 figures

We consider a turbulent jet which is moving in a Lane--Emden ($n=5$) medium. The conserved quantity is the energy flux, which allows finding, to first order, an analytical expression for the velocity and an approximate trajectory. The conservation of the relativistic flux for the energy allows deriving, to first order, an analytical expression for the velocity, and numerically determining the trajectory. The back-reaction due to the radiative losses for the trajectory is evaluated both in the classical and the relativistic case.


arXiv:1812.04977v1 [pdf, other]
Surviving companions of Type Ia supernovae: theory and observations
Comments: 74 pages, 17 Figures, 3 Tables. Submitted as invited review to New Astronomy Reviews. Comments welcome

We review the theoretical background and the observational searches made for surviving companions of Type Ia supernovae. Theory comprises the characteristics of the stellar binary companions of the exploding white dwarfs at the time of the supernova outburst and the expected effects on them of the explosion, as well as their subsequent evolution. That includes space velocities, rotation, luminosities (with discussion of possible mechanisms producing very faint companions) . We then present the searches already made in the Galactic remnants of Type Ia supernovae and we assess the results obtained up to now using ground-based telescopes and the {\it Hubble Space Telescope}. The same is done for the remnants of this type in the Large Magellanic Cloud. In both cases, we also characterize already identified remnants which are currently being investigated or that will be explored in the near future. We finally discuss the prospects to elucidate from those searches, using the {\it Hubble Space Telescope}, astrometric results from the {\it Gaia} space mission and the next generation of very large ground--based telescopes, which stellar systems do actually produce Type Ia supernovae.


arXiv:1812.04982v1 [pdf, other]
Type II Supernovae as Distance Indicators at Near-IR Wavelengths
Comments: 24 pages, 13 figures. Accepted for publication to MNRAS

Motivated by the advantages of observing at near-IR wavelengths, we investigate Type II supernovae (SNe II) as distance indicators at those wavelengths through the Photospheric Magnitude Method (PMM). For the analysis, we use $BVIJH$ photometry and optical spectroscopy of 24 SNe II during the photospheric phase. To correct photometry for extinction and redshift effects, we compute total-to-selective broadband extinction ratios and $K$-corrections up to $z=0.032$. To estimate host galaxy colour excesses, we use the colour-colour curve method with the $V\!-\!I$ versus $B\!-\!V$ as colour combination. We calibrate the PMM using four SNe II in galaxies having Tip of the Red Giant Branch distances. Among our 24 SNe II, nine are at $cz>2000$ km s$^{-1}$, which we use to construct Hubble diagrams (HDs). To further explore the PMM distance precision, we include into HDs the four SNe used for calibration and other two in galaxies with Cepheid and SN Ia distances. With a set of 15 SNe II we obtain a HD rms of 0.13 mag for the $J$-band, which compares to the rms of 0.15-0.26 mag for optical bands. This reflects the benefits of measuring PMM distances with near-IR instead of optical photometry. With the evidence we have, we can set the PMM distance precision with $J$-band below 10 per cent with a confidence level of 99 per cent.


arXiv:1812.04984v1 [pdf, other]
Comprehensive stellar seismic analysis : New method exploiting the glitches information in solar-like pulsators
Comments: Accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics, 20 pages

Aims: We develop a method that provides a comprehensive analysis of the oscillation spectra of solar-like pulsators. We define new seismic indicators that should be as uncorrelated and as precise as possible and should hold detailed information about stellar interiors. This is essential to improve the quality of the results obtained from asteroseismology as it will provide better stellar models which in turn can be used to refine inferences made in exoplanetology and galactic archaeology. Methods: The presented method - WhoSGlAd - relies on Gram-Schmidt's orthogonalisation process. A Euclidean vector subspace of functions is defined and the oscillation frequencies are projected over an orthonormal basis in a specific order. This allows the obtention of independent coefficients that we combine to define independent seismic indicators. Results: The developed method has been shown to be stable and to converge efficiently for solar-like pulsators. Thus, detailed and precise inferences can be obtained on the mass, the age, the chemical composition and the undershooting in the interior of the studied stars. However, attention has to be paid when studying the helium glitch as there seems to be a degeneracy between the influence of the helium abundance and that of the heavy elements on the glitch amplitude. As an example, we analyse the 16CygA (HD 186408) oscillation spectrum to provide an illustration of the capabilities of the method.


arXiv:1812.04988v1 [pdf, other]
Progenitor candidate for the type II-P supernova SN 2018aoq in NGC 4151
Comments: 9 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysics (11/12/18)

We present our findings based on pre- and post-explosion data of the type II-Plateau SN 2018aoq that exploded in NGC 4151. As distance estimates to NGC 4151 vary by an order of magnitude, we utilised the well-known correlation between ejecta velocity and plateau brightness, i.e. the standard candle method, to obtain a distance of 18.2$\pm$1.2 Mpc, which is in very good agreement with measurements based on geometric methods. The above distance implies a mid-plateau absolute magnitude of $M_{V}^{50}=-15.76\pm$0.14 suggesting that it is of intermediate brightness when compared to IIP SNe such as SN 2005cs at the faint end, and more typical events such as SN 1999em. This is further supported by relatively low expansion velocities (Fe II $\lambda$5169 $\sim$3000 km s$^{-1}$ at +42 d). Using archival HST/WFC3 imaging data, we find a point source coincident with the supernova position in the F350LP, F555W, F814W, and F160W filters. This source shows no significant variability over the $\sim$2 month time span of the data. From fits to the spectral energy distribution of the candidate progenitor, we find $\log\left(L/L_\odot\right)\sim 4.7$ and $T_{\mathrm{eff}}\sim 3.5$ kK, implying an M-type red supergiant progenitor. From comparisons to single and binary star models, we find that both favour the explosion of a star with a zero-age main sequence mass of $\sim$$10 M_\odot$.


arXiv:1812.04995v1 [pdf, other]
Asteroseismology of evolved stars to constrain the internal transport of angular momentum. I. Efficiency of transport during the subgiant phase
Comments: 10 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication in A&A

Context: The observations of solar-like oscillations in evolved stars have brought important constraints on their internal rotation rates. To correctly reproduce these data, an efficient transport mechanism is needed in addition to meridional circulation and shear instability. Aims: We study the efficiency of the transport of angular momentum during the subgiant phase. Results: The precise asteroseismic measurements of both core and surface rotation rates available for the six Kepler targets enable a precise determination of the efficiency of the transport of angular momentum needed for each of these subgiants. These results are found to be insensitive to all the uncertainties related to the modelling of rotational effects before the post-main sequence phase. An interesting exception in this context is the case of young subgiants (typical values of log(g) close to 4), because their rotational properties are sensitive to the degree of radial differential rotation on the main sequence. These young subgiants constitute therefore perfect targets to constrain the transport of angular momentum on the main sequence from asteroseismic observations of evolved stars. As for red giants, we find that the efficiency of the additional transport process increases with the mass of the star during the subgiant phase. However, the efficiency of this undetermined mechanism decreases with evolution during the subgiant phase, contrary to what is found for red giants. Consequently, a transport process with an efficiency that increases with the degree of radial differential rotation cannot account for the core rotation rates of subgiants, while it correctly reproduces the rotation rates of red giant stars. This suggests that the physical nature of the additional mechanism needed for the internal transport of angular momentum may be different in subgiant and red giant stars.


arXiv:1812.04999v1 [pdf, other]
A Sequoia in the Garden: FSR 1758 - Dwarf Galaxy or Giant Globular Cluster?
Comments: Accepted Astrophysical Journal Letters

We present the physical characterization of FSR 1758, a new large, massive object very recently discovered in the Galactic Bulge. The combination of optical data from the 2nd Gaia Data Release (GDR2) and the DECam Plane Survey (DECaPS), and near-IR data from the VISTA Variables in the V\'{\i}a L\'actea Extended Survey (VVVX) led to a clean sample of likely members. Based on this integrated dataset, position, distance, reddening, size, metallicity, absolute magnitude, and proper motion of this object are measured. We estimate the following parameters: $\alpha=17:31:12$, $\delta=-39:48:30$ (J2000), $D=11.5 \pm 1.0$ kpc, $E(J-Ks)=0.20 \pm 0.03$ mag, $R_c=10$ pc, $R_t=150$ pc, $[Fe/H]=-1.5 \pm 0.3$ dex, $M_i < -8.6 \pm 1.0$, $\mu_{\alpha} = -2.85$ mas yr$^{-1}$, and $\mu_{\delta} = 2.55$ mas yr$^{-1}$. The nature of this object is discussed. If FRS 1758 is a genuine globular cluster, it is one of the largest in the Milky Way, with a size comparable or even larger than that of $\omega$ Cen, being also an extreme outlier in the size vs. Galactocentric distance diagram. The presence of a concentration of long-period RR Lyrae variable stars and blue horizontal branch stars suggests that it is a typical metal-poor globular cluster of Oosterhoff type II. Further exploration of a larger surrounding field reveals common proper motion stars, suggesting either tidal debris or that FRS\,1758 is actually the central part of a larger extended structure such as a new dwarf galaxy, tentatively named as Scorpius. In either case, this object is remarkable, and its discovery graphically illustrates the possibility to find other large objects hidden in the Galactic Bulge using future surveys.


arXiv:1812.05002v1 [pdf, other]
Is there a fundamental acceleration scale in galaxies?
Comments: 10 pages, 6 figures, 2 tables

Milgrom's modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) can explain well the mass discrepancy problem in galaxy without invoking dark matter. The MOND theory predicts a universal constant acceleration scale in galaxy, below which the Newtonian dynamics is no longer valid. Recently, Rodrigues et al. (2018b) analyzed 193 high-quality disk galaxies by using Bayesian inference and they concluded that the probability of existence of a fundamental acceleration scale is essentially 0. In this paper, we use the same method to revisit the same question: Is there a fundamental acceleration scale in galaxies? We fit each galaxy rotation curve of 175 SPARC galaxies with almost the same Gaussian prior as used in Li et al. (2018) and a variable acceleration scale. After marginalizing over the nuisance parameters, we find that the marginalized posterior distribution of the acceleration scale become broader than that from a flat prior. The incompatibility between the global best fit and the marginalized posterior distribution of the acceleration scale is greatly reduced. However, there still exist evidence that rejects MOND as a fundamental theory. More accurate observations are needed to exclude or confirm the existence of a fundamental acceleration scale in galaxies.


arXiv:1812.05003v1 [pdf, other]
The Southern HII Region Discovery Survey I: The Bright Catalog
Comments: 113 pages, 15 figures, 11 tables (at the end); accepted for publication in ApJS

The census of Galactic HII regions is vastly incomplete in the Southern sky. We use the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) to observe 4-10 GHz radio continuum and hydrogen radio recombination line (RRL) emission from candidate HII regions in the Galactic zone 259 deg < l < 344 deg, |b| < 4 deg. In this first data release, we target the brightest HII region candidates and observe 282 fields in the direction of at least one previously-known or candidate HII region. We detect radio continuum emission and RRL emission in 275 (97.5%) and 258 (91.5%) of these fields, respectively. We catalog the ~7 GHz radio continuum peak flux densities and positions of 80 previously-known and 298 candidate HII regions. After averaging ~18 RRL transitions, we detect 77 RRL velocity components towards 76 previously-known HII regions and 267 RRL velocity components towards 256 HII region candidates. The discovery of RRL emission from these nebulae increases the number of known Galactic HII regions in the surveyed zone by 82%, to 568 nebulae. In the fourth quadrant we discover 50 RRLs with positive velocities, placing those sources outside the Solar circle. Including the pilot survey, the SHRDS has now discovered 295 Galactic HII regions. In the next data release we expect to add ~200 fainter and more distant nebulae.


arXiv:1812.05048v1 [pdf, other]
Two Orders of Magnitude Variation in the Star Formation Efficiency Across the Pre-Merger Galaxy NGC 2276
Comments: 6 pages, 4 figures, 1 table

We present the first spatially resolved (~0.5 kpc) measurements of the molecular gas depletion time $\tau_{depl}$ across the disk of the interacting spiral galaxy NGC\,2276, a system with an asymmetric morphology in various SFR tracers. To estimate $\tau_{depl}$, we use new NOEMA observations of the $^{12}$CO(1-0) emission tracing the bulk molecular gas reservoir in NGC 2276, and extinction-corrected H$\alpha$ measurements obtained with the PMAS/PPaK integral field unit for robust estimates of the SFR. We find a systematic decrease in $\tau_{depl}$ of 1-1.5 dex across the disk of NGC 2276, with a further, abrupt drop in $\tau_{depl}$ of ~1 dex along the galaxy's western edge. The global $\tau_{depl}$ in NGC 2776 is $\tau_{depl}=0.55$ Gyr, insistent with literature measurements for the nearby galaxy population. Such a large range in $\tau_{depl}$ on sub-kpc scales has never previously been observed within an individual isolated or pre-merger system. When using a metallicity-dependent molecular gas conversion factor X$\rm_{CO}$ the variation decreases by 0.5 dex. We attribute the variation in $\tau_{depl}$ to the influence of galactic-scale tidal forces and ram pressure on NGC 2276's molecular interstellar medium (ISM). Our observations add to the growing body of numerical and observational evidence that galaxy-galaxy interactions significantly modify the molecular gas properties and star-forming activity within galactic disks throughout the interaction, and not just during the final merger phase.


arXiv:1812.05053v1 [pdf, other]
The ARCiS framework for Exoplanet Atmospheres: The Cloud Transport Model
Comments: Accepted for publication in A&A

Understanding of clouds is instrumental in interpreting current and future spectroscopic observations of exoplanets. Modelling clouds consistently is complex, since it involves many facets of chemistry, nucleation theory, condensation physics, coagulation, and particle transport. We develop a simple physical model for cloud formation and transport, efficient and versatile enough that it can be used in modular fashion for parameter optimization searches of exoplanet atmosphere spectra. The transport equations are formulated in 1D, accounting for sedimentation and diffusion. The grain size is obtained through a moment method. For simplicity, only one cloud species is considered and the nucleation rate is parametrized. From the resulting physical profiles we simulate transmission spectra covering the visual to mid-IR wavelength range. We apply our models towards KCl clouds in the atmosphere of GJ1214 b and towards MgSiO3 clouds of a canonical hot-Jupiter. We find that larger cloud diffusivity $K_{zz}$ increases the thickness of the cloud, pushing the $\tau=1$ surface to a lower pressure layer higher in the atmosphere. A larger nucleation rate also increases the cloud thickness while it suppresses the grain size. Coagulation is most important at high nuclei injection rates ($\dot\Sigma_n$) and low $K_{zz}$. We find that the investigated combinations of $K_{zz}$ and $\dot\Sigma_n$ greatly affect the transmission spectra in terms of the slope at near-IR wavelength (a proxy for grain size), the molecular features seen at ~1\micr (which disappear for thick clouds, high in the atmosphere), and the 10\micr silicate feature, which becomes prominent for small grains high in the atmosphere. The result of our hybrid approach -- aimed to provide a good balance between physical consistency and computational efficiency -- is ideal towards interpreting (future) spectroscopic observations of exoplanets.


arXiv:1812.05054v1 [pdf, other]
Explaining the early excess emission of the Type Ia supernova 2018oh by the interaction of the ejecta with disk-originated matter (DOM)
Comments: To be submitted in 2 days to allow comments by readers

We explain the early excess emission of the Type Ia supernova 2018oh by an interaction of the supernova ejecta with disk-originated matter (DOM). Such DOM can form in the merger process of two white dwarfs (WDs) in the double degenerate scenario of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). We find that an ejecta-DOM interaction can fit the early light curve of SN 2018oh better than an ejecta-companion interaction in the single degenerate scenario. By composing the DOM from two components that were ejected in the merger process with two different velocities, we show that the ejecta-DOM interaction can account for the linear rise in the light curve, while the ejecta-companion interaction predicts too steep a rise. In addition, the ejecta-DOM interaction does not predict the presence of hydrogen and helium lines in nebular spectra, and hence does not suffer from this major drawback of the ejecta-companion model. We consider the ejecta-DOM interaction to be the most likely explanation for the early excess emission in SN 2018oh. By that we show that the double degenerate scenario can account for early excess emission in SNe Ia.


arXiv:1812.05088v1 [pdf, other]
Early formation of supermassive black holes via dark matter self-interactions
Comments: 13 pages, 12 figures

The existence of supermassive black holes at high redshifts ($z\sim7$) is difficult to accommodate in standard astrophysical scenarios. It has been shown that dark matter models with a subdominant self-interacting component are able to produce early seeds for supermassive black holes through the gravothermal catastrophe. Previous studies used a fluid equation approach, requiring some limiting assumptions. Here we reconsider the problem using $N$-body gravitational simulations starting from the formation of the initial dark matter halo. We consider both elastic and dissipative scattering, and elucidate the interplay between the dark matter microphysics and subsequent accretion of the black hole needed to match the properties of observed high redshift supermassive black holes.


arXiv:1812.05092v1 [pdf, other]
APOGEE [C/N] Abundances Across the Galaxy: Migration and Infall from Red Giant Ages
Comments: 15 pages, 13 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ

We present [C/N]-[Fe/H] abundance trends from the SDSS-IV Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey, Data Release 14 (DR14), for red giant branch stars across the Milky Way Galaxy (MW, 3 kpc $<$ R $<$ 15 kpc). The carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (often expressed as [C/N]) can indicate the mass of a red giant star, from which an age can be inferred. Using masses and ages derived by Martig et al., we demonstrate that we are able to interpret the DR14 [C/N]-[Fe/H] abundance distributions as trends in age-[Fe/H] space. Our results show that an anti-correlation between age and metallicity, which is predicted by simple chemical evolution models, is not present at any Galactic zone. Stars far from the plane ($|$Z$|$ $>$ 1 kpc) exhibit a radial gradient in [C/N] ($\sim$ $-$0.04 dex/kpc). The [C/N] dispersion increases toward the plane ($\sigma_{[C/N]}$ = 0.13 at $|$Z$|$ $>$ 1 kpc to $\sigma_{[C/N]}$ = 0.18 dex at $|$Z$|$ $<$ 0.5 kpc). We measure a disk metallicity gradient for the youngest stars (age $<$ 2.5 Gyr) of $-$0.060 dex/kpc from 6 kpc to 12 kpc, which is in agreement with the gradient found using young CoRoGEE stars by Anders et al. Older stars exhibit a flatter gradient ($-$0.016 dex/kpc), which is predicted by simulations in which stars migrate from their birth radii. We also find that radial migration is a plausible explanation for the observed upturn of the [C/N]-[Fe/H] abundance trends in the outer Galaxy, where the metal-rich stars are relatively enhanced in [C/N].


arXiv:1812.05094v1 [pdf, other]
Probing the Fermi-LAT GeV excess with gravitational waves
Comments: 6 pages, 5 figures

If the gamma-ray excess towards the inner Galaxy (GCE) detected in Fermi-LAT data is due to millisecond pulsars (MSPs), one expects an associated gravitational wave (GW) signal, whose intensity exceeds the disk MSP population emission by an order of magnitude. We compute the expected GW counterpart of the bulge MSP population based on fits of the GCE, and estimate the sensitivity reach of current and future terrestrial GW detectors. The bounds on the average population ellipticity $\varepsilon$ are competitive with the existing ones derived by LIGO/Virgo towards known MSPs. With a 10-year data taking in current LIGO/Virgo configuration, one would detect a signal at the level $\varepsilon\simeq 10^{-7}$, while $\varepsilon\simeq 10^{-8}$ would be attainable with a similar data taking period with a third generation GW detector. This sensitivity should be sufficient for crucial diagnostics on the GCE interpretation in terms of MSPs.