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[1]  arXiv:1507.08279 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: A Test of Cosmological Models using high-z Measurements of H(z)
Comments: 22 pages, 1 figure, 1 table. Accepted for publication in the Astronomical Journal
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph)

The recently constructed Hubble diagram using a combined sample of SNLS and SDSS-II Type Ia SNe, and an application of the Alcock-Paczynski (AP) test using model-independent Baryon Acoustic Oscillation data, have suggested that the principal constraint underlying the cosmic expansion is the total equation-of-state of the cosmic fluid, rather than that of its dark energy. These studies have focused on the critical redshift range (0 < z < 2) within which the transition from decelerated to accelerated expansion is thought to have occurred, and they suggest that the cosmic fluid has zero active mass, consistent with a constant expansion rate. The evident impact of this conclusion on cosmological theory calls for an independent confirmation. In this paper, we carry out this crucial one-on-one comparison between the R_h=ct Universe (an FRW cosmology with zero active mass) and wCDM/LCDM, using the latest high-z measurements of H(z). Whereas the Type Ia SNe yield the integrated luminosity distance, while the AP diagnostic tests the geometry of the Universe, the Hubble parameter directly samples the expansion rate itself. We find that the model-independent cosmic chronometer data prefer R_h}=ct over wCDM/LCDM with a BIC likelihood of ~95% versus only ~5%, in strong support of the earlier SNeIa and AP results. This contrasts with a recent analysis of H(z) data based solely on BAO measurements which, however, strongly depend on the assumed cosmology. We discuss why the latter approach is inappropriate for model comparisons, and emphasize again the need for truly model-independent observations to be used in cosmological tests.

[2]  arXiv:1507.08280 [pdf, other]
Title: Observations of Galactic star-forming regions with the Cosmic Background Imager at 31 GHz
Comments: 13 pages, 4 figures
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Studies of the diffuse Galactic radio emission are interesting both for better understanding the physical conditions in our Galaxy and for minimising the contamination in cosmological measurements. Motivated by this we present Cosmic Background Imager 31 GHz observations of the Galactic regions NGC 6357, NGC 6334, W51 and W40 at $\sim$4$'$.5 resolution and conduct an investigation of the spectral emission process in the regions at 4$'$.5 and 1$^{\circ}$ resolution. We find that most of the emission in the regions is due to optically thin free-free. For 2 sub-regions of NGC 6334 and for a sub-region of W51 though, at 4$'$.5 resolution and at 31 GHz we detect less emission than expected from extrapolation of radio data at lower frequencies assuming a spectral index of $-$0.12 for optically thin free-free emission, at 3.3$\sigma$, 3.7$\sigma$ and 6.5$\sigma$ respectively. We also detect excess emission in a sub-region of NCG 6334 at 6.4$\sigma$, after ruling out any possible contribution from Ultra Compact HII (UCHII) regions. At 1$^{\circ}$ resolution we detect a spinning dust component in the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) of W40 that accounts for 18$\pm$7 % of the total flux density in the region at the peak frequency of 37 GHz. Comparison with 100 ${\rm \mu m}$ data indicate an average dust emissivity for the sub-regions of $0.5\pm4.4$ $\mu$K(MJy sr$^{-1}$)$^{-1}$. Finally we translate the excess emission in the regions to an Anomalous Microwave Emission (AME) emissivity relative to the optical depth at 250 ${\rm \mu m }$. We find that this form of emissivity is independent of the AME significance and has a value somewhere in the order of 10$^4$ Jy.

[3]  arXiv:1507.08281 [pdf, other]
Title: Recycled stellar ejecta as fuel for star formation and implications for the origin of the galaxy mass-metallicity relation
Comments: 22 pages, 12 figures (not including appendices), submitted to MNRAS
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We use cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations from the EAGLE and OWLS projects to assess the significance of recycled stellar ejecta as fuel for star formation. The fractional contributions of stellar mass loss to the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass densities increase with time, reaching $35 \%$ and $19 \%$, respectively, at $z=0$. The importance of recycling increases steeply with galaxy stellar mass for $M_{\ast} < 10^{10.5}$ M$_{\odot}$, and decreases mildly at higher mass. This trend arises from the mass dependence of feedback associated with star formation and AGN, which preferentially suppresses star formation fuelled by recycling. Recycling is more important for satellites than centrals and its contribution decreases with galactocentric radius. The relative contribution of AGB stars increases with time and towards galaxy centers. This is a consequence of the more gradual release of AGB ejecta compared to that of massive stars, and the preferential removal of the latter by outflows and by lock up in stellar remnants. Recycling-fuelled star formation exhibits a tight, positive correlation with galaxy metallicity, with a secondary dependence on the relative abundance of alpha elements (which are predominantly synthesized in massive stars), that is insensitive to the subgrid models for feedback. Hence, our conclusions are directly relevant for the origin of the mass-metallicity relation and metallicity gradients. Applying the relation between recycling and metallicity to the observed mass-metallicity relation yields our best estimate of the mass-dependent contribution of recycling. For centrals with a mass similar to that of the Milky Way, we infer the contributions of recycled stellar ejecta to the SFR and stellar mass to be $35 \%$ and $20 \%$, respectively.

[4]  arXiv:1507.08283 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The resolution bias: low resolution feedback simulations are better at destroying galaxies
Comments: 15 pages, 12 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Feedback from super-massive black holes (SMBHs) is thought to play a key role in regulating the growth of host galaxies. Cosmological and galaxy formation simulations using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), which usually use a fixed mass for SPH particles, often employ the same sub-grid Active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback prescription across a range of resolutions. It is thus important to ask how the impact of the simulated AGN feedback on a galaxy changes when only the numerical resolution (the SPH particle mass) changes. We present a suite of simulations modelling the interaction of an AGN outflow with the ambient turbulent and clumpy interstellar medium (ISM) in the inner part of the host galaxy at a range of mass resolutions. We find that, with other things being equal, degrading the resolution leads to feedback becoming more efficient at clearing out all gas in its path. For the simulations presented here, the difference in the mass of the gas ejected by AGN feedback varies by more than a factor of ten between our highest and lowest resolution simulations. This happens because feedback-resistant high density clumps are washed out at low effective resolutions. We also find that changes in numerical resolution lead to undesirable artifacts in how the AGN feedback affects the AGN immediate environment.

[5]  arXiv:1507.08285 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: batman: BAsic Transit Model cAlculatioN in Python
Authors: Laura Kreidberg
Comments: 13 pages, 3 figures, submitted to PASP
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

I introduce batman, a Python package for modeling exoplanet transit light curves. The batman package supports calculation of light curves for any radially symmetric stellar limb darkening law, using a new integration algorithm for models that cannot be quickly calculated analytically. The code uses C extension modules to speed up model calculation and is parallelized with OpenMP. For a typical light curve with 100 data points in transit, batman can calculate one million quadratic limb-darkened models in 30 seconds with a single 1.7 GHz Intel Core i5 processor. The same calculation takes seven minutes using the four-parameter nonlinear limb darkening model (computed to 1 ppm accuracy). Maximum truncation error for integrated models is an input parameter that can be set as low as 0.001 ppm, ensuring that the community is prepared for the precise transit light curves we anticipate measuring with upcoming facilities. The batman package is open source and publicly available at

[6]  arXiv:1507.08287 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The History of Tidal Disruption Events in Galactic Nuclei
Comments: Submitted to ApJ. Comments are welcome
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

The tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole (MBH) is thought to produce a transient luminous event. Such tidal disruption events (TDEs) may play an important role in detecting and characterizing MBHs and probe the properties and dynamics of their nuclear stellar clusters (NSCs) hosts. Previous studies estimated the recent rates of TDEs in the local universe. However, the long-term evolution of the TDEs rate throughout the history of the universe have been hardly explored. Here we consider the TDEs history, using simple evolutionary models for the formation and evolution of galactic nuclei. We use a 1D Fokker-Planck approach to explore the evolution of MBH-hosting NSCs, and obtain the disruption rates of stars during their evolution. We complement these with an analysis of TDEs history based on N-body simulation data, and find them to be comparable. We consider NSCs that are built-up from close-in star formation or from star formation/clusters-dispersal far-out, a few pc from the MBH. We also explore cases where primordial NSCs exist and later further evolve through such additional star-formation/cluster-dispersal processes. We study the dependence of the TDE history on the type of galaxy (in terms of its star-formation history), as well as the dependence on the MBH mass. These provide several scenarios for the TDEs history, with a continuous increase of the TDE rates over time for cases of far-out star-formation and a more complex behavior for the close-in star formation cases. The total highest rates are found for the lowest mass MBHs, the highest star-formation rates and in elliptical galaxies, where the galaxy and NSC are assumed to have formed at early stages. Finally, we integrate the TDE histories of the various type of galaxies and MBHs to provide a total TDE history of the universe, which can be potentially probed with future large surveys (e.g. LSST).

[7]  arXiv:1507.08288 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Propeller effect in action in the ultraluminous accreting magnetar M82 X-2
Comments: 6 pages, 3 figures, 1 table, submitted to MNRAS
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We present here the first convincing observational manifestation of a magnetar-like magnetic field in an accreting neutron star in binary system - the first pulsating ultra-luminous X-ray source X-2 in the galaxy M82. Using the Chandra X-ray observatory data we show that the source exhibit the bimodal distribution of the luminosity with two well-defined peaks separated by a factor of 40. This behaviour can be interpreted as the action of the "propeller regime" of accretion. The onset of the propeller in a 1.37 s pulsar at luminosity of ~$10^{40}$ erg/s implies the dipole component of the neutron star magnetic field of ~$10^{14}$ G.

[8]  arXiv:1507.08289 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: HeCS-SZ: The Hectospec Survey of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Selected Clusters
Comments: submitted to ApJ, 13 pages, 14 figures, 123 clusters
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We estimate cluster masses and velocity dispersions for 123 clusters from optical spectroscopy to compare the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) mass proxy and dynamical masses. Our new survey, HeCS-SZ (Hectospec Cluster Survey of SZ-selected clusters), includes 7,721 new or remeasured redshifts from MMT/Hectospec observations of 24 SZ-selected clusters at redshifts $z$=0.05-0.20 and not in previous surveys. We supplement the Hectospec data with spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and cluster data from the Cluster Infall Regions in SDSS (CIRS) project and the Hectospec Cluster Survey (HeCS), our Hectospec survey of clusters selected by X-ray flux. We measure the scaling relation between velocity dispersion and SZ mass estimates from the integrated Compton parameter for an SZ complete sample of 83 clusters. The observed relation agrees very well with a simple virial scaling from mass (based on SZ) to velocity dispersion. The SZ mass estimates (calibrated with hydrostatic X-ray mass estimates) are not significantly biased. Further, the velocity dispersion of cluster galaxies is consistent with the expected velocity dispersion of dark matter particles, indicating that galaxies are good dynamical tracers (i.e., velocity bias is small). Significant mass bias in SZ mass estimates could relieve tension between cosmological results from Planck SZ cluster counts and Planck CMB data. However, the excellent agreement between our measured velocity dispersions and those predicted from a virial scaling relation suggests that any SZ mass bias is too small to reconcile SZ and CMB results. In principle, SZ mass bias and velocity bias of galaxies could conspire to yield good agreement, but the required velocity bias is $\sigma_{galaxy}\approx 0.77\sigma_{DM}$, outside the range of plausible models of velocity bias in the literature.

[9]  arXiv:1507.08291 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Discovery of a Low-Mass Companion to the F7V star HD 984
Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS, 10 pages, 5 figures
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

We report the discovery of a low-mass companion to the nearby (d = 47 pc) F7V star HD 984. The companion is detected 0.19" away from its host star in the L' band with the Apodizing Phase Plate on NaCo/VLT and was recovered by L'-band non-coronagraphic imaging data taken a few days later. We confirm the companion is co-moving with the star with SINFONI integral field spectrograph H+K data. We present the first published data obtained with SINFONI in pupil-tracking mode. HD 984 has been argued to be a kinematic member of the 30 Myr-old Columba group, and its HR diagram position is not altogether inconsistent with being a ZAMS star of this age. By consolidating different age indicators, including isochronal age, coronal X-ray emission, and stellar rotation, we independently estimate a main sequence age of 115$\pm$85 Myr (95% CL) which does not rely on this kinematic association. The mass of directly imaged companions are usually inferred from theoretical evolutionary tracks, which are highly dependent on the age of the star. Based on the age extrema, we demonstrate that with our photometric data alone, the companion's mass is highly uncertain: between 33 and 96 M$_{\rm Jup}$ (0.03-0.09 M$_{\odot}$) using the COND evolutionary models. We compare the companion's SINFONI spectrum with field dwarf spectra to break this degeneracy. Based on the slope and shape of the spectrum in the H-band, we conclude that the companion is an M$6.0\pm0.5$ dwarf. The age of the system is not further constrained by the companion, as M dwarfs are poorly fit on low-mass evolutionary tracks. This discovery emphasizes the importance of obtaining a spectrum to spectral type companions around F-stars.

[10]  arXiv:1507.08292 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: CMB Lensing and Scale Dependent New Physics
Comments: 8 pages, 6 figures
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

Cosmic microwave background lensing has become a new cosmological probe, carrying rich information on the matter power spectrum and distances over the redshift range $z\approx1$-4. We investigate the role of scale dependent new physics, such as from modified gravity, neutrino mass, and cold (low sound speed) dark energy, and its signature on CMB lensing. The distinction between different scale dependences, and the different redshift dependent weighting of the matter power spectrum entering into CMB lensing and other power spectra, imply that CMB lensing can probe simultaneously a diverse range of physics. We highlight the role of arcminute resolution polarization experiments for distinguishing between physical effects.

[11]  arXiv:1507.08301 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Structure and dynamics of the supercluster of galaxies SC0028-0005
Comments: 12 pages, 9 figures, Accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

According to the standard cosmological scenario, superclusters are objects that have just passed the turn around point and are collapsing. The dynamics of very few superclusters have been analysed up to now. In this paper we study the supercluster SC0028-0005, at redshift 0.22, identify the most prominent groups and/or clusters that make up the supercluster, and investigate the dynamic state of this structure. For the membership identification, we have used photometric and spectroscopic data from SDSS-DR10, finding 6 main structures in a flat spatial distribution. We have also used a deep multi-band observation with MegaCam/CFHT to estimate de mass distribution through the weak-lensing effect. For the dynamical analysis, we have determined the relative distances along the line of sight within the supercluster using the Fundamental Plane of early-type galaxies. Finally, we have computed the peculiar velocities of each of the main structures. The 3D distribution suggests that SC0028-005 is indeed a collapsing supercluster, supporting the formation scenario of these structures. Using the spherical collapse model, we estimate that the mass within $r = 10$~Mpc should lie between 4 and $16 \times 10^{15} M_\odot$. The farthest detected members of the supercluster suggest that within $\sim 60$~Mpc the density contrast is $\delta \sim 3$ with respect to the critical density at $z=0.22$, implying a total mass of $\sim 4.6$--$16 \times 10^{17} M_\odot$, most of which in the form of low-mass galaxy groups or smaller substructures.

[12]  arXiv:1507.08311 [pdf, other]
Title: The chemistry of the most metal-rich damped Lyman $α$ systems at z$\sim2$ II. Context with the Local Group
Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS. 24 Pages, 10 Figures, 4 tables. Data compilations within tarball or available upon request (contact Trystyn Berg)
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Using our sample of the most metal-rich damped Lyman $\alpha$ systems (DLAs) at z$\sim2$, and two literature compilations of chemical abundances in 341 DLAs and 2818 stars, we present an analysis of the chemical composition of DLAs in the context of the Local Group. The metal-rich sample of DLAs at z$\sim2$ probes metallicities as high as the Galactic disc and the most metal-rich dwarf spheroidals (dSphs), permitting an analysis of many elements typically observed in DLAs (Fe, Zn, Cr, Mn, Si, and S) in comparison to stellar abundances observed in the Galaxy and its satellites (in particular dSphs). Our main conclusions are: (1) non-solar [Zn/Fe] abundances in metal-poor Galactic stars and in dSphs over the full metallicity range probed by DLAs, suggest that Zn is not a simple proxy for Fe in DLAs and therefore not a suitable indicator of dust depletion. After correcting for dust depletion, the majority of DLAs have subsolar [Zn/Fe] similar to dSphs; (2) at [Fe/H]$\sim-0.5$, a constant [Mn/Fe]$\sim-0.5$ and near-solar [$\alpha$/Fe] (requiring an assumption about dust depletion) are in better agreement with dwarf galaxies than Galactic disc stars; (3) [$\alpha$/Zn] is usually solar or subsolar in DLAs. However, although low ratios of [$\alpha$/Fe] are usually considered more `dwarf-like' than `Milky Way-like', subsolar [Zn/Fe] in Local Group dwarfs leads to supersolar [$\alpha$/Zn] in the dSphs, in contrast with the DLAs. Therefore, whilst DLAs exhibit some similarities with the Local Group dwarf population, there are also notable differences.

[13]  arXiv:1507.08312 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Active Galactic Nuclei Discovered in the Kepler Mission
Comments: 17 pages, 25 figures
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We report on candidate active galactic nuclei (AGN) discovered during the monitoring of $\sim$500 bright (r < 18 mag) galaxies over several years with the Kepler Mission. Most of the targets were sampled every 30 minutes nearly continuously for a year or more. Variations of 0.001 mag and often less could be detected reliably. About 4.0% (19) of our random sample continuously fluctuated with amplitudes increasing with longer timescales, but the majority are close to the limits of detectability with Kepler. We discuss our techniques to mitigate the long term instrumental trends in Kepler light curves and our resulting structure function curves. The amplitudes of variability over four month periods, as seen in the structure functions and PSDs, can dramatically change for many of these AGN candidates. Four of the candidates have features in their Structure Functions that may indicate quasi-periodic behavior, although other possibilities are discussed.

[14]  arXiv:1507.08313 [pdf, other]
Title: Ultradeep IRAC Imaging Over The HUDF And GOODS-South: Survey Design And Imaging Data Release
Comments: Accepted for publication in ApJS
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

The IRAC ultradeep field (IUDF) and IRAC Legacy over GOODS (IGOODS) programs are two ultradeep imaging surveys at 3.6{\mu}m and 4.5{\mu}m with the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC). The primary aim is to directly detect the infrared light of reionization epoch galaxies at z > 7 and to constrain their stellar populations. The observations cover the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), including the two HUDF parallel fields, and the CANDELS/GOODS-South, and are combined with archival data from all previous deep programs into one ultradeep dataset. The resulting imaging reaches unprecedented coverage in IRAC 3.6{\mu}m and 4.5{\mu}m ranging from > 50 hour over 150 arcmin^2, > 100 hour over 60 sq arcmin2, to 200 hour over 5 - 10 arcmin$^2$. This paper presents the survey description, data reduction, and public release of reduced mosaics on the same astrometric system as the CANDELS/GOODS-South WFC3 data. To facilitate prior-based WFC3+IRAC photometry, we introduce a new method to create high signal-to-noise PSFs from the IRAC data and reconstruct the complex spatial variation due to survey geometry. The PSF maps are included in the release, as are registered maps of subsets of the data to enable reliability and variability studies. Simulations show that the noise in the ultradeep IRAC images decreases approximately as the square root of integration time over the range 20 - 200 hours, well below the classical confusion limit, reaching 1{\sigma} point source sensitivities as faint as of 15 nJy (28.5 AB) at 3.6{\mu}m and 18 nJy (28.3 AB) at 4.5{\mu}m. The value of such ultradeep IRAC data is illustrated by direct detections of z = 7 - 8 galaxies as faint as HAB = 28.

[15]  arXiv:1507.08314 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: An Integral Condition for Core-Collapse Supernova Explosions
Comments: 15 pages and 10 figures; submitted. Figure 7 is the money plot and eqs. 17 & 18 are the money equations. We humbly welcome your comments
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We derive an integral condition for core-collapse supernova explosions and use it to construct a new diagnostic of explodability. The fundamental challenge in core-collapse supernova theory is to explain how a stalled accretion shock revives to explode a star. In this manuscript, we assume that shock revival is initiated by the delayed-neutrino mechanism and derive an integral condition for shock expansion, $v_s > 0$. Assuming that $v_s > 0$ corresponds to explosion, we recast this integral condition as a dimensionless condition for explosion, $\Psi > 0$. Using 1D simulations, we confirm that $\Psi = 0$ during the stalled phase and $\Psi > 0$ during explosion. Having validated the integral condition, we use it to derive a useful explosion diagnostic. First, for a given set of parameters, we find the family of solutions to the steady-state equations, parameterized by shock radius $R_s$, yielding $\Psi(R_s)$. For any particular solution, $\Psi(R_s)$ may be negative, zero, or positive, and, since $\Psi \propto v_s$, this corresponds to a solution with a receding, stationary, or expanding shock, respectively. Within this family, there is always a solution with a minimum $\Psi$, $\Psi_{\rm min}$. When $\Psi_{\rm min} < 0$, there always exists a stalled accretion shock solution, but when $\Psi_{\rm min} > 0$, all solutions have $v_s > 0$. Therefore, $\Psi_{\rm min} = 0$ defines a critical hypersurface for explosion, and we show that the critical neutrino luminosity curve proposed by Burrows \& Goshy (1993) is a projection of this more general critical condition. Finally, we propose and verify with 1D simulations that $\Psi_{\rm min}$ is a reliable and accurate explosion diagnostic.

[16]  arXiv:1507.08336 [pdf, other]
Title: No galaxy left behind: accurate measurements with the faintest objects in the Dark Energy Survey
Comments: 24 pages, 17 figures, submitted to MNRAS
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

Accurate statistical measurement with large imaging surveys has traditionally required throwing away a sizable fraction of the data. This is because most measurements have have relied on selecting nearly complete samples, where variations in the composition of the galaxy population with seeing, depth, or other survey characteristics are small.
We introduce a new measurement method that aims to minimize this wastage, allowing precision measurement for any class of stars or galaxies detectable in an imaging survey. We have implemented our proposal in Balrog, a software package which embeds fake objects in real imaging in order to accurately characterize measurement biases.
We demonstrate this technique with an angular clustering measurement using Dark Energy Survey (DES) data. We first show that recovery of our injected galaxies depends on a wide variety of survey characteristics in the same way as the real data. We then construct a flux-limited sample of the faintest galaxies in DES, chosen specifically for their sensitivity to depth and seeing variations. Using the synthetic galaxies as randoms in the standard Landy-Szalay correlation function estimator suppresses the effects of variable survey selection by at least two orders of magnitude. With this correction, our measured angular clustering is found to be in excellent agreement with that of a matched sample drawn from much deeper, higher-resolution space-based COSMOS imaging; over angular scales of $0.004^{\circ} < \theta < 0.2^{\circ}$, we find a best-fit scaling amplitude between the DES and COSMOS measurements of $1.00 \pm 0.09$.
We expect this methodology to be broadly useful for extending the statistical reach of measurements in a wide variety of coming imaging surveys.

[17]  arXiv:1507.08343 [pdf, other]
Title: The Multi-Mission Maximum Likelihood framework (3ML)
Comments: The 34th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC), 30 July-6 August, 2015, The Hague, The Netherlands
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

Astrophysical sources are now observed by many different instruments at different wavelengths, from radio to high-energy gamma-rays, with an unprecedented quality. Putting all these data together to form a coherent view, however, is a very difficult task. Each instrument has its own data format, software and analysis procedure, which are difficult to combine. It is for example very challenging to perform a broadband fit of the energy spectrum of the source. The Multi-Mission Maximum Likelihood framework (3ML) aims to solve this issue, providing a common framework which allows for a coherent modeling of sources using all the available data, independent of their origin. At the same time, thanks to its architecture based on plug-ins, 3ML uses the existing official software of each instrument for the corresponding data in a way which is transparent to the user. 3ML is based on the likelihood formalism, in which a model summarizing our knowledge about a particular region of the sky is convolved with the instrument response and compared to the corresponding data. The user can choose between a frequentist analysis, and a Bayesian analysis. In the former, parameters of the model are optimized in order to obtain the best match to the data (i.e., the maximum of the likelihood). In the latter, the priors specified by the user are used to build the posterior distribution, which is then sampled with Markov Chain Monte Carlo or Multinest. Our implementation of this idea is very flexible, allowing the study of point sources as well as extended sources with arbitrary spectra. We will review the problem we aim to solve, the 3ML concepts and its innovative potential.

[18]  arXiv:1507.08350 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The ACS LCID Project: On the origin of dwarf galaxy types: a manifestation of the halo assembly bias?
Authors: C. Gallart (IAC), M. Monelli (IAC), L. Mayer (U. Zurich), A. Aparicio (IAC), G. Battaglia (IAC), E.J. Bernard (ROE), S. Cassisi (INAF), A. A. Cole (U. Tasmania), A. E. Dolphin (Raytheon), I. Drozdovsky (IAC), S.L. HIdalgo (IAC), J. F. Navarro (U. Victoria), S. Salvadori (Kapteyn), E.D. Skillman (U. Minnesota), P. B. Stetson (NRC, Canada), D.R.Weisz (U. Washington)
Comments: 7 pages, 3 figures, ApJ Letters, submitted. Comments welcome
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We discuss how knowledge of the whole evolutionary history of dwarf galaxies, including details on the early star formation events, can provide insight on the origin of the different dwarf galaxy types. We suggest that these types may be imprinted by the early conditions of formation rather than being only the result of a recent morphological transformation driven by environmental effects. We present precise star formation histories of a sample of Local Group dwarf galaxies, derived from colour-magnitude diagrams reaching the oldest main-sequence turnoffs. We argue that these galaxies can be assigned to two basic types: fast dwarfs that started their evolution with a dominant and short star formation event, and slow dwarfs that formed a small fraction of their stars early and have continued forming stars until the present time (or almost). These two different evolutionary paths do not map directly onto the present-day morphology (dwarf spheroidal vs dwarf irregular). Slow and fast dwarfs also differ in their inferred past location relative to the Milky Way and/or M31, which hints that slow dwarfs were generally assembled in lower density environments than fast dwarfs. We propose that the distinction between a fast and slow dwarf galaxy reflects primarily the characteristic density of the environment where they form. At a later stage, interaction with a large host galaxy may play a role in the final gas removal and ultimate termination of star formation.

[19]  arXiv:1507.08351 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Cloud-cloud Collision in the Galactic Center 50 km s$^{-1}$ Molecular Cloud
Comments: Accepted for publication in PASJ. 22 pages, 6 figures, 1 table
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We performed a search of star-forming sites influenced by external factors, such as SNRs, HII regions, and cloud-cloud collisions, to understand the star-forming activity in the Galactic center region using the NRO Galactic Center Survey in SiO $v=0, J=2-1$, H$^{13}$CO$^+ J=1-0$, and CS $J=1-0$ emission lines obtained by the Nobeyama 45-m telescope. We found a half-shell like feature (HSF) with a high integrated line intensity ratio of $ int T_{ mathrm B}$(SiO $v=0, J=2-1$)$dv$/$ int T_{ mathrm B}$(H$^{13}$CO$^+ J=1-0$)$dv sim6-8$ in the 50 km s$^{-1}$ molecular cloud, which is a most conspicuous molecular cloud in the region and harbors an active star-forming site seen as several compact HII regions. The high ratio in the HSF indicates that the cloud contains huge shocked molecular gas. The HSF is also seen as a half-shell feature in the position-velocity diagram. A hypothesis explaining the chemical and kinetic properties of the HSF is that the feature is originated by a cloud-cloud collision (CCC). We analyzed the CS $J=1-0$ emission line data obtained by Nobeyama Millimeter Array to reveal the relation between the HSF and the molecular cloud cores in the cloud. We made a cumulative core mass function (CMF) of the molecular cloud cores within the HSF. The CMF in the CCC region is not truncated at least up to $ sim2500M_ odot$ although the CMF of the non-CCC region reaches the upper limit of $ sim1500M_ odot$. Most massive molecular cores with $M_{ mathrm{gas}}>750 M_{ odot}$ are located only around the ridge of the HSF and adjoin the compact HII region. These may be a sign of massive star formation induced by CCC in the Galactic center region.

[20]  arXiv:1507.08353 [pdf, other]
Title: Inclination-Induced Polarization of Scattered Millimeter Radiation from Protoplanetary Disks: The Case of HL Tau
Comments: 12 pages, 7 figures, submitted to MNRAS
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Spatially resolved polarized millimeter/submillimeter emission has been observed in the disk of HL Tau and two other young stellar objects. It is usually interpreted as coming from magnetically aligned grains, but can also be produced by dust scattering, as demonstrated explicitly by Kataoka et al. for face-on disks. We extend their work by including the polarization induced by disk inclination with respect to the line of sight. Using a physically motivated, semi-analytic model, we show that the polarization fraction of the scattered light increases with the inclination angle $i$, reaching $1/3$ for edge-on disks. The inclination-induced polarization can easily dominate that intrinsic to the disk in the face-on view. It provides a natural explanation for the two main features of the polarization pattern observed in the tilted disk of HL Tau ($i \sim 45^\circ$): the polarized intensity concentrating in a region elongated more or less along the major axis, and polarization in this region roughly parallel to the minor axis. This broad agreement provides support to dust scattering as a viable mechanism for producing, at least in part, polarized millimeter radiation. In order to produce polarization at the observed level ($\sim 1\%$), the scattering grains must have grown to a maximum size of tens of microns. However, such grains may be too small to produce the opacity spectral index of $\beta \lesssim 1$ observed in HL Tau and other sources; another population of larger, millimeter/centimeter-sized, grains may be needed to explain the bulk of the unpolarized continuum emission.

[21]  arXiv:1507.08360 [pdf, other]
Title: Power spectrum oscillations from Planck-suppressed operators in monodromy inflation
Authors: Layne C. Price
Comments: 11 pages, 6 figures
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc); High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph); High Energy Physics - Theory (hep-th)

We consider a phenomenological model of monodromy inflation where the inflaton is the phase of a complex scalar field $\Phi$. Planck-suppressed operators of $\mathcal O(f^5/M_\mathrm{pl})$ modify the geometry of the vev $\left \langle \Phi \right \rangle$ at first order in the decay constant $f$, which adds a first-order periodic term to the definition of the canonically normalized inflaton $\phi$. This correction to the inflaton induces a fixed number of extra oscillatory terms in the monodromy potential $V \sim \theta^p$. We derive the same result in a toy scenario where the vacuum $\left \langle \Phi \right \rangle$ is an ellipse with an arbitrarily large eccentricity. These extra oscillations change the form of the power spectrum as a function of scale $k$ and provide a possible mechanism for differentiating EFT-motivated monodromy inflation from models where the angular shift symmetry is a gauge symmetry.

[22]  arXiv:1507.08380 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Clustering of intermediate redshift quasars using the final SDSS III-BOSS sample
Comments: 21 pages, 18 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We measure the two-point clustering of spectroscopically confirmed quasars from the final sample of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) on comoving scales of 4 < s < 22 Mpc/h. The sample covers 6950 deg^2 (~ 19 (Gpc/h)^3) and, over the redshift range 2.2 < z < 2.8, contains 55,826 homogeneously selected quasars, which is twice as many as in any similar work. We deduce b_Q = 3.54 +/- 0.10 ; the most precise measurement of quasar bias to date at these redshifts. This corresponds to a host halo mass of ~ 2 x 10^12 ~ M_sun/h with an implied quasar duty cycle of ~1 percent. The real-space projected correlation function is well-fit by a power law of index -2 and correlation length r0 = (8.12 +/- 0.22), Mpc/h over scales of 4 < rp < 25 ~ Mpc/h. To better study the evolution of quasar clustering at moderate redshift, we extend the redshift range of our study to z ~ 3.4 and measure the bias and correlation length of three subsamples over 2.2 < z < 3.4. We find no significant evolution of r0 or bias over this range, implying that the host halo mass of quasars decreases somewhat with increasing redshift. We find quasar clustering remains similar over a decade in luminosity, contradicting a scenario in which quasar luminosity is monotonically related to halo mass at z ~ 2.5. Our results are broadly consistent with previous BOSS measurements, but they yield more precise constraints based upon a larger and more uniform data set.

[23]  arXiv:1507.08411 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Predictions for Ultra-Deep Radio Counts of Star-Forming Galaxies
Comments: 31 pages, 18 figures, 1 table. Accepted by ApJ
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We have worked out predictions for the radio counts of star-forming galaxies down to nJy levels, along with redshift distributions down to the detection limits of the phase 1 Square Kilometer Array MID telescope (SKA1-MID) and of its precursors. Such predictions were obtained by coupling epoch dependent star formation rate (SFR) functions with relations between SFR and radio (synchrotron and free-free) emission. The SFR functions were derived taking into account both the dust obscured and the unobscured star-formation, by combining far-infrared (FIR), ultra-violet (UV) and H_alpha luminosity functions up to high redshifts. We have also revisited the South Pole Telescope (SPT) counts of dusty galaxies at 95\,GHz performing a detailed analysis of the Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). Our results show that the deepest SKA1-MID surveys will detect high-z galaxies with SFRs two orders of magnitude lower compared to Herschel surveys. The highest redshift tails of the distributions at the detection limits of planned SKA1-MID surveys comprise a substantial fraction of strongly lensed galaxies. We predict that a survey down to 0.25 microJy at 1.4 GHz will detect about 1200 strongly lensed galaxies per square degree, at redshifts of up to 10. For about 30% of them the SKA1-MID will detect at least 2 images. The SKA1-MID will thus provide a comprehensive view of the star formation history throughout the re-ionization epoch, unaffected by dust extinction. We have also provided specific predictions for the EMU/ASKAP and MIGHTEE/MeerKAT surveys.

[24]  arXiv:1507.08414 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Double-mode radial-non-radial RR Lyrae stars. OGLE-IV photometry of two high cadence fields in the Galactic bulge
Comments: 18 pages, 14 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We analyse the OGLE-IV photometry of the first overtone and double-mode RR Lyrae stars (RRc/RRd) in the two fields towards the Galactic bulge observed with high cadence. In 27 per cent of RRc stars we find additional non-radial mode, with characteristic period ratio, P x /P 1O \in (0.6, 0.64). It strongly corroborates the conclusion arising from the analysis of space photometry of RRc stars, that this form of pulsation must be common. In the Petersen diagram the stars form three sequences. In 20 stars we find two or three close secondary modes simultaneously. The additional modes are clearly non-stationary. Their amplitude and/or phase vary in time. As a result, the patterns observed in the frequency spectra of these stars may be very complex. In some stars the additional modes split into doublets, triplets or appear as a more complex bands of increased power. Subharmonics of additional modes are detected in 20 per cent of stars. They also display a complex structure.
Including our previous study of the OGLE-III Galactic bulge data, we have discovered 260 RRc and 2 RRd stars with the additional non-radial mode, which is the largest sample of these stars so far. The additional mode is also detected in two Blazhko RRc stars, which shows that the modulation and additional non-radial mode are not exclusive.

[25]  arXiv:1507.08423 [pdf, other]
Title: A tiny event producing an interplanetary type III burst
Comments: Accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysics
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We investigate the conditions under which small scale energy release events in the low corona gave rise to strong interplanetary (IP) type III bursts. We analyze observations of three tiny events, detected by the Nan\c cay Radio Heliograph (NRH), two of which produced IP type IIIs. We took advantage of the NRH positioning information and of the high cadence of AIA/SDO data to identify the associated EUV emissions. We measured positions and time profiles of the metric and EUV sources. We found that the EUV events that produced IP type IIIs were located near a coronal hole boundary, while the one that did not was located in a closed magnetic field region. In all three cases tiny flaring loops were involved, without any associated mass eruption. In the best observed case the radio emission at the highest frequency (435 MHz) was displaced by ~55" with respect to the small flaring loop. The metric type III emission shows a complex structure in space and in time, indicative of multiple electron beams, despite the low intensity of the events. From the combined analysis of dynamic spectra and NRH images we derived the electron beam velocity as well as the height, ambient plasma temperature and density at the level of formation of the 160 MHz emission. From the analysis of the differential emission measure derived from the AIA images we found that the first evidence of energy release was at the footpoints and this was followed by the development of flaring loops and subsequent cooling. We conclude that even small energy release events can accelerate enough electrons to give rise to powerful IP type III bursts. The proximity of the electron acceleration site to open magnetic field lines facilitates the escape of the electrons into the interplanetary space. The offset between the site of energy release and the metric type III location warrants further investigation.

[26]  arXiv:1507.08424 [pdf, other]
Title: Discovery of a Highly Polarized Optical Microflare in the Blazar S5 0716+714 During 2014 WEBT Campaign
Comments: 9 pages, 4 Figures, ApJ Letter accepted
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

The occurrence of low-amplitude flux variations in blazars on hourly timescales, commonly known as microvariability, is still a widely debated subject in high-energy astrophysics. Several competing scenarios have been proposed to explain such occurrences, including various jet plasma instabilities leading to the formation of shocks, magnetic reconnection sites, and turbulence. In this letter we present the results of our detailed investigation of a prominent, five-hour-long optical microflare detected during recent WEBT campaign in 2014, March 2-6 targeting the blazar 0716+714. After separating the flaring component from the underlying base emission continuum of the blazar, we find that the microflare is highly polarized, with the polarization degree $\sim (40-60)\%$$\pm (2-10)\%$, and the electric vector position angle $\sim (10 - 20)$deg$\pm (1-8)$deg slightly misaligned with respect to the position angle of the radio jet. The microflare evolution in the $(Q,\,U)$ Stokes parameter space exhibits a looping behavior with a counter-clockwise rotation, meaning polarization degree decreasing with the flux (but higher in the flux decaying phase), and approximately stable polarization angle. The overall very high polarization degree of the flare, its symmetric flux rise and decay profiles, and also its structured evolution in the $Q-U$ plane, all imply that the observed flux variation corresponds to a single emission region characterized by a highly ordered magnetic field. As discussed in the paper, a small-scale but strong shock propagating within the outflow, and compressing a disordered magnetic field component, provides a natural, though not unique, interpretation of our findings.

[27]  arXiv:1507.08440 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Sources of quasi-periodic propagating disturbances above a solar polar coronal hole
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Quasi-periodic propagating disturbances (PDs) are ubiquitous in polar coronal holes on the Sun. It remains unclear as to what generates PDs. In this work, we investigate how the PDs are generated in the solar atmosphere by analyzing a fourhour dataset taken by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We find convincing evidence that spicular activities in the solar transition region as seen in the AIA 304 {\AA} passband are responsible for PDs in the corona as revealed in the AIA 171 {\AA} images. We conclude that spicules are an important source that triggers coronal PDs.

[28]  arXiv:1507.08443 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Disk tracing for B[e] supergiants in the Magellanic Clouds
Comments: 2 pages; 1 figure; submitted to the proceedings of the Physics of Evolved Stars - A conference dedicated to the memory of Olivier Chesneau, Nice, France, June 8-12, 2015
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

B[e] supergiants are evolved massive stars with a complex circumstellar environment. A number of important emission features probe the structure and the kinematics of the circumstellar material. In our survey of Magellanic Cloud B[e] supergiants we focus on the [OI] and [CaII] emission lines, which we identified in four more objects.

[29]  arXiv:1507.08454 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The ratio of profile peak separations as a probe of pulsar radio-beam structure
Comments: 13 pages, 8 figures, submitted to MNRAS in May 2015, revised following reviewer's remarks
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

The known population of pulsars contains objects with four and five component profiles, for which the peak-to-peak separations between the inner and outer components can be measured. These Q and M type profiles can be interpreted as a result of sightline cut through a nested cone beam, or through a set of azimuthal fan beams. We show that the ratio R_W of the components' separations provides a useful measure of the beam shape, which is mostly independent of parameters that determine the beam scale and complicate interpretation of simpler profiles. In particular, the method does not depend on the emission altitude and the dipole tilt distribution. The different structures of the radio beam imply manifestly different statistical distributions of R_W, with the conal model being several orders of magnitude less consistent with data than the fan beam model. To bring the conal model into consistency with data, strong effects of observational selection need to be called for, with 80% of Q and M profiles assumed to be undetected because of intrinsic blending effects. It is concluded that the statistical properties of Q and M profiles are more consistent with the fan-shaped beams, than with the traditional nested cone geometry.

[30]  arXiv:1507.08459 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: PF131010 Ciechanow fireball - the body possible related to Near Earth Asteroids 2010 TB54 and 2010 SX11
Comments: 7 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

On 2010 October 13, the Apollo type 20-meter asteroid 2010 TB54 passed within 6.1 lunar distances from the Earth. On the same date, but 11.4 hours earlier, exactly at 02:52:32 UT, the sky over central Poland was illuminated by -8.6 magnitude PF131010 Ciechanow fireball. The trajectory and orbit of the fireball was computed using multi-station data of Polish Fireball Network (PFN). The results indicate that the orbit of the meteoroid which caused the PF131010 fireball is similar to the orbit of 2010 TB54 asteroid and both bodies may be related. Moreover, two days before appearance of Ciechanow fireball another small asteroid denoted as 2010 SX11 passed close to the Earth-Moon system. Its orbit is even more similar to the orbit of Ciechanow fireball parent body than in case of 2010 TB54.
The PF131010 Ciechanow entered Earth's atmosphere with the velocity of 12.9 +\- 0.2 km/s and started to shine at height of 82.5 +\- 0.3 km. Clear deceleration started after first three seconds of flight, and the terminal velocity of the meteor was only 5.8 +\- 0.2 km/s at height of 29.3 +\- 0.1 km. Such a low value of terminal velocity indicates that fragments with total mass of around 2 kg could survive the atmospheric passage and cause fall of the meteorites. The predicted area of possible meteorite impact is computed and it is located near Grabowo village south of Ostroleka city.

[31]  arXiv:1507.08481 [pdf, other]
Title: Consistency relations for sharp features in the primordial spectra
Comments: 39 pages, 5 figures
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc); High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph); High Energy Physics - Theory (hep-th)

We study the generation of sharp features in the primordial spectra within the framework of effective field theory of inflation, wherein curvature perturbations are the consequence of the dynamics of a single scalar degree of freedom. We identify two sources in the generation of features: rapid variations of the sound speed c_s (at which curvature fluctuations propagate) and rapid variations of the expansion rate H during inflation. With this in mind, we propose a non-trivial relation linking these two quantities that allows us to study the generation of sharp features in realistic scenarios where features are the result of the simultaneous occurrence of these two sources. This relation depends on a single parameter with a value determined by the particular model (and its numerical input) responsible for the rapidly varying background. As a consequence, we find a one-parameter consistency relation between the shape and size of features in the bispectrum and features in the power spectrum. To substantiate this result, we discuss several examples of models for which this one-parameter relation (between c_s and H) holds, including models in which features in the spectra are both sudden and resonant.

[32]  arXiv:1507.08494 [pdf, other]
Title: Deriving physical parameters of unresolved star clusters IV. The M33 star cluster system
Comments: 12 pages, 10 figures
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Context. When trying to derive the star cluster physical parameters of the M33 galaxy using broad-band unresolved ground-based photometry, previous studies mainly made use of simple stellar population models, shown in the recent years to be oversimplified.
Aims. In this study, we aim to derive the star cluster physical parameters (age, mass, and extinction; metallicity is assumed to be LMC-like for clusters with age below 1\,Gyr and left free for older clusters) of this galaxy using models that take stochastic dispersion of cluster integrated colors into account.
Methods. We use three recently published M33 catalogs of cluster optical broad-band photometry in standard $UBVRI$ and in CFHT/MegaCam $u^{*}g'r'i'z'$ photometric systems. We also use near-infrared $JHK$ photometry that we derive from deep 2MASS images. We derive the cluster parameters using a method that takes into account the stochasticity problem, presented in previous papers of this series.
Results. The derived differential age distribution of the M33 cluster population is composed of a two-slope profile indicating that the number of clusters decreases when age gets older. The first slope is interpreted as the evolutionary fading phase of the cluster magnitudes, and the second slope as the cluster disruption. The threshold between these two phases occurs at $\sim$300\,Myrs, comparable to what is observed in the M31 galaxy. We also model by use of artificial clusters the ability of the cluster physical parameter derivation method to correctly derive the two-slope profile for different photometric systems tested.

[33]  arXiv:1507.08506 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Spatially-Resolved Dense Molecular Gas and Star Formation Rate in M51
Comments: 29 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present the spatially-resolved observations of HCN J = 1 -- 0 emission in the nearby spiral galaxy M51 using the IRAM 30 m telescope. The HCN map covers an extent of $4\arcmin\times5\arcmin$ with spatial resolution of $28\arcsec$, which is, so far, the largest in M51. There is a correlation between infrared emission (star formation rate indicator) and HCN (1--0) emission (dense gas tracer) at kpc scale in M51, a natural extension of the proportionality between the star formation rate (SFR) and the dense gas mass established globally in galaxies. Within M51, the relation appears to be sub-linear (with a slope of 0.74$\pm$0.16) as $L_{\rm IR}$ rises less quickly than $L_{\rm HCN}$. We attribute this to a difference between center and outer disk such that the central regions have stronger HCN (1--0) emission per unit star formation. The IR-HCN correlation in M51 is further compared with global one from Milky Way to high-z galaxies and bridges the gap between giant molecular clouds (GMCs) and galaxies. Like the centers of nearby galaxies, the $L_{\rm IR}$/$L_{\rm HCN}$ ratio measured in M51 (particularly in the central regions), is slightly lower than what is measured globally in galaxies, yet is still within the scatter. This implies that though the $L_{\rm IR}$/$L_{\rm HCN}$ ratio varies as a function of physical environment in the different positions of M51, IR and HCN indeed show a linear correlation over 10 orders of magnitude.

[34]  arXiv:1507.08518 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Comparing Extended System Interactions with Motions in Softened Potentials
Authors: Eric I. Barnes (Univ. of Wisconsin - La Crosse)
Comments: accepted for publication in MNRAS, 10 pages, 14 figures
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Using an $N$-body evolution code that does not rely on softened potentials, I have created a suite of interacting binary cluster simulations. The motions of the centers-of-mass of the clusters have been tracked and compared to the trajectories of point masses interacting via one of four different softened potential prescriptions. There is a robust, nearly linear relationship between the impact parameter of the cluster interaction and the point-mass softening length that best approximates the cluster centers-of-mass motion. In an $N$-body simulation that adopts a fixed softening length, such a relationship leads to regimes where two-body effects, like dynamical friction, can be either larger or smaller than the corresponding cluster situation. Further consideration of more specific $N$-body simulations leads to an estimate that roughly 10 per cent of point-mass interactions in an $N$-body simulation will experience two-body effects larger than those for equivalent clusters.

[35]  arXiv:1507.08530 [pdf]
Title: Observational Signatures of Self-Destructive Civilisations
Comments: 35 pages, 2 figures, accepted for publication in the International Journal of Astrobiology
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

We address the possibility that intelligent civilisations that destroy themselves could present signatures observable by humanity. Placing limits on the number of self-destroyed civilisations in the Milky Way has strong implications for the final three terms in Drake's Equation, and would allow us to identify which classes of solution to Fermi's Paradox fit with the evidence (or lack thereof).
Using the Earth as an example, we consider a variety of scenarios in which humans could extinguish their own technological civilisation. Each scenario presents some form of observable signature that could be probed by astronomical campaigns to detect and characterise extrasolar planetary systems. Some observables are unlikely to be detected at interstellar distances, but some scenarios are likely to produce significant changes in atmospheric composition that could be detected serendipitously with next-generation telescopes. In some cases, the timing of the observation would prove crucial to detection, as the decay of signatures is rapid compared to humanity's communication lifetime. In others, the signatures persist on far longer timescales.

[36]  arXiv:1507.08532 [pdf, other]
Title: The HARPS-N Rocky Planet Search I. HD219134b: A transiting rocky planet in a multi-planet system at 6.5 pc from the Sun
Comments: Accepted for publication in A&A
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

We present here the detection of a system of four low-mass planets around the bright (V=5.5) and close-by (6.5 pc) star HD219134. This is the first result of the Rocky Planet Search program with HARPS-N on the TNG in La Palma. The inner planet orbits the star in 3.0937 +/-0.0004 days, on a quasi-circular orbit with a semi-major axis of 0.0382 +/- 0.0003 AU. Spitzer observations allowed us to detect the transit of the planet in front of the star making HD219134b the nearest known transiting planet to date. From the amplitude of the radial-velocity variation (2.33 +/- 0.24 m/s) and observed depth of the transit (359 +/- 38 ppm), the planet mass and radius are estimated to be 4.46 +/- 0.47 M_{\oplus} and 1.606 +/- 0.086 R_{\oplus} leading to a mean density of 5.89 +/- 1.17 g/cc, suggesting a rocky composition. One additional planet with minimum mass of 2.67 +/- 0.59 M_{\oplus} moves on a close-in, quasi-circular orbit with a period of 6.765 +/- 0.005 days. The third planet in the system has a period of 46.78 +/- 0.16 days and a minimum mass of 8.7 +/- 1.1 M{\oplus}, at 0.234 +/- 0.002 AU from the star. Its eccentricity is 0.32 +/- 0.14. The period of this planet is close to the rotational period of the star estimated from variations of activity indicators (42.3 +/- 0.1 days). The planetary origin of the signal is, however, the preferred solution as no indication of variation at the corresponding frequency is observed for activity-sensitive parameters. Finally, a fourth additional longer-period planet of mass of 62 +/- 6 M_{\oplus} orbits the star in 1190 days, on an eccentric orbit (e=0.27 +/- 0.11) at a distance of 2.14 +/- 0.27 AU.

[37]  arXiv:1507.08533 [pdf, other]
Title: Restarting radio activity and dust emission in radio-loud broad absorption line quasars
Comments: Accepted for publication in A&A
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Broad absorption line quasars (BAL QSOs) are objects showing absorption from relativistic outflows, with velocities up to 0.2c. These manifest, in about 15% of quasars, as absorption troughs on the blue side of UV emission lines, such as C iv and Mg ii. In this work, we complement the information collected in the cm band for our previously presented sample of radio loud BAL QSOs with new observations at m and mm bands. Our aim is to verify the presence of old, extended radio components in the MHz range, and probe the emission of dust (linked to star formation) in the mm domain. We observed 5 sources from our sample, already presenting hints of low-frequency emission, with the GMRT at 235 and 610 MHz. Other 17 sources (more than half the sample) were observed with bolometer cameras at IRAM-30m and APEX. All sources observed with the GMRT present extended emission at a scale of tens of kpc. In some cases these measurements allow us to identify a second component in the SED, at frequencies below 1.4 GHz, beyond the one already studied in the GHz domain. In the mm-band, only one source shows emission clearly ascribable to dust. Upper limits were obtained for the remaining targets. These findings confirm that BAL QSOs can also be present in old radio sources, or even in restarting ones, where favourable conditions for the outflow launching/acceleration are present. A suggestion that these outflows could be precursors of the jet comes from the fact that ~70% of our sample can be considered in a GigaHertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) or Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS)+GPS phase. This would confirm the idea proposed by other authors that these outflows could be recollimated to form the jet. Comparing with previous works in the literature, dust emission seems to be weaker than the what expected in 'normal' QSOs, suggesting that a feedback mechanism could inhibit star formation in radio-loud BAL QSOs.

[38]  arXiv:1507.08534 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: H2 formation via the UV photo-processing of a-C:H nano-particles
Authors: A.P. Jones, E. Habart
Comments: 7 pages, 2 figures, accepted for publication in A&A
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Context. The photolysis of hydrogenated amorphous carbon, a-C(:H), dust by UV photon-irradiation in the laboratory leads to the release of H2 as well as other molecules and radicals. This same process is also likely to be important in the interstellar medium. Aims. To investigate molecule formation arising from the photo-dissociatively-driven, regenerative processing of a-C(:H) dust. Methods. We explore the mechanism of a-C(:H) grain photolysis leading to the formation of H2 and other molecules/radicals. Results. The rate constant for the photon-driven formation of H2 from a-C(:H) grains is estimated to be 2x10^-17 cm^3 s^-1. In intense radiation fields photon-driven grain decomposition will lead to fragmentation into daughter species rather than H2 formation. Conclusions. The cyclic re-structuring of arophatic a-C(:H) nano-particles appears to be a viable route to formation of H2 for low to moderate radiation field intensities (1 < G_0 < 10^2), even when the dust is warm (T ~ 50 - 100 K).

[39]  arXiv:1507.08544 [pdf, other]
Title: The molecular composition of the planet-forming regions of protoplanetary disks across the luminosity regime
Authors: Catherine Walsh (1), Hideko Nomura (2), Ewine F. van Dishoeck (1 and 3) ((1) Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, The Netherlands (2) Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan, (3) Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterretrische Physik, Germany)
Comments: 28 pages (including the Appendix); 23 figures (including 6 in the Appendix); accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysics
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

(Abridged) Near- to mid-IR observations of protoplanetary disks show that the inner regions (<10AU) are rich in small organic volatiles (e.g., C2H2 and HCN). Trends in the data suggest that disks around cooler stars (~3000K) are potentially more carbon- and molecule-rich than their hotter counterparts. Our aims are to explore the composition of the planet-forming region of disks around stars from M dwarf to Herbig Ae and compare with the observed trends. Models of the disk physical structure are coupled with a gas-grain chemical network to map the abundances in the planet-forming zone. N2 self shielding, X-ray-induced chemistry, and initial abundances, are investigated. The composition in the 'observable' atmosphere is compared with that in the midplane where the planet-building reservoir resides. M dwarf disk atmospheres are relatively more molecule rich than those for T Tauri or Herbig Ae disks. The weak far-UV flux helps retain this complexity which is enhanced by X-ray-induced ion-molecule chemistry. N2 self shielding has only a small effect and does not explain the higher C2H2/HCN ratios observed towards cooler stars. The models underproduce the OH/H2O column density ratios constrained in Herbig Ae disks, despite reproducing the absolute value for OH: H2O self shielding only increases this discrepency. The disk midplane content is sensitive to the initial main elemental reservoirs. The gas in the inner disk is generally more carbon rich than the midplane ices and is most significant for disks around cooler stars. The atmospheric C/O ratio appears larger than it actually is when calculated using observable tracers only because gas-phase O2 is predicted to be a significant oxygen reservoir. The models suggest that the gas in the inner regions of disks around cooler stars is more carbon rich; however, calculations of the molecular emission are necessary to confirm the observed trends.

[40]  arXiv:1507.08549 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: A new hydrodynamics code for Type Ia Supernovae
Comments: 25 pages, 17 figures, submitted to MNRAS
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

A two-dimensional hydrodynamics code for Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) simulations is presented. The code includes a fifth-order shock-capturing scheme WENO, detailed nuclear reaction network, flame-capturing scheme and sub-grid turbulence. For post-processing we have developed a tracer particle scheme to record the thermodynamical history of the fluid elements. We also present a one-dimensional radiative transfer code for computing observational signals. The code solves the Lagrangian hydrodynamics and moment-integrated radiative transfer equations. A local ionization scheme and composition dependent opacity are included. Various verification tests are presented, including standard benchmark tests in one and two dimensions. SNIa models using the pure turbulent deflagration model and the delayed-detonation transition model are studied. The results are consistent with those in the literature. We compute the detailed chemical evolution using the tracer particles' histories, and we construct corresponding bolometric light curves from the hydrodynamics results. We also use a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to speed up the computation of some highly repetitive subroutines. We achieve an acceleration of 50 times for some subroutines and a factor of 6 in the global run time.

[41]  arXiv:1507.08550 [pdf, other]
Title: Modelling dust extinction in the Magellanic Clouds
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We model the extinction profiles observed in the Small and Large Magellanic clouds with a synthetic population of dust grains consisting by core-mantle particles and a collection of free-flying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. All different flavors of the extinction curves observed in the Magellanic Clouds can be described by the present model, that has been previously (successfully) applied to a large sample of diffuse and translucent lines of sight in the Milky Way. We find that in the Magellanic Clouds the extinction produced by classic grains is generally larger than absorption by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Within this model, the non-linear far-UV rise is accounted for by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, whose presence in turn is always associated to a gap in the size distribution of classical particles. This hints either a physical connection between (e.g., a common cause for) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the absence of middle-sized dust particles, or the need for an additional component in the model, that can account for the non-linear far-UV rise without contributing to the UV bump at $\sim$217 nm, e.g., nanodiamonds.

[42]  arXiv:1507.08551 [pdf]
Title: Evolution of an Early Titan Atmosphere: Comment
Comments: 6 pages
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

Escape of an early atmosphere from Titan, during which time NH3 could be converted by photolysis into the present N2 dominated atmosphere, is an important problem in planetary science. Recently Gilliam and Lerman (2014) estimated escape driven by the surface temperature and pressure, which we show gave loss rates that are orders of magnitude too large. Their model, related to Jeans escape from an isothermal atmosphere, was used to show that escape driven only by surface heating would deplete the atmospheric inventory of N for a suggested Titan accretion temperature of ~355 K. Therefore, they concluded that the accretion temperature must be lower in order to retain the present Titan atmosphere. Here we show that the near surface atmospheric temperature is essentially irrelevant for determining the atmospheric loss rate from Titan and that escape is predominantly driven by solar heating of the upper atmosphere. We also give a rough estimate of the escape rate in the early solar system (~10^4 kg/s) consistent with an inventory of nitrogen being available over the time period suggested by Atreya et al. (1978) for conversion of NH3 into N2.

[43]  arXiv:1507.08552 [pdf]
Title: How Astronomers View Education and Public Outreach
Comments: 6 pages. How Astronomers View Education and Public Outreach
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

Over the past few years, there have been a few studies on the development of an interest in science and scientists' views on public outreach. Yet, to date, there has been no global study regarding astronomers' views on these matters. Through the completion of our survey by 155 professional astronomers online and in person during the 28th International Astronomical Union General Assembly in 2012, we explored their development of and an interest for astronomy and their views on time constraints and budget restriction regarding public outreach activities. We find that astronomers develop an interest in astronomy between the ages of 4-6 but that the decision to undertake a career in astronomy often comes during late adolescence. We also discuss the claim that education and public outreach is regarded an optional task rather than a scientist's duty. Our study revealed that many astronomers think there should be a larger percentage of their research that should be invested into outreach activities, calling for a change in grant policies.

[44]  arXiv:1507.08580 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Radiation reaction and the pitch angle changes for a charge undergoing synchrotron losses
Authors: Ashok K. Singal
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

In synchrotron radiation formulas it is always assumed that the pitch angle of a charged particle remains constant during the radiation process. The argument employed is that as the radiation is beamed along the instantaneous direction of motion of the charge, the momentum loss will also be along the direction of motion. Accordingly radiation reaction should not cause any change in the direction of the velocity vector, and the pitch angle of the charge would therefore remain constant during the radiation process. However, it turns out that this picture is not relativistically covariant and that in the case of synchrotron losses, the pitch angle in general varies. While the component of the velocity vector perpendicular to the magnetic field does reduce in magnitude due to radiative losses, the parallel component does not undergo any change during radiation. Therefore there is a change in the ratio of the two components, implying a change in the pitch angle. This apparent paradox gets resolved and one gets a consistent picture only when effects on the charge motion are calculated from the Lorentz's radiation reaction formula. We derive the exact formula for life times of radiating electrons in a relativistically covariant way, by taking into account the change of the pitch angle due to radiative losses. We then compare it with the existing formula to examine if any revision in the life times of radiating charges, as computed in the erstwhile literature, is required.

[45]  arXiv:1507.08581 [pdf, other]
Title: A non-parametric method for measuring the local dark matter density
Comments: 11 pages, 6 figures
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We present a new method for determining the local dark matter density using kinematic data for a population of tracer stars. The Jeans equation in the $z$-direction is integrated to yield an equation that gives the velocity dispersion as a function of the total mass density, tracer density, and terms describing the couplings of vertical-radial and vertical-axial motions. Using MultiNest we can then fit a dark matter mass profile to tracer density and velocity dispersion data, and derive credible regions on the dark matter density profile. Our method avoids numerical differentiation, leading to lower numerical noise, and is able to deal with the tilt term while remaining one dimensional. In this study we present the method and perform initial tests on idealised mock data. We also demonstrate the crucial importance of dealing with the tilt term for tracers that sample $\gtrsim 1$ kpc above the disc plane. If ignored, this results in a systematic overestimation of the dark matter density.

[46]  arXiv:1507.08621 [pdf, other]
Title: X-ray emission from the giant magnetosphere of the magnetic O-type star NGC 1624-2
Comments: Accepted in MNRAS 13 pages, 10 figures, 4 tables
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We observed NGC 1624-2, the O-type star with the largest known magnetic field Bp~20 kG), in X-rays with the ACIS-S camera onboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Our two observations were obtained at the minimum and maximum of the periodic Halpha emission cycle, corresponding to the rotational phases where the magnetic field is the closest to equator-on and pole-on, respectively. With these observations, we aim to characterise the star's magnetosphere via the X-ray emission produced by magnetically confined wind shocks. Our main findings are:
(i) The observed spectrum of NGC 1624-2 is hard, similar to the magnetic O-type star Theta 1 Ori C, with only a few photons detected below 0.8 keV. The emergent X-ray flux is 30% lower at the Halpha minimum phase.
(ii) Our modelling indicated that this seemingly hard spectrum is in fact a consequence of relatively soft intrinsic emission, similar to other magnetic Of?p stars, combined with a large amount of local absorption (~1-3 x 10^22 cm^-2). This combination is necessary to reproduce both the prominent Mg and Si spectral features, and the lack of flux at low energies. NGC 1624-2 is intrinsically luminous in X-rays (log LX emission ~ 33.4) but 70-95% of the X-ray emission produced by magnetically confined wind shocks is absorbed before it escapes the magnetosphere (log LX ISM corrected ~ 32.5).
(iii) The high X-ray luminosity, its variation with stellar rotation, and its large attenuation are all consistent with a large dynamical magnetosphere with magnetically confined wind shocks.

[47]  arXiv:1507.08627 [pdf, other]
Title: Torque Enhancement, Spin Equilibrium, and Jet Power from Disk-Induced Opening of Pulsar Magnetic Fields
Comments: 14 pages, 5 figures, submitted to ApJ
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

The interaction of a rotating star's magnetic field with a surrounding plasma disk lies at the heart of many questions posed by neutron stars in X-ray binaries. We consider the opening of stellar magnetic flux due to differential rotation along field lines coupling the star and disk, using a simple model for the disk-opened flux, the torques exerted on the star by the magnetosphere, and the power extracted by the electromagnetic wind. We examine the conditions under which the system enters an equilibrium spin state, in which the accretion torque is instantaneously balanced by the pulsar wind torque alone. For magnetic moments, spin frequencies, and accretion rates relevant to accreting millisecond pulsars, the spin-down torque from this enhanced pulsar wind can be substantially larger than that predicted by existing models of the disk-magnetosphere interaction, and is in principle capable of maintaining spin equilibrium at frequencies less than 1 kHz. We speculate that this mechanism may account for the non-detection of frequency increases during outbursts of SAX J1808.4-3658 and XTE J1814-338, and may be generally responsible for preventing spin-up to sub-millisecond periods. If the pulsar wind is collimated by the surrounding environment, the resulting jet can satisfy the power requirements of the highly relativistic outflows from Cir X-1 and Sco X-1. In this framework, the jet power scales relatively weakly with accretion rate, L_j ~ Mdot^{4/7}, and would be suppressed at high accretion rates only if the stellar magnetic moment is sufficiently low.

[48]  arXiv:1507.08629 [pdf, other]
Title: The squeezed limit of the bispectrum in multi-field inflation
Comments: 33 pages, 7 figures
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); High Energy Physics - Theory (hep-th)

We calculate the squeezed limit of the bispectrum produced by inflation with multiple light fields. To achieve this we allow for different horizon exit times for each mode and calculate the intrinsic field-space three-point function in the squeezed limit using soft-limit techniques. We then use the $\delta N$ formalism from the time the last mode exits the horizon to calculate the bispectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation. We apply our results to calculate the spectral index of the halo bias, $n_{\delta b}$, an important observational probe of the squeezed limit of the primordial bispectrum and compare our results with previous formulae. We give an example of a curvaton model with $n_{\delta b} \sim {\cal O}(n_s-1)$ for which we find a 20% correction to observable parameters for squeezings relevant to future experiments. For completeness, we also calculate the squeezed limit of three-point correlation functions involving gravitons for multiple field models.

[49]  arXiv:1507.08634 [pdf, other]
Title: Characterizing the mean-field dynamo in turbulent accretion disks
Comments: 15 pages, 13 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

The formation and evolution of a wide class of astrophysical objects is governed by turbulent, magnetized accretion disks. Understanding their secular dynamics is of primary importance. Apart from enabling mass accretion via the transport of angular momentum, the turbulence affects the long-term evolution of the embedded magnetic flux, which in turn regulates the efficiency of the transport. In this paper, we take a comprehensive next step towards an effective mean-field model for turbulent astrophysical disks by systematically studying the key properties of magnetorotational turbulence in vertically-stratified, isothermal shearing boxes. This allows us to infer emergent properties of the ensuing chaotic flow as a function of the shear parameter as well as the amount of net-vertical flux. Using the test-field method, we furthermore characterize the mean-field dynamo coefficients that describe the long-term evolution of large-scale fields. We simultaneously infer the vertical shape and the spectral scale dependence of these closure coefficients, with the latter describing non-local contributions to the turbulent electromotive force. Based on this, we infer a scale-separation ratio of about ten for the large-scale dynamo. We finally determine scaling properties of the mean-field dynamo coefficients. The relevant component of the dynamo {\alpha} effect is found to scale linearly with the shear rate, as is the corresponding turbulent diffusion, {\eta}. Together, these scalings allow us to predict, in a quantitative manner, the cycle period of the well-known butterfly diagram. This lends new support to the importance of the {\alpha}{\Omega} mechanism in determining the evolution of large-scale magnetic fields in turbulent accretion disks.

[50]  arXiv:1507.08637 [pdf]
Title: Low-Impact Air-to-Ground Free-Space Optical Communication System Design and First Results
Comments: 4 pages, 9 figures, IEEE 2011 International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (ICSOS). arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1506.08854
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

An air-to-ground free-space optical communication system has been designed and partially developed. The design covers both the communications between the airborne and the ground station, and the acquisition, tracking and pointing. A strong effort has been made in order to achieve the minimum payload power, size and weight, for which a MEMS modulating retroreflector has been chosen. In the ground station, a new technique for fine pointing, based on a liquid crystal device, is proposed and will be demonstrated, as well as other improvements with the aim of optimizing the ground station performance.

[51]  arXiv:1507.08640 [pdf, other]
Title: Towards discrimination between galactic and intergalactic axion-photon mixing
Authors: Sergey Troitsky
Comments: 6 pages, PLB style
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph)

There exists a growing evidence for anomalous transparency of the Universe for energetic gamma rays. Popular explanations include conversion of photons into hypothetical axion-like particles (ALPs) and back in astrophysical magnetic fields. Two distinctive scenarios of this conversion have been put forward: either it happens in the (host galaxy of the) gamma-ray source and in the Milky Way, or the photon-ALP oscillations take place in the intergalactic magnetic fields all along the way between the source and the observer. These two mechanisms imply different ALP parameters. We discuss approaches to distinguish between the two and present some indications in favour of the galactic scenario.